Contents

Foreword xiii

1 Taxonomy and Biogeography of Seagrasses 1-23

C. den Hartog and John Kuo

I. Introduction 1

II. Key to the Angiosperm Families Containing True Marine Species 2

III. Seagrasses: General Taxonomy 3

IV. Biogeography 16

V. Conclusion and Outlook 18 References 19 Appendix: A List of the Seagrass Species of the World 22

2 Seagrass Evolution, Ecology and Conservation:

A Genetic Perspective 25-50

Michelle Waycott, Gabriele Procaccini, Donald H. Les and Thorsten B. H. Reusch

I. Introduction 25

II. The Evolution of Seagrass Diversity 26

III. Ecological and Reproductive Processes 35

IV. Concluding Remarks 44 Acknowledgments 45 References 45

3 Seagrass Morphology, Anatomy, and Ultrastructure 51-87

J. Kuo and C. den Hartog

I. Introduction 51

II. General Morphology of Seagrasses—Size and Shape 52

III. Vegetative Morphology and Anatomy 52

IV. Reproductive Morphology and Anatomy 69

V. Water Movement in Seagrass Leaves and Roots 81

VI. Morphological, Anatomical and Ultrastructural Modifications in Relation to Environmental Conditions 82

VII. Discussion and Concluding Remarks 83 Acknowledgments 83 References 83

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