Bupw

Distribution

Dwarka: N 22° 14.61'; E 68° 57.28' Okha: N 22 28.41'; E 69° 04.16' Porbandar: N 21° 37.92'; E 69° 36.48' Veraval: N 20° 54.87'; E 70° 20.83'

Ulva fasciata Delile

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Remark

Leafy and ribbon-like

Rocks or any other hard substrata in intertidal area

Mid littoral zone and tide pools

August-April

Dense during monsoon or rainy periods

Plants yellow to dark green in colour, up to 40 cm long and divided into a number of ribbon shaped 1 - 3 cm broad lobes (Fig. a); blades irregularly lobed or some times divided into ligulate or linear lobes, irregularly dichotomously branched (Fig. b) with entire to ruffled and crenate margins; margins turn whitish when releasing gametes or zoospores; thallus 2 cell thick, cells rectangular or quadratic in cross section. Ulva species are generally used as feed for aquaculture organisms and poultry animals

Ulvales, Ulvaceae

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Distribution

Gopnath: N 21° 12.52'; E 72° 06.53' Dwarka: N 22° 14.61'; E 68° 57.28' Okha: N 22° 28.33'; E 69° 04.53' Porbandar: N 21° 37.92'; E 69° 36.48' Veraval: N 20° 54.87'; E 70° 20.83'

Leafy and membranous Rocks/corals

Mid littoral zone and tide pools

August-April

Dense

Plants soft, leafy, membranous, light to bright green in colour; thallus broad with undulated margins imparting lettuce type morphology (Figs. a, b); surface cells irregularly arranged; thallus distromatic (Fig. c), 40 |om thick, cells 20 |om wide and 15 |om in length and cells with rounded angles.

It is used as a traditional medicine in China and commonly called as sea lettuce. The dry powder of this alga used in larval and poultry feed formulations in some countries. Japan alone harvests about 1,500 t (dry wt) from wild stocks. In India, some efforts are being made to develop new applications for liquid extracts of this algae as culture medium supplements for phytoplankton mass culture

Distribution

Okha: N 22° 27.04'; E 69° 03.58' Nava Bandar: N 22° 45.33'; E 71° 75.23'

Ulva reticulata Forsskal

Ulva reticulata Forsskal

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Distribution

Okha: N 22° 27.04'; E 69° 03.58' Nava Bandar: N 22° 45.33'; E 71° 75.23'

Typically perforated leafy thallus Rocks or as epiphyte

Lower mid littoral zone, seawater streams, tide pools August-April

Moderate in selective habitats such as streams

Plants growing separately or some times in association with other algae, light to dark green in colour, net like or reticulate, membranous, 10 - 20 cm broad with a number of lacunae (Fig. a); lacunae oval, circular, oblong or rectangular (Fig. b), divide the lamina into distinct laciniae with microscopic serrations on the edges of thallus and the holes; thallus 2 cell thick, cells elongated. Plants form dense populations in intertidal pools and streams having domestic sewage outlets.

It is used as a substitute for Ulva lactuca in traditional medicine in China and Vietnam. There are reports in the literature describing its use in human food in some countries

Ulvales, Ulvaceae

Distribution

Gopnath: N 21° 12.52'; E 72° 06.53' Porbandar: N 21° 37.92'; E 69° 36.48'

Ulva rigida C. Agardh

Distribution

Gopnath: N 21° 12.52'; E 72° 06.53' Porbandar: N 21° 37.92'; E 69° 36.48'

Ulva rigida C. Agardh

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Leafy and leathery

Intertidal rocks, calcareous stones

Lower mid littoral and intertidal pools, sheltered rocks

November-April

Moderate

Plants dark green in colour, attached by a distinct holdfast; fronds thick, rigid, 10 - 15 cm tall (Fig. a) with a distinct solid stipe below and lamina above (Fig. b); lamina broadly orbicular or deeply lobed; fronds 2 cells thick; cells longer than broad, palisade-like cells; cell walls thicker than all other species of Ulva. There are some records indicating the use of different species of Ulva in different human food preparations, animal feed formulations and in medicines. Recently, many researchers considering the use of this biomass for energy needs due to their widespread distribution and abundance in nature

Acrosiphoniales, Acrosiphoniaceae

Distribution
Acrosiphonia orientalis (J. Agardh) P. Silva

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Remiform and bushy Rocks and calcareous stones

Mid littoral zone and infra littoral fringe, some times as epiphyte on Sargassum and other macroalgae

November-April

Moderate

Plants dark green in colour, up to 6 cm tall, bushy and closely branched like corymbose tufts, filamentous (Figs. a, b); filaments pseudo-dichotomously alternately branched from the upper parts or lower half of the branches; cells sub-cylindrical tapering below with thick walls; the characteristics downwardly growing rhizoids arising from the lower ends of the cells.

Cladophorales, Cladophoraceae

Distribution

Adri: N 20° 57.58'; E 70° 16.76' Kotda: N 20° 42.38'; E 70° 52.17' Nava Bandar: N 22° 45.33'; E 71° 65.23' Okha: N 22° 28.48'; E 69° 04.03'

Chaetomorpha antennina (Bory) Kützing

Distribution

Adri: N 20° 57.58'; E 70° 16.76' Kotda: N 20° 42.38'; E 70° 52.17' Nava Bandar: N 22° 45.33'; E 71° 65.23' Okha: N 22° 28.48'; E 69° 04.03'

Chaetomorpha antennina (Bory) Kützing

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Filamentous and brush-like tufts in flocks Rocks, calcareous stones

Lower mid littoral zone and infra littoral fringe, exposed rocks

November-April

Moderate

Plants dark green in colour, grows gregariously in tufts; filaments erect, unbranched, cylindrical or barrel-shaped (Figs. a, b), up to 10 cm tall; cells 200 - 250 |om at the upper parts, 2 - 4 times longer than broad with a thick cell wall; chloroplasts reticulate or free, but close together, filaments attached by irregularly branched rhizoidal basal cell; cell walls of the basal cells thick with annular constrictions.

Used as raw material for paper manufacturing industries in some countries

Cladophorales, Cladophoraceae

Distribution

Adri: N 20° 57.58'; E 70° 16.76' Okha: N 22° 28.44'; E 69° 04.07' Porbandar: N 21° 37.92'; E 69° 36.48' Veraval: N 20° 54.87'; E 70° 20.83'

Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh) Kützing

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Filamentous and entangled mass

Free floating or as entangled clump on seaweed beds

Mid littoral zone, tangles on larger algar

November-April

Scanty

Plants usually grow as entangled form with other seaweeds (Fig. a); thallus filamentous; bright green in colour; filaments unbranched with series of cylindrical to barrel shaped cells; cells slightly constricted near the septa, as long as broad or slightly broader, 400 - 650 |om in diameter.

There are some reports describing the use of this alga in paper manufacturing industry. The cellulose from this alga could be modified to suit for developing cellulose based membranes for desalination technology

Cladophorales, Cladophoraceae

Chaetomorpha spiralis Okamura

Thallus form type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Filamentous and coiled Intertidal rocks

Lower mid littoral zone, sheltered rocks with coarse sand

November-April

Scanty

Plants bluish green in colour, up to 5 cm long, rigid, spirally coiled, attached by rhizoidal basal cells with simple or slightly branched short and blunt rhizoids; cells 400 - 600 |om in diameter and 2 - 3 times longer than broad, moniliform or cylindrical in shape (Figs. a, b).

Cladophorales, Cladophoraceae

Distribution

Nava Bandar: N 22° 45.33"; E 71° 65.231 Okha: N 22° 28.501; E 69° 04.541 Porbandar: N 21° 38.241; E 69° 35.81 Veraval: N 20° 54.87,; E 70° 20.83,

Cladophora vagabunda (Linnaeus) van den Hoek

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Filamentous and branched tufts

Rocks, calcareous rocks or as epiphyte on Sargassum

Mid littoral zone

November-April

Dominant especially during winter months (December-February) Plants light to dark green in colour (Fig. a), forms tufts, 30 - 40 cm in height, densely branched, soft and flaccid, main axis sparingly branched with alternate branches; cells of the main filaments 4 - 6 times as long as broad with highly lamellated cell walls; main filaments and branches bear a short intervals very loosely branched fascicle like tufts of ramuli.

Cladophorales, Cladophoraceae

Cladophora sp

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Remiform and filamentous branched Rocks/calcareous rocks

Mid littoral zone, exposed stones with fine sand

November-April

Scanty

Plants grow up to 40 cm high, soft and flaccid, cells of the main filaments 4 - 6 times as long as broad, cell walls are highly lamellated; main filaments and branches bear at short intervals very loosely branched fascile-like tufts of branched ramuli (Figs. a, b).

Siphonocladales, Boodleaceae

Boodlea composita (Harvey) Brand

Distribution

Dwarka: N 22° 14.61'; E 68° 57.28' Okha: N 22° 28.52'; E 69° 04.24' Porbandar: N 21° 38.92'; E 69° 35.81' Shivrajpur: N 22° 19.87'; E 68° 56.95' Veraval: N 20° 54.87'; E 70° 20.83' Vervala: N 22° 16.87'; E 69° 56.75'

Boodlea composita (Harvey) Brand

Thallus form and type Substratum Occurrence Season Abundance Description

Spongy, branched cushion

Intertidal rocks, coralline stones

Mid littoral zone and infra littoral fringe

November-April

Moderate

Plants light or yellowish green in colour, bushy, filamentous, irregularly branched, fragile and spongy, septate, coenocytes (Figs. a, b); branching unilateral or opposite (rarely three or four) arising from the nodes, but soon becoming whorled or irregular and in the lesser divisions altogether irregular, not flabellate (Fig. c); the main filaments 200 - 350 |om in diameter; cells 0.2 mm long, 70 - 100 |om in diameter, devoid of basal cross walls which are acquired later; branches and branchlets attached by teneculae.

Siphonocladales, Boodleaceae

Distribution

Nava Bandar: N 22° 45.33'; E 71° 65.23' Gopnath: N 21° 12.52'; E 72° 06.53'

Cladophoropsis javanica (Kützing) P. Silva

Distribution

Nava Bandar: N 22° 45.33'; E 71° 65.23' Gopnath: N 21° 12.52'; E 72° 06.53'

Cladophoropsis javanica (Kützing) P. Silva

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Spongy, filamentous and prostrate Intertidal rocks, coralline stones Upper mid littoral zone November-April Scanty

Plants yellowish to dark green in colour, occurring as cushions or tufts in the form of entangled uniseriate filaments (Figs. a, b) without a distinct main axis, attached by a characteristic multicellular heptera; erect filaments abundantly laterally branched, branches usually without a basal wall near the bases of the branches (Fig. c); cells large with many nuclei and chloroplasts distributed in a manner of loose net.

Siphonocladales, Boodleaceae

3 cm

Struvea anastomosans (Harvey) Piccone & Grunow ex Piccone

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Filamentous and fan type

Intertidal rocks, coralline stones

Lower mid littoral zone and infra littoral fringe

December-April

Moderate

Plants green to dark green in colour, 3 - 5 cm tall, consists of a long stipe and a circular or oval shaped reticulate blades (Figs. a, b), attached by dichotomously branched rhizoids; stalks un-segmented in the lower portions, segmented above in the form of reticulate flat blades; blades sub-pyramidal to cordate or round, tri-pinnate to quadric-pinnate; branches curved upwards, lateral branches develop tenaculae.

Siphonocladales, Siphonocladaceae

3 cm

3 cm

Distribution

Porbandar: N 21° 38.24'; E 69° 35.81' Veraval: N 20° 54.87'; E 70° 20.83'

Boergesenia forbesii (Harvey) Feldmann

Thallus form and type

Substratum

Occurrence

Season

Abundance

Description

Grape-like vesicles

Intertidal rocks, corraline stones, dead corals Infra littoral fringe, rock pools November-April Scanty

Plants yellowish green in colour, 3 - 5 cm tall forming patches on the substratum (Fig. a); vesicles slightly curved, clavate, filled with fluid, club-shaped in younger stage enlarged in the upper part giving grape-like appearance in older stage (Fig. b); basal branched filamentous parts of the thallus septate. Common in intertidal rock pools.

The salt prepared from sap can be used in formulations for producing low sodium salt from algal sources

Siphonocladales, Siphonocladaceae

3 cm

Distribution

Adri: N 20° 57.58'; E 70° 16.76' Kotda: N 20° 42.38'; E 70° 52.17' Okha: N 22° 28.51'; E 69° 04.37' Porbandar: N 21° 38.24'; E 69° 35.81' Sutrapada: N 20° 50.18'; E 70° 28.89' Veraval: N 20° 54.87'; E 70° 20.83'

Chamaedoris auriculata B0rgesen

Thallus form and type Substratum Occurrence Season Abundance Description

Bushy with flat heads

Intertidal rocks, coralline stones

Infra littoral zone, tide pools

November-April

Dense in intertidal rock pools

Plants dark green in colour, 6 - 8 cm tall, septate coenocytes with long erect stalks, stalks 1 - 3 mm in diameter with annulations (Figs. a, b) lightly calcified with dark green, flattened or eccentric cup-like crown of uniseriate branched uncalcified filaments with polyhedric chloroplast containing one pyrenoid each; crown 2 - 3 cm broad.

Siphonocladales, Siphonocladaceae

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