Brigitta I van Tussenbroek Jan A Vonk Johan Stapel Paul L A Erftemeijer Jack J Middelburg and Jay C Zieman

I. Introduction 409

II. Basic Environmental Requirements 410

III. Historical Development in Research 411

IV. Thalassia-Sediment Interactions 412

V. Nutrient Dynamics 412

VI. Plant Development 416

VII. Population Dynamics 422

VIII. Community Ecology 423

IX. Conclusions 430 Acknowledgments 431 References 431

19 Epiphytes of Seagrasses 441-461

Michael A. Borowitzka, Paul S. Lavery, and Mike van Keulen

I. Introduction 441

II. The Role of the Epiphytic Organisms 441

III. Distribution and Abundance of Epiphytic Organisms 443

IV. Factors Affecting Distribution and Abundance 450

V. Conclusions 456 References 456

20 The Central Role of Grazing in Seagrass Ecology 463-501

John F. Valentine and J. Emmett Duffy

I. Introduction 463

II. Philosophy of the Review 465

III. An Evolutionary Perspective on Seagrasses and their Grazers 466

IV. The Modern Seagrass Community Interaction Web 467

V. Direct Grazing on Seagrasses 468

VI. Indirect Effects of Grazing on Seagrass Communities: A Delicate Balance 481

VII. Bottom-Up and Top-Down Control in Seagrass Communities 485

VIII. Alternate Stable States in Seagrass Ecosystems? 488

IX. Questions and Recommendations for Future Research 489

X. Summary 491 Acknowledgments 492 References 492

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