Enhalus acoroides is an obligate surface-pollinated plant with a pollination mechanism that is surprisingly similar to its freshwater relative, Vallisneria (Svedelius, 1904; Sculthorpe, 1967). In this case, male flowers detach underwater and float to the water surface when they are free floating and encounter the female inflorescence that remains attached to the submerged plant via a long spiral peduncle. Following pollination, in which pollen are transferred in a dry state from anther to stigma, the infructescence develops underwater. A recent study by Rollon et al. (2003) found that the length of exposure of the female inflorescence at the water surface was critical for pollination and subsequent seed set, which was higher at shallow sites.
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