Natural Ways to Remove Scars

Scar Solution Book By Sean Lowry

Scar Solution is a scientifically proven treatment that assists in fast scar removal naturally within months. It is effective in eliminating pitted acne scars, sunken scars and keloid scars. The author of this program is Sean Lowry, is a medical consultant and health researcher. Sean, some years ago suffered a skiing accident. This left ugly scars on her face which affected not only her skin but her whole life. This is Not a one-size-fits-all approach; Sean Lowrys system is based on a physiological approach that gives you 15 natural scar removal secrets that are simple to implement, affordable in price, and safe to apply. and 5 additional methods that will facilitate the healing and fading process of the scars. Based on the customer reviews of The Scar Solution, sufferers have been satisfied with the results of the miracle cure and most of them state that they will be recommending it to their family and friends. Tremendous results include breaking up the scar tissue so lessening their unsightly appearance on the skin; reversing hyperpigmentation and discoloration especially those caused by severe acne; and preventing the appearance of new scars, among others. Read more...

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal Summary


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My The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Miscellaneous Plants With 1 Bundle Scar

Tree Bundle Scar

Bundle scars are small marks within a leaf scar (see p. xxiv). These trees and shrubs have leaves wavy-edged or not toothed. 19, Ix af scars and buck often in whorls of 3* opposing leaf scars connected by lines buds single above leaf scars 19, Leaf scars and buds paired leaf scars not connected by lines buds often several above leaf scars FORESTIERAS 19 22, Twigs slender, Via or under leaf scars 22, Twigs stout, over Mc thick leaf scars not raised at least top edges about flush with 10. Bundle scars 3 23. Side buds hidden beneath leal scars or bark 24. Leaf scars raised above the twigs bark of branchlets 24, Leaf scars not raised (at least upper edges about flush with twigs) bark of branchlets usually flaky shrubs 26, Upper leaf scars meeting in raised points (in salt marshes, see also Sea-oxeye, p* 81) ASH LEAF MAPLE 10 26. Upper leaf scars not meeting in raised points 27, Paired leaf scars not connected hv lines 35. Leaf scars not J -shaped, nearly enclosing the 35. L> eaf scars...

Miscellaneous Plants with 3 Bundle Scars

PLANTS WITH 3 BUNDLE SCARS (i) Similar species 1 nique when in leaf- In winter, the only aromatic plant among those with 3 bundle scars, false end buds, and buds with more than 4 scales. Recognition A tall tree with distinctive smooth gray bark, slender many-scaled buds, and elliptic or egg-shaped, coarse-toothed leaves, Twigs hairless or somewhat long-hairy, encircled or almost encircled by stipule scars at each leaf scar. Leaves l-5. Height 60'-80' (120') diameter 2'-3' (4'). Flowers V. PLANTS W ITH 3 BUNDLE SCARS (2) Similar species The apple group is a collection of 6 species. The 3 native species are almost always thorny, have sharp buds, and are discussed on pages 195-97. The 3 imported species below occasionally may he somewhat thorny. This species is unlike other apples in lacking sharp leaf teeth. Domestic Pear is mostly hairless, more often thorny, usually has long, not round, fruits and has I or several strong upright branches, giving the tree a pointed rather than...

Common Stone Fruit Diseases

Bacterial spot (B Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, formerly Xanthomonas campestris pv.pruni) causes spots on leaves, fruit, and twigs of peaches, nectarines, Japanese plums, and apricots. In the United States, it occurs east of the Rocky Mountains and is especially severe where trees are grown on light, sandy soils in humid environments. The bacteria invade leaf scars in autumn and overwinter in buds, small cankers, or twig surfaces. Bacteria spread to new leaves and fruit during rains beginning at late bloom. Spots on leaves originate as angular purple lesions 1 to 3 millimeters in diameter and are usually concentrated along the leaf midrib or toward the tips of leaves. Spots on fruit may become visible about three to five weeks after petal fall. The disease is best controlled by selecting resistant cultivars. Susceptible cultivars must be protected with copper sprays in fall and or spring to reduce inoculum levels and terramycin or copper at petal fall and early cover sprays to...

Morphology of Rhizome and Stem

Seagrass rhizomes are usually herbaceous, cylindrical to laterally compressed, and monopodially or irregularly branched however, in Amphibolis and Thalassodendron (Fig. 1I), the rhizome branches sympodially and becomes woody. Rhizomes are almost always buried in sediment (the exceptions being Thalassodendron spp. and Phyllospadix spp.) and the persistent, fibrous remains of old leaf sheaths usually cover the rhizome of Enhalus and Posidonia (Fig. 1A and E), and to some extent Zostera, Hetero-zostera, Phyllospadix and Halodule. The lengths of rhizome internodes are relatively long in most of the genera, but they are extremely short in Phyllospadix (Barnabas, 1994b). Erect stems resulting from sym-podial branching of rhizomes are present in all genera in the Cymodoceaceae (Fig. 1F-I), some species of Heterozostera (H. nigricaulis and H. chilensis) in the Zosteraceae, and Thalassia and some species of Halophila (Fig. 1B), in the Hydrocharitaceae. Erect stems form at each rhizome node in...

The Industrial Revolution

The effects on the biosphere have been pervasive. Fuel-powered machines have allowed humans to cultivate more land, consume more resources, and sustain larger populations than was conceivable before the beginnings of this most important revolution. In addition to these effects, the use of fuel has had far-reaching consequences by itself. Wood-fired boilers soon gave way to coal, but not before deforestation of thousands of acres of virgin forests in the rapidly industrializing regions of Europe. Coal mining is a dirty business, and leaves in its wake scars on the landscape that can take generations to heal. More significantly, coal and its replacement, oil, are fossil fuels, the geologic remains of ancient plants that contain carbon removed from the carbon cycle millions of years ago. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and records show the atmospheric level of CO2 has risen steadily since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Carbon dioxide is a...

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Lore Probably no tree served the northern Native American tribes in so many ways as white birch. It provided sugar in the form of sap, transportation through the use of bark for canoes, medicine for stomach upsets, and dyes from the root. The Chippewas, among others, regarded the tree as sacred, strongly associated with the legendary teacher-deity-trickster figure Winabojo, who blessed the tree for the benefit of humanity. Old branch scars on the trunks are Winabojo's thunderbirds. The Chippewas regarded winged branch scars on white birch as marks of favor from Winabojo, the tribe's deity. The scars signified the eaglelike thunderbirds that caused him to seek protection inside a hollow birch.

Molecular Mapping of Simple and Complex Traits in Rice

In comparison to the classical morphological markers and isozymes, DNA markers are now becoming an essential tool for genetic investigations because of ability to generate and track an unlimited number of loci that can be linked to any trait of interest. Aside from RFLP, a variety of DNA markers such as RAPD (Williams etal. 1990), SSR(LittandLutty 1989), sequence tagged sites (STS) (Olson et al. 1989), sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) (Martin et al. 1991), CAPS (Koniecyzn and Asubel 1993), and AFLP (Vos et al. 1995) have been developed. Unlike RFLP, most of these recently developed markers are PCR-based with simplified protocols and require minute quantities of DNA. However, the dominant nature of some PCR markers like RAPD and AFLP makes distinguishing homozygotes from heterozygotes difficult. Currently, SSR markers are the most preferred class of markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) because of its codominant nature, simpler protocols, abundance, and higher level...

Fieldtesting For Resistance

One type of information that we found useful in understanding resistance mechanisms to shoot insects was measuring the rate of Attack Failure among various genotypes. Failed attacks are those cases in which the insect has laid eggs that failed to develop into viable larval populations due to drowning of the eggs and young larvae in toxic resin. Although the shoot survives a failed attack, egg niches and scars due to mining by the larvae are visible.

Broadleaved Plants with Alternate Simple Leaves

Over half of our woody plants fall in this category. Although a number of species therefore resemble one another in having alternate simple leaves, the separation of the group into subdivisions aids in their identification. The outline below indicates the major characteristics used in subdividing the group, It may be used as a general guide to identification* More detailed kevs (A-F) follow it. (Jf in doubt about number of bundle scars, try both keys E and F.) A Winter Key to none ver green plants with alternate leaf scars is given in Appendix B, p. 378.

Climbing or Sprawling Vines

Leaves not toothed or if so not heart-shaped 8. Leaf scars with more than 3 bundle scars seeds crescent-or cup-shaped MOONSEEDS,etc. 36 8. Leaf scars with 1 or 3 bundle scars seeds neither crescent- nor cup-shaped 17, Twigs with 2 long lines descending from each leaf scar if 3 such lines are present then leaves and twigs are yellow-dotted (use lens) leaf scars narrow CURRANTS 41 17, Twigs without such lines, or if present they are quite short yellow resin-dots are lacking (use lens) leaf scars variable 18. Plants with all leaves lobed Erect Plants with Twigs 'hornless and Leaves Not Lobed. Either Leaves Fan-veined or Leaf Scars Contain More Than 1 Bundle Scar 20, Leaves mostly heart-shaped or triangular, with 3-5 stout veins meeting near the leaf base 2L Bundle scars 3 leaves toothed bark of upper branches and young trunks usually smooth whitish- or greenish-yellow lowermost bud scale in the outside position squarely above the leaf scar pith continuous POPLARS 44 2L Bundle scars 1 to...

Chemical and Physical Ablation of Epidermal Cells

Physical ablation of the epidermal cells of plant embryos is technically very challenging, although studies using cultured embryos of Citrus jamb-hiri (Bruck 1985a,b) have provided several interesting observations which will be discussed in more depth later. In general, physical ablation of epidermal cells in organ primordia is difficult to carry out over large enough areas to allow the examination of epidermal roles in growth control, and the physical properties of the scar tissues which form at wound sites also complicate interpretation. However, laser ablation studies in meristems of tomato have suggested a role of the meristematic L1 layer in controlling meristem growth. For example, ablating the meristematic L1 layer causes a dramatic change in the behaviour of underlying (L2) cells which cease to divide anti-

And Ampelopsis and Boston

The grapes are thornless, dark-stemmed, green-flowered, mostly shreddy-harked, and high-climbing vines that climb by means of tendrils. Leaves are toothed, heart-shaped, especially at base, and often lobed (see (at Grape, Plate 35). In most species the pith is brown and not continuous (see Winter Grape, Plate 35), interrupted by partitions across twig centers near each leaf scar. Only other native vines climbing by tendrils are Cross Vine (Plate 7), which has opposite compound leaves, Virginia creepers (Plate 30), which have compound leaves and continuous pith, and greenbriers (Plate 33), which have persistent leaf bases, green stems, and usually thorns, Boston Ivy (p. 188) occasionally escapes from cultivation. Its leaves, however, are shiny and sometimes evergreen and tendrils are disk-tipped. Cissus (p. 132) also has 3-parted leaves and white pith. Winter specimens of Muscadine Grape and Ampelopsis can be distinguished from Virginia creepers by un-branched tendrils. Not all grape...

Buds gray or blackish mostly long

Leaf scars raised, hit ling the lower half of the buds Recognition A shrub or small tree with shaggy harkP Leaves narrow to wedge-shaped, hairless or nearly so (except in var. lanata), somewhat long-pointed, sharply and often doubly toothed. Usually no glands on leafstalks. Twigs typically hairless but var. lanata Sudw. (Indiana and Iowa to Tennessee, Arkansas, and Texas) has hairy twigs and leaf undersides. Buds red-brown, mostly about Leaf scars not abnormally enlarged. Leaves I-5, Height I5'-3(K (35') diameter 5-10 (14). Flowers several cultivated. Leaf scars not abnormal v enlarged. Bui lace Plum is similar but hairy. Leaves l-5' Height 6-20' < 25') diameter 4-10 (12). Flowers white to pink, April-June, Fruits yellow to reddish, slightly elongate, Aug.- < )ct. Thickets Nova Scotia, s. Quebec, s. Ontario, n. Michigan, and s, Manitoba to Virginia, W. Virginia, Ohio, n. Illinois, and Iowa in mountains to Georgia, Recognition A southern shrub or small tree with hairless narrow...

Hifrtfs americanum Milk

Buds, flower ovaries, and fruits resin-dotted. These dots appear as tiny bright yellow droplets when viewed through hand lens. Leaves double-toothed, somewhat hairy beneath. Twigs not foul-smelling when broken marked with ridges leading down from centers of leaf scars, and hairless or nearly so. Leaves W-4. Height to 5 Flowers yellow or white, clusters drooping, April-June, Fruits black, smooth, resin-dotted, June-Sept, Similar species (1) European and (2) Canadian Black Currants also have resin-dotted foliage but these dots are lacking on upper leaf surface. Their twigs are not ridged, (3) Smooth Gooseberry EUROPEAN BLACK CURRANT Ribes nigrum L. p. 316 Recognition Like American Black Currant but res in-dots absent from upper leaf surface and fewer on twigs and buds. Broken twigs have strong unpleasant odor No lines from leaf scars. Twigs somewhat hairy. Leaves W-4. Height to 5'. Flowers yellow, white, or purplish, clusters drooping, Similar species See next species,

Thorxless Plums Juneberries

The juneberries are shrubs or small trees with the leaves toothed and often blunt-tipped. The buds are different from those of other plants in being pink to reddish, slender, with scales that are dark-tipped and usually somewhat twisted. Bundle scars are 3 per leaf scar. I'he trunk bark is usually tight and rather dark, with 1owt vertical twisting ridges, A number of the lower clumped species spread by horizontal stems on or just beneath the ground surface.

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Hickories have deep taproots, making them stand firm in the wind. Their big buds and five to seventeen leaflets (depending on species) are often pungently fragrant when crushed. Like other nut trees, the leaf scars below the buds bear eccentric faces by which you may identify the various species in winter. A twig in cross section shows the pith in five-pointed star form.

Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

The b-tubulin gene primers did not amplify P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata, which also differs in ITS sequence compared to P. c. var. chlamydosporia, providing the basis for a discriminatory real-time qPCR assay (Atkins et al. 2009) to measure the relative abundance of the two varieties that had been co-inoculated on nema-tode-infected plants. A real-time PCR assay using a set of molecular beacons specific for P. c. var. chlamydosporia has also been developed (Ciancio et al. 2005). These methods allow the quantification of different Pochonia species and varieties in rhizosphere-extracted DNA but it is more challenging to estimate the relative proportions of different biotypes and isolates without resorting to culture. To discriminate between two different P. c. var. chlamydosporia isolates, a polymorphic region of the genome was identified as the basis of primers for discriminatory qPCR (Atkins et al. 2009). This approach, using Sequence Characterised Amplified Polymorphic Regions...

Biology and Habits

The insects in this family are so named for all their larval stages, and because the female lives inside the bag or case formed by plant materials. It is a small conical case, no more than 16 mm high and covered by a mosaic of leaf particles. Larvae feed from the underside of the leaf, consuming the epidermal layer and mesophyll tissues, leaving the single layer of epidermis on the upper side. Larvae usually then migrate to branch stems and often to the main trunk to feed on the live surface layer of bark, leaving feeding scars on the stem. When pupation approaches, the case is modified into an ellipsoidal form and hangs on threads from the under sides of branches (Plate 9.15). In heavy infestations, thousands of these cases can be seen hanging from branches.

Natural Approaches To Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The disease is characterized by loss of myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects nerve fibers allowing them to conduct electrical impulses. In MS, scar tissue, or sclerosis, forms at the sites of demyelination, with destruction of neuronal axons and progressive neurologic disability. The National Multiple Sclerosis Society estimates that 400,000 individuals in the United States have MS.1

Rhododendron atlantimm Ashe Rehd

PLANTS WITH 1 BUNDLE SCAR (i) 291 SWEETLEAF Symplocos Hnctoria (L.) L'Her. p. 368 Similar species Only 3 species with single bundle scars have chambered piths, (1) Silverbell-tree has reddish buds, and (2) the buds of Persimmon (Plate 68) are dark, with only 2 scales,

MAS for Disease Resistance

For blast resistance gene Pi10, Naqvi and Chattoo (1996) developed SCAR markers from linked RAPD fragments. Hittalmani et al. (1995) developed an STS marker for a tightly linked RFLP marker RG64 and detected specific amplicon polymorphism (SAP) between the resistant and the susceptible genotypes upon digestion of the PCR products with a restriction enzyme HaeIII. Efficiency of selecting resistant plants with this STS marker was 95 , but use of flanking markers improved the selection efficiency to 100 . Pan et al. (2003) developed three RAPD markers, BAR 15486, BAR 15782, and BAR 15844, tightly flanking the Pi15 gene with recombination frequencies of 0.35 , 0.35 , and 1.1 , respectively, for marker-aided gene pyramiding. A pair of primers that specifically amplified a susceptible pi-ta allele was developed to verify the absence of Pi-ta gene (Jia et al. 2004).

Nemopanthus mucronata L Trel

Similar species Oblong, bristle-tipped leaves and long-pointed buds separate this from other I-bundle-scar shrubs with toothless foliage. Recognition A slender shrub. Leaves rather nondescript, egg-shaped to elliptic, hairless or hairy only on veins beneath. Buds have 4-5 visible scales ball-shaped to short cone-shaped. End buds false. Twigs grayish. Leaves I -3. Height to 7'. Flowers white to piuk, bell-shaped, in open clusters on older branches, May-June. Fruits dry, urn-shaped, 5-parted capsules. Similar species Other nonevergreen shrubs with 1 bundle scar and untoothed leaves have hairy twigs, diaphragmed pith, or other distinctive characteristics. Leaf shape and dry fruits of Staggerbush are shared with next 2 species, but (1) Zenobia has only 2-3 bud scales and reddish twigs and (2) Minniebush has large true end buds present.

WHIN Genista tinctoria LNot illus

Recognition A low weak shrub with narrow stalkless leaves and twigs that are finely grooved lengthwise (see Chinese Matrimony-vine, p. 190). Leaf scars small bundle scars single, though often indistinct. Leaves W-V Flowers yellow, June-July, Fruits flat several-seeded pods, A European importation poor soils, s. Maine, Massachusetts, and Michigan to District Recognition A rare southern shrub much like the related spice-bushes (Plate 59), Leaves rather narrow, hairless, and leathery. Crushed leaves and twigs aromatic. Buds conical leaf scars somewhat raised. Leaves 1'-3. Height to 9'. Flowers yellow, small, March-April. Fruits single-seeded.

General Guidelines for Healthy Skin

This causes the formation of a comedone or a pustule. Bacteria can overgrow and release enzymes to break down sebum, resulting in inflammation. If this process occurs at the skin's surface, redness and pustules are created. Inflammation deeper in the skin can create nodules or cysts, causing greater damage to the skin and possible scarring.

Detection and Quantification of Antagonists and Their Biological Control Activity

Perhaps the greatest advantage of DNA-based detection methods is the potential for differentiating biotypes and strains of a biological control organism. With P. penetrans, Schmidt et al. (2004) found greater sequence heterogeneity in the sporulation gene sigE than in 16S rDNA and suggested that species- and biotype-specific probes could be developed from this gene. Specific primer sets have been developed to distinguish between two morphologically similar varieties of P. chlamydosporia, var. catenulate and var. chlamydosporia (Atkins et al. 2003b Hirsch et al. 2000). Siddiqui et al. (2009) developed PCR primers based on the vcp1 gene to differentiate biotypes of P. chlamydosporia from cyst and root-knot nema-todes. These primers were able to identify the original nematode host from which the fungus was isolated. PCR fingerprinting with arbitrary primers has also been used to determine variation within populations of P. chlamydosporia var. chlamy-do-sporia (Manzanilla-Lopez et al....

Alternate Compound Leaves

Glory South Florida Tree Small Tree

-Leaf scars and buds alternate (useful in winter) Relai * elv few plants have compound leaves. Those with opposite U v rr were presented in Section II (Plate , 7 Ily. r > mainder are in this Section, In winter, the alternate leaf scars may sometimes indicate bv their large size the former presence of compound leaves. In case of doubt, however, the twigs of a leafless unknown plant with alternate leaf scars will have to be compared with the drawings of both Sections IV and V. Warning Poison-ivy and Poison Sumac are in this group. Do not handle them. Be careful of unknown plants of this type. Scars narrow half-circles Leaf scars scars scars scars leaf scars U-shaped round Leaf scars U-shaped, enclosing buds Leaf scars

Phagocytosis Requires Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton

In Drosophila, the Arp2 3 complex is primarily activated by D-SCAR, a member of the WASp SCAR protein family. RNAi of SCAR in Drosophila cell lines drastically reduces actin staining at the leading edge of pseudopodia (Biyasheva et al. 2004) and SCAR is believed to be stabilized by another complex that includes the Abelson interacting protein (Abi Kunda et al. 2003 Rogers et al. 2003). D-WASp may also play a role in this process, though its functional relationship to SCAR is unclear. The two proteins may be redundant, as RNAi of each gene in Drosophila cell lines produces only a partial phenotype of impaired phagocytosis and pseudopod formation (Pearson et al. 2003 Biyasheva et al. 2004). WASp is activated by a signaling pathway involving Rho proteins, including Cdc42, Rac 1, and Rac 2. Cdc42 has been detected in several screens for genes required for the uptake of bacteria, Mycobacteria, and yeast (Rogers et al. 2003 Agaisse et al. 2005 Philips et al. 2005 Stroschein-Stevenson et al....

MAS in Hybrid Rice Breeding

SSR markers RM2 and RM11 on chromosome 7. The accuracy of selecting sterile plants during segregating generation was more than 90 . Jia et al. (2001) se-quenced and converted a closely linked AFLP marker, rev1, 4.2 cM from the rtms1 gene into a SCAR marker that could facilitate MAS of the rtms1 gene.

Miscellaneous Upright Thorny Plants

A currant (Plate 40), which follow* this account, and the compound-leaved species given earlier (Plates 23 and 24). The only opposite-leaved thorny plant is the Common Buckthorn (Plate 19), Spur branches, present in all members of this group except Fire-thorn and DeviTs-club, are stubby, leaf-scar-crowded offshoots of the older branches* They may bear dense clusters of leaves in summer. Bundle scars are 3 per leaf scar except in Osage-orange. Recognition A medium-sized tree. Leaves egg-shaped, somewhat long-pointed, not toothed- Strong unbranched thorns at each leaf scar. Sap milky (Caution it causes a rash in some people), Wood yellow. Buds nearly ball-shaped end ones false. Bundle scars 1 to more than 3, Bark orange-brown, furrowed, tight, fibrous. Spur branches of clustered leaves often present. Leaves l-8. Height 50-60' diameter 18-36. Flowers May-June, Fruits green, wrinkled, grapefruit-sized, Oct, Similar species This species and the bumelias are the only thorny plants with...

Broadleaved Plants with Opposite Simple Leaves

Purdue Simple Opposite Leaf

Phough more numerous than those of Section II, the plants with opposite simple leaves are still so few as to be rather easily identified. In winter, of course, plants with opposite leaf scars may be members of either Section II or III and the drawings in both Sections must be reviewed- Care should be taken that the leaves or leaf scars on the stubby, scar-crowded spur branches of some alternate-leaved plants are not thought to be opposite or whorled. No opposite-leaved plants have spur branches. Climbing by twining stems only and leaves not toothed (but see Japanese Honeysuckle) bark papery branch lets hollow scales present at twig bases opposing leaf scars connected by lines.

General Requirements For Promoting Healthy Skin

Optimal intake and assimilation of nutrients is also essential for promoting healthy skin. A deficiency of EFAs often manifests as dry, flaky skin and a predisposition to inflammatory conditions, such as eczema. Vitamin A is a crucial nutrient for healing tissues and regenerating epithelial tissues including the skin. Vitamin A deficiency can manifest as follicular hyperkeratosis, poor wound healing, and acne. Vitamin E can prevent scarring from blemishes and incisions. Vitamin C is an important nutrient for the skin both internally and topically because the vitamin helps to inhibit free-radical damage and promotes collagen production. The B vitamins promote skin health and offer stress relief, with vitamin B6 being particularly helpful for preventing premenstrual acne. Zinc deficiency is common in acne and other skin problems.

Erect Thorny Trees and Shrubs

Divided into numerous narrow leaflets, which may be slightly toothed, These leaflets, in turn, frequently are subdivided Hairless buds, hidden by the leafstalk bases in summer, are surrounded by leaf scars when twigs are leafless and may be supplemented by smaller buds located just above them. End buds false, wigs stout bundle scars 3, Leaves 15. Height 70'-80' (140') diameter 2'-3' (6'). Flowers small, greenish, clustered May-Julv. Fruits 8-18 long* flattened twisted pods with sweet pulp between numerous oval seeds, Sept-Feb. Similar species (1) Only Water Locust also has such long thorns, (2) Black Locust has small paired thorns. Remarks Honey Locust, believed originally to have been restricted to Mississippi Valley, is now common eastward. The thorns have been used by woodsmen for pins, spear points, and animal traps. Heavy, durable wood used tor railroad ties, fence posts, and agricultural implements. The tree does not harbor root bacteria capable of fixing nitrogen as do most...

Post Pollination Pollen Tubes Embryonic and Seedling Development

Pollen tube growth in the Zostera marina under (A) bright field and (B) epifluorescence using alanine blue dye. This composite representation includes images from the style at right (note the abscission scar, where the stigmas were lost) to the rear of the locule at left. Note the location of the uniovulate ovary in the second left-most image and the penetration of the egg apparatus indicated by the bright fluorescence near the micropyle (scale bar 100 m modified from Ackerman, 1993). Fig. 6. Pollen tube growth in the Zostera marina under (A) bright field and (B) epifluorescence using alanine blue dye. This composite representation includes images from the style at right (note the abscission scar, where the stigmas were lost) to the rear of the locule at left. Note the location of the uniovulate ovary in the second left-most image and the penetration of the egg apparatus indicated by the bright fluorescence near the micropyle (scale bar 100 m modified from Ackerman, 1993).

Broadleaved Plants with Opposite Compound Leaves

Dipticos Plantas Medicinales

Leaf scars and buds opposite useful in winter Only a few plants bear leaves of this type. Their identification, therefore, is comparatively simple when foliage is present. In winter, however, unless dead or evergreen leaves are attached to the twigs, there are no certain clues to indicate whether the plant once bore compound or simple leaves. Then, this Section must be grouped with the next, whose twigs also bear opposite (occasionally whorled) leaf scars and buds, I he twigs of a leafless unknown plant with opposite leaf scars may he compared with the drawings in Sections II and III. Some alternate-leaved plants bear stubby, scarred, leaf-crowded spur branches. Care should be taken that their leaves and leaf scars are not assumed to be opposite or whorled because of this crowding. None ol the plants in our area with true opposite or whorled leaf scars ever develop spur branches. Twigs with un-crowded leaves or leaf scars should be selected for identification. Buds brown, small leaf...

Broadleaved Plants with Alternate Compound Leaves

Relatively few plants have compound leaves. Those with opposite leaves were presented in Section II (Plates 7-11, pp. 56 65)* The rest are in this Section. In winter, the alternate leaf scars may sometimes indicate by their large size the former presence of compound leaves. Where there is doubt, however, the twigs 3. Leaf scars narrow, half-encircling twigs ROSES 23 3. Leaf scars otherwise LOCUSTS* etc. 24 6. Leaf scars narrow, halt encircling twigs ROSES 23 6. Leaf scars otherwise 14. Bundle sears more than 5 14. Bundle scars 1 to 5 Leaves twice- or thrice-compound (leaf eft as well as leaves compound) COFFEE-TREE, etc. The leaves of all groups are toothed and divided into 3 or more leaflets. Where there are more than 3 leaflets, their arrangement differs by groups and species. In the Red Raspberry and the roses, the leaflets are feather-compound, that is, placed at right angles to the central leafstalk. In the Black Raspberry, dewberries, and blackberries, the leaflets are arranged...

Key to Trees in Leafless Condition

Leaf scars lacking twigs and needlelike foliage dropping in winter, leaving no leaf or bundle scars fruits ball-shaped cones BALDCYPRESS 3 L I eaf scars present 2. Leaf scars opposite (Sections II and IV) 3. Leaf scars with 4 to many bundle scars, often large 4, Central bud missing, a single pair of buds present at twig tip) 5- Leaf scars 4-sided to crescent-shaped 5, Leaf scars circular or nearly so PRINCESS-TREE* etc. IS 4, 1 or 3 buds present at twig tip 3 Leaf scars with I or 3 bundle scars 8, Bundle scar 1 H. Bundle scars 3 11, Upper leaf scars meeting in raised points ASHLEAF MAPLE 10 IL Upper leaf scars not meeting in raised points 12, Leaf scars much raised above twigs buds hidden beneath leaf scars in I species 12, Leaf scars not much raised buds visible JAPANESE CORKTREE (10) 17, Leaf scars not U-shaped VIBURNUMS (1) 20 15- Bud scales 4 or more MAPLES 22 2, Leaf scars alternate (Sections I, III, and IV) IS. Twigs thorny or bristly 19, Leaf scars with 1 or with more than 3...

The Meaning of Botanical Terms

Tiny, somewhat circular dots within the leaf scar, caused by the breaking of bundles of ducts leading into the leafstalk, Sometimes elongate or curved. Spur branch. A stubby branchlet with densely crowded leaves and leaf scars. See drawing, Plate 38. Stipule. A growth at the base of the leafstalk, usually small and in pairs, leaving scars on the twig when they drop. See also Ritiged. Whorled (leaves, leaf scars). Arranged in circles around the twifts.

Rops in Epidermal Cells

Arabidopsis Epidermal Cell Cytoskeleton

In Arabidopsis epidermal cells, two closely related Rops (Rop2 and Rop4) interact with RIC1 and RIC4 to regulate the cytoskeleton and the formation of pavement cells (Fig. 5B). Rops positively control microfilament formation through activating RIC4 which in turn promotes microfilament polymerization through the WAVE SCAR and ARP2 3 pathways (Fu et al. 2002). This pathway explains why mutations affecting microfilaments through these complexes reduce pavement cell formation. Rops also negatively control microtubule polymerization because Rop-dependent de-activation of RIC1, a microtubule-associated protein, prevents it from binding to and bundling microtubules (Fu et al. 2002). Thus, the formation of lobed pavement cells is Rop RIC-dependent and requires signalling to both microfilaments and microtubules (Fig. 5B).

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Thoreau wrote admiringly of red maple in one of his last essays, ''Autumnal Tints. He wondered about the Puritans' reaction when the maples blaze out in scarlet. He slyly suggested that they erected meeting houses to avoid worshipping under red maple's indecent high colors and exuberance. Familiar marks in winter are the black chevrons on the trunk, descending like inverted Vs from either side of branches or branch scars. Although other trees may show them, such marks seem much more prevalent on this species. Cracked bark and scars extending partway around forest-edge trunks may be signs of the sugar maple borer (Glycobius speciousus), a longhorned beetle.

Actin Dynamics in Pollen Tubes

For the second hypothetical mechanism, two factors, Arp2 3 complex and formin protein, are considered to be good candidates to promote and regulate the polymerization of actin filaments. Arp2 3 complex contains two actin-related proteins, Arp2 and Arp3, and five additional subunits, and the Arabidopsis genome contains putative homologues of all seven subunits (Mathur 2005 Szymanski 2005). This complex preferentially binds to the side of pre-existing actin filaments and nucleates daughter actin filaments. This nucleation activity of Arp2 3 complex is enhanced and activated by the WASP (Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein) WAVE (WASP family Verprolin homologous protein) SCAR (Suppressor of cAR Dictyosrelium homologue of WAVE) family member and recent works identified several genes in Arabidopsis encoding plant homologues of some components or subunits of SCAR WAVE (reviewed in Szymanski 2005). Proline rich domain in these activators is considered to interact with profilin. Moreover, plant...

Honeysuckles 2 Erect Shrubs

Coralberry and Snowherry (Plate 17), which have only 1, rather than 3, bundle scars per leaf scar. In winter, hydrangeas usually bear umbrellalike clusters of dried fruit capsules in contrast to the berries of honeysuckles their twigs too are usually more shiny and stout. The ridged twigs of the Bush-honeysuckle are distinctive, rhe prominent fruits of the Coralberry and Snowherry frequently are present in winter. Occasionally honeysuckles bear several buds, one above the other, where 1 normally grows. When present, this definitely separates thein from the oilier plants mentioned . i ioneysuckle leaves are not toothed, and the bark of twigs and branchlets, at least, is papery. Opposing leaf scars are connected by lines. The bundle scars are 3. In contrast to the climbing honeysuckles, these bushy plants, which rarely exceed 10 feet, may be identified by both leaf and twig characteristics. When present, the white, pink, or yellowish flowers are aids, I he blossoms mostly are of 2...

Thornless Trifoliates

Parts contain a dangerous skin irritant. Grows as an erect shrub, trailing t iw or climbert Leaves 3-parted and long-stalked but otherwise variable, They may be stiff and leathery or merely thin, somewhat hairy beneath or not, shiny or dull, coarse-toothed and wavy-edged, or neither. Poison-ivy leaves may be somewhat reddish but this occurs only in young or in dying leaves. End leaflet has longer stalk than side ones and has pointed tip. Twigs are brown and, if climbing, have many short aerial rootlets. Old stems of climbing vines densely covered with dark fibers. Aerial rootlets and fibrous coverings lacking in upright specimens. Buds visible, hairy, without scales, pinched at base. Leaf scars large, with a half-dozen or so bundle scars. Upright plants usually are branches of underground stems and occur in thickets. Leaves 4-14. Height 2-5' (HY) when not climbing. Flowers small, yellowish, May-July, Fruits small, smooth, white, ball-shaped, clustered, Aug.-Nov. or longer. Similar...

Plants with Opposite or Whorled Heartshaped Leaves That Are Not Toothed

With the exception of 1 or 2 honeysuckles (Plate 14) that may bear a few leaves of this type, only these woody plants in our range have opposite or whorled heart-shaped leaves that are not toothed. The twigs of these plants lack central end buds but the tree species are even more easily differentiated in winter from all others with opposite leaf scars by the elliptical series of tiny bundle scars within each circular leaf scar. The lilac is a shrub. The other species here discussed are the only plants with opposite simple leaves of any type which grow to tall tree size. Flowering Dogwood (Plate 15) and blackhaw viburnums (Plate 20 are smaller in size. Two shrubby viburnums (Plate 20) bear leaves regularly triangular or heart-shaped and a 3rd species is somewhat heart- shaped ami long-pointed. Buds stout, green or reddish with 2-3 thick scales. Twigs rather slender, rarely moderately stout. Leaf scars have single bundle scars, Leaves Height to 10 Similar species No other shrub has...

Invasion Through Root Hair Infection Threads

The L. japonicus gene set controlled by these regulators has so far not been identified, but detailed analysis of the putative M. truncatula orthologs of NSP1 and NSP2 suggests that they act as a transcription factor complex activating several downstream genes, including NIN and the symbiosis-induced gene ENOD11 (Hirsch et al. 2009). L. japonicus plants carrying a mutant nap1 or pir1 allele had a significantly diminished ability to capture bacteria within infection pockets and initiating infection threads (Yokota et al. 2009). The rare infection threads that formed disintegrated, and infection threads extending to the base of the root hair cells were only occasionally observed. Lack of infection threads in the root cortex further suggested that NAP1 and PIR1 were essential for the progression of the infection process. Further characterisation showed that the Nap1 and Pir1 genes are essential for establishing the actin organisation in root hairs (Yokota et al. 2009)....

Miscellaneous Shrubs with Opposite Toothed Leaves

Recognition A low shrub with slender ridged twigs and scales present at the twig bases. Leaves more or ess egg-shaped, long-pointed fine-toothed. Typically nearly hairless but a northwestern variety (hyponuilaca Fern.) has leaves densely hairy beneath. Leaves distinctly stalked. Twigs have slender ridges running downward from lines connecting leaf scars. Buds have 4 or more pairs of scales bundle scars 3. Leaves 2-5' Height to 4 Flowers yellow to crimson, tubular with spreading petal tips, W-W June-Aug, Fruits long-pointed dry capsules. Similar species Though honeysuckles (Plate 14), Coralberry and relatives (Plate 17), and hydrangeas (below) also have scales present at twig bases, the ridged twigs of this species are distinctive. Southern Bush-honeysuckle has short leafstalks. True honevsuckles have leaves not toothed, fleshv fruits. Recognition A low to medium-sized shrub with smooth and medium-stout twigs that are not ridged hut have scales present where they meet branchlets....

Adhesion Requires Integrins Rac and

Cdc42 Rac Rho Phagocytosis

Fig. 3 Rac and Cdc42 stimulate pseudopodia extension through cascades affecting actin polymerization. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) promotes the production of PIP3, a membrane component, that binds to GEFs that activate Rac, and integrate it into the cell membrane. Rac activates WAVE2, possibly through IRSp53 or perhaps through Sra-1, which is bound to Nap. Nap activates Abl interactor (Abi), which binds to WAVE2 (also called suppressor of cAMP receptor (SCAR). WAVE2 activates the actin-related protein (Arp)2 3 complex that regulates lamellipodia extension as in phagocytosis. The pathway can also be activated by Cdc42, in a trimolecular complex with Cdc42 and WASP the cell membrane (Hall 1998 Rickert et al. 2000 Chung et al. 2001). The signaling events downstream of Rac are less clear. Some research suggests that Rac is bound to the amino terminus of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53), which is then bound via a carboxy-terminal Src-homology-3 domain to...

Section 4 Pterostoechas Ging

Woody based perennials or woody shrubs with pinnatisect to bipinnatisect leaves with distinct petioles. Bracts on axis of spike arranged in an opposite and decussate manner, subtending a single-flower with no bracteoles, giving a four-seriate (quadrate) spike. Subtending bracts ovate lanceolate in shape, with parallel veins. Calyx fifteen-nerved, bilobed the median posterior tooth often distinctly deltoid, the other lanceolate in shape. Corolla bisymmetrical, twice the length of the calyx, five-lobed, the upper two erect and twice as large as the three lateral lobes. Stigma bilobed. Nutlets elliptic, the lateral scar one-third the length of the nutlet, mucilaginous. The important characters for distinguishing the species include leaf shape, indumentum, length of the bract subtending each flower and the shape of the upper middle lobe of the calyx. Typically woody based perennials or subshrubs with pinnatifid (lobed to only half the distance to midrib) leaves or sometimes leafless. The...

Similar species See Sweet leaf

AMERICAN SNOWBELL Styrax americana Lam. p. 368 Recognition A shrub with elliptic leaves usually nearly hairless tew teeth or none. (Var pulvemlenta (Michx.) Perkins with leaves sometimes egg-shaped and hairy or scaly beneath occurs north to s. Virginia and Arkansas.) Twigs hairless or nearly so. Buds have no scales, blunt and brown-hairy, often one above another end buds false. Single bundle scar, sometimes somewhat broken. Leaves Height to 14 Flowers white, showy, in )-2 elongate clusters, May. Fniits dry, 1-seeded, Sept,-Oct, Similar species Snowbells are our only species with naked buds and single bundle scars, Bigleaf Snowbell has wider-based, more hairy leaves and very hairy or scaly twigs.

Hydrodynamically Generated Patchiness in Seagrass Meadows

The mosaic of patterns observed in seagrass landscapes is often a result of natural perturbations such as erosion and burial by sand waves (Harlin and Thorne-Miller, 1982 Fonseca et al., 1983 Marba et al., 1994 Marba and Duarte, 1995 Fonseca and Bell, 1998 Bell et al., 1999 Fig. 12) and or disturbances caused by fauna (Orth, 1975 Ogden, 1980 Preen, 1995), storms (Preen etal., 1995 Fonseca and Bell, 1998) and or disease (den Hartog, 1987). Anthropogenic causes (eutrophication, boat and mooring scars, fishing gear scars) can also contribute to seagrass patchiness (Cambridge, 1975 Walker etal., 1989 Creed and Filho, 1999 Orth etal., 2002). Here we will focus on flow-related generation of patchi-ness.

With Leaves Twicecompound

YELLOWROOT Xanthorhiza simplicissima Marsh p. 166 Recognition A low shrub with once* or, less commonly, twice-compound leaves. Leaflets pointed and deeply toothed. Wood of both roots and upper parts bright yellow. Leaf scars narrow, more than half encircling twig bundle scars numerous. Side buds small, blunt, and few-scaled end bud much larger, with about 5 scales. Leaves 4-10. Height to 3', Flowers purplish, in drooping clusters, April-May, Fruits small, dry. Similar species Yellow wood and nearly encircling leaf scars are certain identification marks. Yellowwood (Plate 30) is taller, has leaflets not toothed, and leaf scars U-shaped. Recognition An oriental tree widely planted in dooryards in South and often escaped to the wild. Leaves twice-compound (roughly resembling those of Pepper Vine), with toothed leaflets. Twigs stout and hairless. Buds small, nearly spherical, fuzzy. Leaf scars large, somewhat 3-lobed, with 3 groups of scattered bundle scars. End buds false. Pith white....

Molecular Markers And Genetic Diversity

The development of AFLPs by Vos et al. (1995) enabled numerous reproducible and informative dominant markers to be obtained in only a few experiments even if reproducibility between laboratories was not ideal. In addition, these markers are generally widely distributed throughout the genome and, mostly in C. arabica, are useful to (i) identify genetic diversity among cultivars (Dessalegn et al., 2008) (ii) detect introgression in cultivars derived from natural interspecific hybrids (Prakash et al., 2004 Steiger et al., 2002) (iii) analyze the genetic of resistance (Gichuru et al., 2008 Herrera et al., 2009) (iv) construct a genetic map of C. arabica (Pearl et al., 2004) and (v) clarify taxonomic debates between C. liberica var liberica and C. liberica var dewevrei, combined with the analysis of morphological traits and the study of male fertility in interspecific F1 hybrids (N'Diaye et al., 2005 Poncet et al., 2005). AFLPs are often used to analyze diversity (and for genetic mapping),...

Miscellaneous Plants with Opposite Leaves Not Toothed a

None have whorled leaves (but the St. johnsworts may have leafy shoots clustered in the angles of the larger paired leaves). Bundle scars are single. to purple, ' -shaped, clustered, less than ig, July-Aug, Fruits berry like, coral to purple, less than V, Sept.-winter. Similar species Shrubby honeysuckles (Plate 14) and hydrangeas (Plate 19) have scales at twig bases but have 3 bundle scars. (1 Snowberry and (2) Wolfberry have hollow pith, white fruits. KALM ST. JOHNSWORT Hypericum kalmianum L. p. 110 Recognition A small shrub whose leaves have many tiny trans* parent dots when held up to light and viewed through a hand lens. Clusters of leafy shoots often present in leaf-angles, I,eaves more or less hairless, somewhat oblong, Branchlets l-edged twigs 2-edged. Twigs angled at leaf scars. No scales present at twig bases. Older bark papery and shreddy. Buds very small, with 2 scales. Leaves l-2. Height to 3'. Flowers bright yellow, with 5 petals and 5...


Rhizome creeping, either herbaceous, monopodial, and rooting at the nodes (Cymodocea, Syringodium, Halodule) or ligneous, sympodial, and rooting from the internodes (Am-phibolis, Thalassodendron). Scales scarious, ovate or elliptic, marked with more or less small, dark, longitudinal stripes, and dots (tannin cells). Leaves distichous. Leaf sheath broad, completely or almost completely amplexicaulous, leaving open or closed circular scars when shed, bi-auriculate, ligulate scar-ious flaps covered with numerous short dark, longitudinal stripes, and dots (tannin cells). Leaf blade linear or subulate with three to several parallel or pseudoparallel (Amphibolis) nerves parallel with the nerves more or less, short, dark, longitudinal stripes, and dots (tannin cells) leaf-tip variable in outline. 'Flowers' without perigone, solitary, either terminal on a short branch or arranged in a cy-mose inflorescence (Syringodium). Male 'flowers' subsessile or stalked,...


Central region of the 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple stem cut to show transverse, radial and tangential views of gross external and internal structure. Tangential section cut at boundary between cortex and stele. iar, internal, and ear, external portions of adventitious roots cvt, circumferential band of vascular tissue vn, vascular network at the boundary between cortex and stele lg, leaf gap ltb, leaf-trace bundle ls, leaf scar lbb, lateral branch bud rb, tip of emerging root, commonly called a root 'bud'. B. Diagrammatic representation, showing portion of the cortex cut away to expose the vascular network at the boundary between cortex and stele, and xylem elements from roots. arb, adventitious root base cvt, circumferential band of vascular tissue lb, leaf base lg, leaf gap ltb, leaf-trace bundle. (After Krauss, 1948. The University of Chicago, all rights reserved.)

And Corktree

The ashes and the Ashleaf Maple, or Box Elder, are our only native trees with opposite feather-compound leaves. All are tall trees. Young trees may be distinguished from shrubs with similar leaves by the presence of true end buds. These are lacking in the shrubby species (see Plate 8). In winter, ashes are the only plants having 4 or more bundle scars per leaf scar, central end buds present (but not exceptionally large), and opposing leaf scars that do not meet. At that season, Ashleaf Maple has green or purplish, smooth, hairless, often white-powdered, twigs whose opposite leaf scars meet at raised points. See Japanese Corktree p. 52), rarely is it necessary to use a lens, fhe flowers are dark, clustered but without petals and inconspicuous. Leaf scars are large, shield-shaped, with numerous bundle scars buds have a somewhat granular surface texture, from leaf scars. Leaflets 7-11, green beneath, stalked and always toothed, Upper edges of leaf scars only shallowly notched. Trunk bark...

Spear Problems

Spears crooked and deformed, may be brown, or scarred leaves chewed or missing. Causes Asparagus beetles asparagus fern caterpillars cucumber beetles mechanical injury. Asparagus beetles are blue-black, ' * long insects with cream-colored spots and red borders on wing covers. Larvae are ' > long, humpbacked, gray grubs with black heads. They are most active in cool weather. Spotted asparagus beetles are reddish orange with 12 black spots on wing covers. Larvae are orange. Fertilize plants to encourage new leaf growth. Apply a commercial pyrethrin spray or dust to control beetles. Destroy tops in late winter to remove overwintering beetles and future problems. Deep cultivation can damage developing spears. Cultivate shallowly or use mulch instead. In windy areas, blowing sand can scar spears protect plantings with windbreaks.

Viburnums 1 and

Though widespread and common in eastern United States, viburnums are difficult to identify as a group. Few of the common names ordinarily include the word viburnum and no all-inclusive vegetative characteristics define the group. All viburnums, however, have small fleshy fruits containing single flat seeds. Usually the flowers are small and white. They and the fruits occur in mostly flat-topped clusters 3-5 across, Siebold Viburnum and a variety of Guelder-rose have round-topped flower heads. Hobblebush, Cranberry Viburnum, and Guelder-rose have some blossoms larger, more showy, and sterile. The bundle scars are 3. L Leaves finely toothed or wavy-edged, not lobed (Plate 20) 2. Buds without scales leaves somewhat heart-shaped leaf scars triangular WAYFARING TREE GROUP L Leaves coarsely toothed, sometimes lobed leaf scars narrow (Plate 21)

Black gum

Ecology The inconspicuous yellow-green flowers attract more than 45 species of bees and other insects with spherical droplets of nectar that sparkle in the sunlight. Female trees don't usually flower and bear fruit in successive years, due to resource depletion associated with the high energy cost of reproduction. Male trees expend much less energy on reproduction and flower in most years. Individual trees form clones by producing multiple stems from root sprouts. The thick bark on older trees provides protection from the heat of fire, but fire scars at the base of a tree can provide an entry point for heart rot fungi, which can eventually kill the tree.

Post oak

On more favorable sites, neighboring trees often overtop it because of its slow growth rate. On poor sites, it tends to persist because it's more drought resistant than most other trees. Individuals can live for 300-400 years. Like many shade-intolerant species, it benefits from periodic fires opening up the canopy. Smaller trees are easily topkilled by fires, but vigorously resprout from dormant buds at the base. Fire scars on surviving trees provide an entry point for fungi that can cause heart rot and eventual tree death. Individuals begin producing acorns after about 25 years. A masting species, good acorn crops are produced every 2-3 years. Acorns ripen and fall from the tree in autumn and germinate shortly thereafter.

Fruit Problems

Fruit malformed, shrunken, and drops early. Causes Plum curculio larvae cherry fruit fly maggots. Check affected fruit for crescent-shaped scars and small, brown-headed grubs inside. These are larvae of plum curculio beetles common to the East. The crescent-shaped scar marks the site where these pests lay eggs. To control curculios without sprays, spread a dropcloth beneath the tree and jar the trunk and branches twice a day with a padded mallet. Collect and destroy curculios that fall onto the sheet. For more information see Young fruit with crescent-shaped scars on page 186.


Erect Plants with Thornless Twigs and Leaves Not Lobed. Leaves Not Fan-veined and Leaf Scars Containing only 1 Bundle Scar 51, Leal scars conspicuously raised, often with descending lines at the sides twigs very long and slender clustered small dry fniits commonly at twig tips leaves toothed except occasionally in 1 species SPIREAS 60

Problems v

Trunk with lumpy swellings limbs die or break off bark falls off. Cause Borers. Several species of borers attack dogwoods. The most common type, the dogwood borer, has white-bodied, brown-headed larvae. They hatch from eggs laid on the bark and enter the tree through wounds or scars in the bark. Dogwood borers often attack young, newly transplanted trees.

Crown removal

Crown removal is labour-intensive and may not be practical in all areas, but, when it is performed by practised workers, the scar tissue is barely visible when the remaining crown is fully developed. If the crown has grown large enough to shade the shoulders of the fruit, it may be better to retain the crown to prevent fruit sunburn. This problem is serious in areas of intense sunlight.

Or Fanveined

These plants have leaves that are either lobed or not. Usually, when in leaf both lobed and unlobed foliage is present at the same time. When unlobed, the leaves generally are heart-shaped. All these spec ies have distinctly fan-veined leaves, with 3-5 main veins meeting near the ends of the leafstalks, he number of bundle scars per leaf scar varies by species. Recognition A medium-sized Asiatic tree with sandpaper-textured leaves and twigs, i .eaves fine-toothed, varying from heart-shaped to deeply and intricately lobed, sandpapery above and velvety below. Twigs rough-hairy buds have only 2-3 visible scales. Sap milky (not always evident in winter). Bundle scars more than 3 per leaf scar. Pith blocked by a woody partition near each bud. End buds false. Bark a yeltow-brown smooth network of fine ridges. Leaves i-ll' Height to 50' diameter to 4', Flowers April-May. Fruits red. fleshy, barely edible, Sept- lobed. Twigs hairless or slightly hairy. Buds have 5-6 visible scales, greenish...

Plate 49 p 332

I he magnolias are distinctively marked plants of tropical appearance and southern relationships. The ranges of a number extend into the northern states, especially in the Appalachians. The leaves are smooth-edged and often large the twigs are ringed by stipule scars the buds are covered by a single scale the true end buds usually are especially large and the bundle scars are many. All magnolias are frequently cultivated for their large leaves and showy white flowers. heir large brownish conelike fruit clusters are frequently ornamental when ripe. They release bright red seeds on silklike threads from many slit like openings. Only the magnolias, Tulip-tree, and Sycamore have more than 3 bundle scars per leaf scar and ringed twigs. Sycamore (Plate 42) has peculiar mottled bark and buds surrounded by leaf scar Tulip-tree (Plate 42) has notched leaves, buds spicy when crushed, and chambered pith it is a member of the magnolia family. Beech (Plate 57) has ringed twigs but the leaves are...

And Alders

Toothed leaves (see Speckled Alder) and 3 bundle scars per leaf scar (see hazelnuts). Elms have leaves uneven-based, end buds false, and bud scales in 2 rows. Birches have leaves even-based, on Plates 50 and 51 which have false end buds also have leaves (and buds and leaf scars) arranged in 2 opposing rows along twigs.

Insect detection

Visual examination of grain and grain products in bulk or warehouses is a very simple technique. Visual inspection can identify early stages of moth infestations because they make small clusters of seeds or webbing over the surface of seeds or of the storage structure. Such moth larvae are usually restricted to the top portion of the bulk seeds therefore, they cannot readily be removed by probe traps. Rice weevil larvae feed on the aleurone layer just under the seed coat, which results in a visible pale scar on the outside of the seed. Seeds infested with mature internal-feeding insects become slightly darkened and the kernel is appreciably softened.


Spireas are shrubs with slender wandlike twigs, narrow-based and mostly toothed leaves, papery bark that often flakes oH, and raised leaf scars with only 1 bundle scar. Leafstalks characteristically are short. Twig ends often wither in winter some twigs may retain scales at their bases as in the honeysuckles (Plate 14) and some other opposite-leaved plants. Clusters of tiny dry 5-parted fruits often arc present at twig tips following white or pink flowers. On Plate 66 are several plants also with toothed leaves, 1 bundle scar, and small dry fruits. Sourwood and the sweetbells have raised leaf scars, Maleberry has smaller buds with more than 3 bundle scars and chambered pith.

Shoot Mortality

It is possible to estimate the age of individual shoots of most seagrass species because there is a relatively constant rate of production of new leaves on a shoot, called the plastochron interval. Each leaf leaves a distinctive scar on the short shoot at the node, so it is possible to count the number of leaves produced over the lifespan of an excavated shoot and multiply this number of leaves by the plastochron interval to estimate the age of the shoot (Patriquin, 1973 Duarte et al., 1994). Once recruited into the population, shoots of different species have different average lifespans. Shoots of the small, fast-spreading species, like Halophila spp., have an average lifespan of only a month or so, and a maximum age of a few months (Table 1). In contrast, the shoots of the larger, slower-spreading species like Posidonia spp. and Thalassia spp. have average life expectancies of a few years, with some shoots surviving for decades. A genetically individual plant may be much older than...

Gap Dynamics

In seagrass species that form extensive meadows, intense but localized disturbances can cause scars in the meadow that are akin to canopy light gaps in forests. Gap dynamics is a key component of seagrass dynamics (Bell et al., 1999), as gaps are produced often through physical and biological (e.g. Nakaoka and Aioi, 1999) disturbances. In such gaps, the death of later-successional, better competitor species through many different mechanisms can provide small gaps that allow space for the recruitment of new individuals into the forest. As there is often an inverse relationship between competitive ability and colonization potential, the first colonizers to these gaps are generally species that will, through time, be replaced by the original superior competitor (see Pickett and White, 1985 for a detailed treatment of forest light gaps). In Thalassia-dominated seagrass beds of the tropical Western Atlantic, small scale physical disturbances caused by wave action or herbivory can remove...

Plate 62 p 358

Blueberries have small, mostly elliptic, short-stalked leaves, Twigs are slender, green or reddish, and often zigzag, covered with very numerous raised, granular speckles, or warts, usually visible to the eye but better seen under a lens. Two types of buds are commonly present slim leaf buds and swollen flower buds, though both are small. The tiny bud scales frequently have long tapered tips. The end buds are false, There is 1 bundle scar per leaf scar. The small, whitish, bell-like blossoms are very ornamental. The blue or black fruits of blueberries contain many small seeds, in contrast to the huckleberries, which regularly have 10 nutlets per fruit. All have edible fruits some are very tasty.

Types of Phyllotaxis

In the mid-1830s naturalists noticed the spirals in the capituli of daisies and sunflowers. There are indeed two easily recognizable families of spirals, winding in opposite directions with respect to a common pole that is the center of the capitulum. They also noticed the patterns of scales making families of spirals on the pineapple fruit surface. Depending on whether the scales are rectangular or hexagonal, there are two or three such families of spirals or helices that can be easily observed. These spirals are referred to as parastichies, meaning secondary spirals. The accompanying figure of the Pinus pinea shows a cross-section of an apical bud with five parastichies in one direction and eight in the opposite direction. Similar patterns of helices are made by the points of insertions of the leaves around stems, such as the patterns of scars made by the leaves on the trunk of a palm tree.

Plate 64 p 362

Azaleas are small to large shrubs whose leaves and buds are clustered near the twig tips, Furthermore, the twigs also are clustered and typicalh radiate out from the ends ni the older branchlets. The true end buds usually are flower buds much larger than the lateral leaf buds. Azaleas are the only nonevergreen species with 1 bundle scar which have large end buds and clustered leaves, buds, and twigs. The leaves are not toothed except see Toothed Azalea) but have hairy edges, seen under magnification. The flowers fundamentally are vaselike, with long stamens protruding from the mouth of the tubular basal portion. Some often are improperly called wild honeysuckle or bush-honeysuckle, Vu its are dry, brown, slender vaselike capsules, often present in winter.

Solomons seal

Have either 2 or 4 sets of chromosomes, thus both diploid and tetraploid plants occur. Tetraploids are typically larger than diploids and produce more flowers and fruits. Rhizomes with knobby swellings run horizontally beneath the soil surface from which the arching stems arise. In winter, the deciduous stems leave a circular scar atop the rootstalk that is thought to resemble the seal of King Solomon, hence the common name. The location of the flowers beneath the leafy stem provides shelter from the potentially damaging effects of wind and rain.


The longevity of the shoots can be determined by 'translating' their size (expressed as the number of scars of abscised leaves) into age using information based on the number of leaves produced yearly. For example, a shoot with 30 leaf scars plus standing leaves, which produces ten leaves per year, has an age of 3 years. There exist various techniques for the determination of annual leaf production, or its derivative, annual mean Plastochron Interval, which was defined by Patriquin (1973) as the difference in age between two successive leaves, measured when they have reached the same stage of development. The techniques applied to Thalassia spp. are (1) Leaf marking, which determines the rate of leaf initiation per foliar shoot (Durako, 1994 van Tussenbroek, 1994a Kaldy et al., 1999 Peterson and Fourqurean, 2001), (2) differences in internode's length of the vertical rhizomes (Gallegos et al., 1993 Marba et al., 1994), (3) number of leaves formed between successive flower scars...


Colonization and population maintenance of Tha-lassia occur almost exclusively through vegetative spread and branching of the rhizomes. Thus, knowledge of the development and organization of the vegetative structure forms the basis for further understanding how these species cover thousands of square miles of the sea bottom. Yet, since the studies of Tomlinson (see section 4.1), virtually no research has been conducted on the vegetative anatomy and development of Thalassia, despite the fact that Tomlinson (1974) himself stressed that many of his observations were based on superficial examination, and that his work was preliminary and incomplete. Studies into the demography of shoots have been a useful tool in understanding some aspects of the dynamics of the shoot (ramet) populations, but information concerning dynamics of the genets such as their vegetative extension and dispersal through sexual propagules is scarce. Also our knowledge on the processes of clonal growth (clonal...

Fruit grading

The fruit to be packed needs to be mature, firm, well formed, free of defects, with flat eyes and a minimum TSS of 12 in Hawaii (Anon., 1968). Fruit are graded based upon recognized appearance characteristics degree of skin coloration, size (weight), absence of defects and diseases and other market needs before packing (Table 10.1). Crown size is a crucial grade component (Plate 37), with a minimum size and a ratio of crown to fruit length of 0.33-1.5 for the higher grades. Crowns developed during the summer in Hawaii tend to be larger and may require gouging at harvest to meet the standard. This gouging leaves a wound for possible pathogen entry and degrades overall appearance. Gouging 2 months before harvest, avoiding visible scarring, is also practised to limit crown growth (Soler, 1992a).

Shoot Development

Apical Meristem And Bud

Flushes of vegetative extension growth of mango stems terminate with formation of determinate panicles. Several weeks to a few months after separation of the last flower or fruit from these panicles are required for the central axis of the panicle or rachis to dry and mechanically separate from the supporting stem, depending on the longevity of attached fruit. Five to ten lateral vegetative shoots typically develop from axillary buds located at the terminal intercalation positioned in a compact whorl surrounding the panicle scar of each stem (see Fig. 1 of Reece et al., 1949). These lateral shoots become the branch points of stems. These branching shoots form 10-15 leaves before the apical buds return to a resting state to establish them as individual stems. Initiation of these lateral vegetative shoots may occur 2-3 months after desiccation of panicles which fail to set fruit. Fruit-bearing stems do not initiate new lateral shoots until several months after separation of fruit and...

Taxonomic history

Kostermans divided the subgenus Limus into two sections (i) section Deciduae for deciduous trees (i.e. M. caesia, M. kemanga, M. pajang, M. superba and possibly M. blommesteinii, M. decandra and M. lagenifera) and (ii) section Perennes for non-deciduous species (i.e. M. foetida, M. leschenaultii, M. macro-carpa and M. odorata) (Kostermans and Bompard, 1993). In deciduous trees, the bracts enclosing the buds leave a characteristic collar of dense, narrow scars, which persist on old twigs and are especially prominent in M. caesia and M. kemanga.

Tubers And Corms

Tips of underground stems or stolons the resultant tuber carries leaf scars and buds from which growth is resumed after dormancy is broken. Tubers can also form on above ground parts. In the 'Multiflora' group of the tuberous rooted begonias (Begonia tuberhybrida) both aerial and underground tubers developed in short photoperiods of 10-12 h (Lewis, 1953). Aerial tubers were formed by enlargement of the stem behind the growing tip and eventually the stem apex was included in the tuber. Occasionally tubers also formed at a node. When aerial tubers formed, they were fully functional and developed into new plants after a period of dormancy. Some cultivars, however, rarely produced aerial tubers and plants in the related 'Camelliaflora' group of Begonia tuberhybrida never did so. Begonia evansiana also produces both underground and aerial tubers, but only the latter are under the control of daylength (Esashi, 1960). The first sign of aerial tuber formation is when starch deposition begins...

Plate 52 p 338

Birches arc trees and shrubs of northern distribution. The leaves are mostly double-toothed and more or less egg-shaped or triangular, with blunt bases. Bark of most species is marked by numerous cross streaks and tends to separate into papery sheets. Buds are 2- to 3-scaled and bundle scars are 3, Short spur branches of densely clustered leaves and leaf scars may be present.

Heath bald

On some sites, heath shrubs colonize open areas such as rock outcrops, landslide scars, and grassy balds. Heath balds also form on previously forested sites where high winds, intense fires, or logging have eliminated the trees but not the understory heath shrubs. Once a heath shrubland has formed, dense shade, deep leaf litter, and shallow, dry, acidic soils make it difficult for trees to establish from seed, thereby hindering succession back to forest. On sites exposed to desiccating winds and shallow nutrient-poor soils, heath balds can persist as a stable climax community.


Recognition An upright European shrub or small tree with egg-to heart-shaped fine-toothed leaves and naked buds. Leaf undersides, twigs, and buds covered with fine gray hair, Leaf scars broadly triangular Leaves Height to 12' (20'). Similar species Hobblebush has larger leaves, rusty hair, and blossoms of 2 sizes. All other viburnums have scaly buds, larger leaf scars, and leaves not heart-shaped. Buds 2-sealed, powder-covered, or brown-hairy. Leaf scars narrow. Trunk bark dark, divided into many small squarish blocks. Var, hushii (Ashe) P. & S., ranging from s. Illinois to Arkansas, has narrower leaves, winged leafstalks. Leaves l-3. Height 6-15' (30') diameter 2-6 (10)- Flowers small, clusters without stalks, April-May, Fruits blackish, Sept. -Oct. Similar species Five viburnums have 2-sealed hairy or powdery buds and leaves more or less elliptic and fine-toothed or not toothed Smooth and (1) Rusty Blackhaws and (2) Nannyberry regularly have fine-toothed leaves Rusty Blackhaw has...

How to Use This Book

Leaf And Bud Nematode Diagram

Leaved (Sections II and III) or alternate-leaved (Sections IV and V) categories according to leaf-scar arrangements (see drawings of leaf types and arrangements preceding the plates in each Section, pp. 55, 99, 149, 297), Keys, which are explained below under identifying Unknown Plants, further assist in identifying species in summer. Winter keys to all nonevergreen species are to be found in the Appendixes and deal respectively with plants with opposite leaf scars ( Appendix A) and alternate leaf scars (Appendix B). Additional keys arc provided as Appendixes C and D, These should he useful in identifying plants that obviously are trees, being 25 feet or over, Bundle Scar Compound leaves are those divided into three (rarely two) to several dozen leaflets. The leaflet of a compound leaf is attached by its stalk to a midrib, or rachis, which is not especially woody, and there is only an indefinite mark on the midrib when the leaflet is plucked. iTie midrib is attached to the woody twig...

Opercular opening

Bertholletia Excelsa

Seeds and seedlings of selected species of Guslavia A, Seedling of G. dubia (Dressier srt), note cataphylls between cotyledons and first leaves B, Enlarged cataphyll from A, note minute stipules C, Seed of G. hexapetala (Nee & Mori 4190), note remnant funicle and slight bulge above the funicle which represents the caruncle D, Seedling of G. augusta (Nee & Mori 4209), note cataphylls along stem E, Seed of G. augusta (Nee & Mori 4209), note expanded funicle F, Seed of G. grandibracteata (Mori 836), note scar where seed was attached and apparent lack of a funicle.


Will Poison Oak Scar

Strictly speaking, the sumacs as a genus (Rhus) also include Poison-ivy, Poison-oak, and Fragrant Sumac (Plate 25). The sumacs considered on this plate, however, are distinctive in having more than 3 leaflets per feather-compound leaf, in being upright shrubs, and in having stout, more pithy twigs. Leaflets occur in opposing pairs except tor end one. Side buds are mostly hidden bv bases of the leafstalks and end buds are false. Bundle scars are numerous, Milky sap occurs in all on this plate except Poison Sumac. The flowers are small, greenish, and clustered. The fruits of Poison Sumac are greenish white like those of Poison-ivy, The other species bear dense spikes of small, dry, red, hairy fruits, which usually remain on the plants all winter and provide an apparently I it tie-relished but available food supply for wildlife, surrounded by U-shaped leaf scars. Trunk is dark and smooth, with numerous raised cross streaks (leaticels). Leaves 6-14, Height 4'-10' < 300 diameter 1 3...

Cliff saxifrage

Ecology Cliff saxifrage commonly occurs on high-elevation rock outcrops in the southern Appalachians, where it's an early colonizer of landslide scars and bare rock surfaces exposed when highways are cut through mountains (such as along the Blue Ridge Parkway). It grows in moist areas where seepage water flows over rock surfaces and on rather dry rock surfaces where plants are exposed to direct sunlight and desiccating winds. The prostrate leaves provide protection from drying winds and the semisucculent leaves, with waxy surfaces, help retain moisture. Surprisingly little is known about the ecology of this interesting plant.

Painted buckeye

Taxonomy A genus of 13 species of trees and shrubs of North America, Mexico, Asia, and Europe, including 6 species in the mountains and piedmont. Similar to yellow buckeye (A. flava) but smaller in size. The common name alludes to the conspicuous light brown scar on the seeds (the buck's eye).

Plate xo

Leaf scars not notched (see related White Ash). PUMPKIN ASH Fraxinus tomentosa Michx* f. p,62 ASHLEAF MAPLE (BOX ELDER) Acer negundo L. p, 62 Recognition A medium-sized tree of moist fertile soils with green or purplish, glossy, frequently white-powdered or, rarely, slightly hairy twigs, Leaflets 3-5 (uncommonly 7) with few coarse teeth or none. End leaflet often 3-pointed and somewhat to bed. Narrow leaf scars meet in raised points on opposite side of twigs. Bundle scars 3 (or 5) buds white-hairy. Trunk bark furrowed. Leaves 4-I0, Height 50'-75' diameter Flowers April-May. Fruits paired kevs, Sept .-Oct. Similar species Only ashlike tree witn leaf scars meeting in raised points. (I) When only 3 leaflets present, they often resemble those of Poison-ivy (Plate 25), whose leaves are alternate, (2) Other maples (Plate 22) have simple leaves and dissimilar winter characteristics. Recognition Oriental occasionally escapes to the wild, Identified easily as the only upland...

Clinical studies

Laxative Abuse Kidney

The effects of two different dressings for wound-healing management on full-faced dermabrasion patients was documented by Fulton (1990). He divided the abraded faces of 18 patients suffering from acne vulgaris in half. One side was treated with a standard polyethylene oxide gel wound dressing, while the other side was treated with a polyethylene oxide dressing saturated with aloe gel. He reported that aloe gel reduced oedema, exudate and crusting in two to four days. Reepithelialization was complete to 90 on the aloe side compared with 40 50 on the control side after five days. Overall, wound healing was approximately 72 hours faster at the aloe side. The time interval required for wound healing in a 40-women gynaecological surgery was evaluated by Schmith and Greenspoon (1993) in an open-label study. The authors found that the mean healing time in the conventional care group was significantly shorter than in the aloe gel group (53 versus 83 days). Two randomised clinical trials were...

Pests and Diseases

As with all diseases, prevention is better than cure. Only one disease is likely to cause any real trouble, this being the fungal infection Botrytis. An outbreak is easy to spot, the fungus appearing as a grey fuzz of very slim hairs and, if mature, creating a cloud of grey dust when disturbed. The dust consists of spores, which will spread the infection to other plants, so disturbance must be kept to a minimum and treatment should involve the entire growing area when a major attack occurs. The fungus enjoys cool humid conditions and quickly colonizes dead plant tissue, providing there is sufficient humidity. In winter the risk of an outbreak can be reduced by keeping all soil damp rather than wet. Congested growing plants or plants harbouring dead material, which has fallen between tightly packed leaves or remained attached, are most susceptible and this applies particularly to Sarracenia. To avoid problems, dead or unattractive leaves should be pulled off, making sufficient space...

Fanlobed Leaves

The mulberries and Sassafras Plate 43) possess leaves frequently deeply lobed, but they also usually carry some unlobed foliage. W lute Poplar (Plate 44) has leaves rarely lobed but white-woolly. Sand and Bush Grapes (Plate 34) have lobed leaves and may be bushy, but they usually look somewhat vinelike and their stem pith is divided by partitions near the places of leaf attachment. These species, most currants (Plate 41), and the following few plants are the only alternate-leaved trees and shrubs that are thornless and possess leaves fan-lobed. The species of this plate lack the long lines descending from leaf scars which are present in the currants. Maples (Plate 22) and some viburnums (Plates 20 and 21) have fan-lobed leaves but these are opposite, not alternate. Recognition A straight tall tree with peculiar notched-tip, 4-pointed hairless leaves. Pairs of arge leafy stipules attach to twigs and enclose buds. Twigs hairless with completely encircling lines (stipule scars) at leaf...


The poplars, aspens, and cot ton woods are all members of the same genus, fhe leaves are mostly toothed and somewhat triangular, with 3-5 main veins meeting near the leaf base, i lie leafstalks of all poplars are unusually lout the drawings do not show the entire stalks. In sonic species the leafstalks are flattened and the leaves flutter even in a slight breeze. Poplar buds are unique among plants with 3 bundle scars in that the lowermost bud scale of side buds is always in the outside position directly above the leaf scar. In other plants the lowermost bud scales are lateral. The true end buds may have more scales than the side

Plate 6h 356

Hollies as a group are difficult to identify. No easily apparent characteristic occurs throughout. Nonevergreen species are particularly nondescript, When present, minute black stipules that Hank the leaf scars are diagnostic. They are difficult to see, however, and may drop off with age. When shed, stipule scars marking their former location are very minute. Bundle scars, however, are single and true end buds are present. Furthermore, bud scales are paired, usually with 2, but sometimes with 4-6, apparent. Hollies frequently develop short, stubby spur branches crowded with leaf scars or, in season, terminated by a whorl of leaves. Leaf blades of most hollies are toothed and wedge-shaped the bottom. Buds commonly are more numerous near tips of the twigs often they are clustered here. There may he more than 1 bud above each leaf scar. In general, holly bark is smooth. Male and female flowers may occur on different plants. he small nutlets in the fleshy red or dark fruits are smooth or...


The buds have 1 pair of scales and the bundle scars are 20 and 21) or maples (Plate 22), but the leaf scars on the new twigs are raised in the dogwoods. See also Plate 59. leaf scars not raised and bark oi branchlets thin and papery. Remarks Powdered bark is reported to have been made into a toothpaste, a black ink (when mixed with iron sulphate), and a quinine substitute. Bark of the roots yields a scarlet dye. Shuttles, bobbins, tool handles, mallets, and golf club heads are manufactured from the hard close-grained wood. Humans find the bitter red fruits inedible, but with twigs they are important foods of numerous song and game birds, skunks, deer, rabbits, and squirrels.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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