Hell Really Exists

Hell Really Exists

Koonika Miidu is the author and the creator of this helpful program. The author of this program wants to show you that the Hell really exists and no one can change that reality. Though, he believes there's a way you can be saved from it and that is exactly what this program is all about. The program contains a lot of information to help you discover the confirmed facts about hell. There are testimonies from people that have visited hell and come back. Those are the people that want to show you the reality and also advise you to stop gambling with your soul. It is very easy to be convinced that this program is for Christians only. Hell is not for a specific religion. As a matter of fact, every person regardless of their religious background should take caution. The Hell Really Exists program is available in downloadable PDF formats. This means you need an Adobe Acrobat reader so you will be able to download and read it. As a matter of fact, you will get some other DVD format programs with testimonies from over 70 people that wishes to help you along the way. Read more here...

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Biosynthesis Regulation Of Gene Expression And Enzyme Activities

The two-step reaction sequence occurs in both chloroplastic and non-chloroplastic compartments and is found in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues (Law and Halliwell 1986, Klapheck et al. 1987, Hell and Bergmann 1988, 1990, Ruegsegger and Brunold 1993, Noctor et al. 1998a, Noctor and Foyer 1998). The existence of a mitochondrial isoform of y-ECS in Brassica juncea has been postulated (Sch fer et al. 1998). In maize, which has strong demarcation of metabolism within photosynthetic cells, including antioxidants (Doulis et al. 1997), cysteine is synthesized in the bundle sheath whereas GS activity is located predominantly in the mesophyll cells (Burgener et al. 1998). It appears, therefore, that glu-tathione is synthesized in the cells where GR is present and that the bundle sheath relies on the mesophyll for the synthesis of glutathione and the reduction of GSSG. At the subcellular level, the distribution of enzyme activity between chloroplast and extra-chloroplastic...

Iron homeostasis and translocation as affected by other metals

The intracellular level of Fe and other heavy metals are by all means strictly regulated, and different substances are involved in the process. Nicotianamine (NA), a non-proteogenic amino acid ubiquitous in higher plants, seems to be the principal chelator of Fe within the cell when Fe is not bound to target molecules such as heme or stored as phytoferritin (Hell and Stephan, 2003). Nicotianamine may function in keeping Fe soluble and available as well as preventing Fenton reactions, which lead to oxygen radical formation when free Fe2+ ions are present (von Wiren et al., 1999). Organic acids and amino acids are also available chelating agents for Fe, although the stability constants of those complexes are high enough only for Fe3+ (see Table 6-1 for citrate). formation of complexes are thermodynamic stability and concentrations, the prediction of the true complexes occurring at cytoplasmic pH should also consider other aspects. Von Wir n et al. (1999) investigated experimentally the...

Regulation by sulfur availability

Sulfate acquired from the soil solution by plant roots can be stored in vacuoles or enter the assimilatory pathway. Removal of S supply cause an increase in the protein activity or mRNA pools of some enzymes responsible for the uptake and the assimilatory pathway, such increase is observed after several days in whole plants (Buchner et al. 2004, Hell et al. 1997) or several hours in cell suspensions (Hatzfeld et al. 1998). Following resupply of SO42- all fall in parallel with cysteine and GSH increase. In most plant systems analyzed so far, sulfate, cysteine, and GSH are described as negative regulators and OAS as positive regulator of sulfur genome (Droux 2004). GSH-APS reductase is thought to be a prime regulation point of the pathway (Vauclare et al. 2002), since its activity and RNA increase concomitantly with S starvation and with stresses that increase the demand for GSH and then for cysteine. The control of gene expression limits excess uptake and assimilation with negative...

Negative and positive regulators

In most plant systems analyzed so far sulfate, cysteine and GSH are described as negative regulators and OAS as positive regulator of sulfur genome (Hell 1997, Droux 2004). Analysis of the abundance of ATP-S1 and APS reductase mRNAs in Vitis vinifera cells as a response to sulfate deficiency, sulfate

Redox homeostasis controls meristem activation

GSH biosynthesis has an effect on the mitotic root growth similar to that in rmll, while exogenous application increases the number of meristematic cells going through the mitotic cycle (Sanchez-Fernandez et al., 1997 Vernoux et al., 2000). Accordingly, treatment of cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells with the GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine, traps the cells in G1 phase (Vernoux et al., 2000). A role for endogenous GSH in the control of cell proliferation is provided by the mapping of GSH levels in the root meristem. Low levels of GSH are associated with the mitotically inactive QC compared to the surrounding dividing stem cells (Sanchez-Fernandez et al., 1997 Jiang et al., 2003). The glutathione redox couple GSH (reduced form) and GSSG (oxidized form) act as a homeostatic redox buffer (for a review, see Meyer and Hell, 2005). In recent years, it has become evident that the intracel-lular redox state plays a critical role in regulating cell proliferation,...

Iron Uptake From The Soil

Two different strategies for Fe mobilisation have been described for plants (Romheld, 1987). Dicotyledonous and non-graminaceous monocotyledonous plants reduce Fe(III) and take up Fe(II). This so-called Strategy I is accompanied by soil acidification and other physiological and morphological reactions, such as secretion of chelators, root hair proliferation and root transfer cell development (recently reviewed by Curie and Briat, 2003 Hell and Stephan, 2003 Schmidt, 2003). Three essential Strategy I components have been characterized that are induced by Fe deficiency. In the absence of the Fe(III) reductase FRO2 or the Fe(II) transporter IRT1, Arabidopsis plants are chlorotic and suffer from Fe deficiency even at normally sufficient Fe supply (Eide et al., 1996 Robinson et al., 1999 Vert et al., 2002). FRO2 and IRT1 genes are induced by Fe deficiency in Arabidopsis (Eide et al., 1996 Robinson et al., 1999 Vert et al., 2003). Their expression is dependent on the regulator gene FRU (...

Longdistance Iron Transport

Tracer studies and several plant mutants have provided an overview of the route of Fe from uptake at the root surface to the vascular system and back from leaves to the vasculature to sink organs (reviewed in Hell and Stephan, 2003). Iron allocation seems to be a two-step process with first transport in the xylem followed by remobilization via the phloem. For example, when Fe is supplied directly to the xylem it is first transported to the leaves but not to the apex as the most obvious sink to maintain growth (Zhang et al., 1995). Furthermore, Fe applied to leaves follows the symplastic route and the phloem (Edding and Brown, 1967). This detour is probably caused by incomplete xylem structures in growing organs and their small transpiration rates resulting in little water transport. This has a major impact on plant growth under Fe deficiency, where young leaves suffer more than mature leaves, but also on crop quality, since fruits and storage organs are almost exclusively dependent on...

Protein Phosphorylation and Disassembly of the Ps Ii Holocomplex

In the absence of a sufficient supply of sulfur to the chloroplast, which is an essential component of cys-teine and methionine (Hell, 1997), D1 protein biosynthesis is impeded and the repair cycle is arrested in the PS II QB-nonreducing configuration (Wykoff et al., 1998). In consequence, the rate of photosynthesis declines quasi-exponentially in the light as a function of time in S-deprivation with a half time of about 18 h (Wykoff et al., 1998 Melis et al., 2000 Cao et al., 2001). This effect is specific to PS II in the thylakoid membrane. Thus, the supply of inorganic sulfur to the chloroplast may determine the rate of D1 turnover and may thus represent a significant regulatory step in the PS II repair process.

History Of Using Caraway As A Remedy

In the old days some medicinal plants were believed to posses extraordinary or even magical properties. That is why beside the quite usual uses, there were also some rather odd beliefs concerning various species. Caraway was one of them. Plants from Umbelliferae family in general were believed to provide protection against evil and witchcraft. In German tradition bread made with caraway fruits was used to drive away dwarfs and demons, and when brought into the house caused distress. The fruits were sometimes sprinkled with salt in coffins, as a protection against hexes, sorcery and demons. They were also considered effective in calming down restless children. A jar full of them placed under a cradle was said to have wonderful sedative powers (Mathias 1994). Moreover caraway, among other umbels, was one of the components of love potions, which made one fall in love with the person who had served it.

Transporter genes involved in the transport of iron inside the plant body

The translocation of Fe and other minerals inside the plant body involves a sequence of processes that require various metal chelators and transporters (Clemens et al., 2002 Hell and Stephan, 2003). The rice genome putatively contains 18 OsYSL genes, 13 OsZIP genes, and eight OsNRAMP genes (Gross et al., 2003 Koike et al., 2004). The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family transporters are found in bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals some of them have been shown to function as transporters of various cations including Fe(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) (Gunshin et al., 1997 Chen et al., 1999). The involvement of graminaceous ZIP and NRAMP genes in Fe translocation has not been well characterized. Ramesh et al. (2003) demonstrated that two of the OsZIP members, OsZIP1 and OsZIP3, possess a Zn(II)-transporting capacity. Graminaceous ZIP genes are expected to have diverse functions in the translocation of metals, including Fe(II) and Zn(II). Among the Arabidopsis...

Plant csacting elements mediating ironregulated expression

In higher plants, the analysis of ferritin gene expression has been developed into a model to understand the mechanism of Fe-regulated expression (Briat and Lobreaux, 1997 Hell and Stephan, 2003). Phytoferritin genes are regulated mainly at the transcriptional level, in contrast to IRE-based regulation in vertebrates. Two groups of researchers have conducted deletion analyses of phytoferritin gene promoters using transient assay systems, leading to the identification of two types of cis-acting elements that derepress the expression of phytoferritin genes via Fe loading. Wei and Theil (2000) showed that an 86-bp fragment (Fe regulatory element FRE) controls the Fe-mediated derepression of the soybean ferritin gene. Petit et al. (2001) carried out more precise analyses using maize and Arabidopsis ferritin gene promoters. They determined the 14-bp cis-acting sequence (iron-dependent regulatory sequence IDRS) by deletion and mutation analysis of the maize ferritin promoter, combined with...

Uptake transport distribution

While it is unequivocally accepted that the strategy 1 response is activated by limitation in iron availability, it is debatable as to whether the deficiency of iron is sensed and transformed into a signal-regulating iron uptake by the root or the shoot (Curie and Briat, 2003). Early experiments involving reciprocal grafting of the chlorotic tomato mutant T 3238 fer lacking in the ability to activate the strategy I response to the wild type showed that the fer gene evoking the iron-deficiency response is required in root and not in shoot (Brown et al. 1971 Brown and Ambler, 1973). Studies with pea mutant brz also supported this (Kneen et al. 1990). In consonance with these findings, Bienfait et al. (1987) reported that irrespective of whether potato tubers were sprouted or not, their roots showed the same iron-deficiency response. Ling et al. (1996,2002) provided genetic and molecular evidences for the root being the organ involved in perceiving deficiency of iron and activating the...

Sulfur nutrition and plant defense against pathogens

A positive influence of sulfur nutrition on plant health was demonstrated in western Europe in the fourth quarter of last century, when the decrease in atmospheric sulfur emissions was accompanied by an increase in the incidence of fungal diseases of annual crops including oilseed rape, a high S-demanding specie (Bloem et al. 2007). Elemental sulfur (S0) is probably the oldest pesticide, with references as old as 1000 BC (Williams and Cooper 2004). Unexpectedly for eukaryotes, it was unravelled that some plant species produce S0 as a component of the defense system against vascular pathogens (Williams et al. 2002). S0 was then identified as the only inorganic phytoalexin recorded to date (Williams and Cooper 2004). In addition, several S-secondary plant metabolites play key roles in defense against pathogens (Hell and Kruse 2007), namely glucosinolates and alli-ins (Schnug 1997). Glucosinolates are S-containing glucosides produced mostly by members of the Brassicaceae. In response to...

Control of assimilatory sulphate reduction

Rivation influences the expression of ATP sulphurylase and APS-kinase indicating that control over sulphate assimilation occurs, at least in part, at the level of transcription (see Hell 1997). However, of the enzymes of sulphate assimilation, APS sulphotransferase seems to be especially responsive. For example, APS sulphotransferase activity increases 2-fold in response to S deprivation (Brunold et al. 1987) and up to 20-fold in plants exposed to herbicide safeners (Farago and Brunold 1990) conversely, the activity decreases on exposure to S02 or H2S (Tschanz et al. 1986) and to exogenous cysteine (Jenni et al. 1980). These responses provide conditions for enhancing S flux under conditions where there is an increased demand for glu-tathione synthesis and suggest that control of APS sulphotransferase activity is important in assimilatory sulphate reduction. The activity of ATP sul-phurylase does not appear to be especially sensitive to the demand for S (Brunold et al. 1987),...

Impact on sulphur and glutathione metabolism

The physiological background of the altered composition of the thiol pool in the shoot upon exposure to and is not yet solved. Apparently, if the sulphur is directly supplied to the shoot and the regulation of sulphate uptake by the roots is by-passed, then there is no strict regulation of composition of the thiol pool in the shoot (De Kok 1990, De Kok et al. 1998). The absorbed atmospheric sulphur may even be metabolized outside of the chlo-roplast, wherein sulphur assimilation is located under normal conditions (Hell 1997). In the cytosol there might be a substrate shortage for the metabolism of the cysteine to glutathione. It has been observed that the accumulation of in the dark can be prevented by adding the substrate glycine directly to the leaf tissue, which results in glutathione accumulation (Buwalda et al. 1990). A similar shortage of glycine for glutathione synthesis was observed in plants wherein the level of y-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase was overexpressed (Noctor et al....

Mountain laurel

Ecology Dense thickets of mountain laurel are sometimes referred to as laurel hell because the stout, spreading branches are difficult to walk through. Individuals reproduce vegetatively from a spreading root system that grows new shoots, and by layering (low-growing branches buried in leaf litter form roots and additional shoots). Fires typically kill the above-ground plants, but dormant buds on root crowns or rhizomes give rise to new shoots. Mountain laurel grows in full sun to deep shade but flowers best in well-lit areas. The bowl-shaped flowers have tiny pouches enclosing each anther, their bent filaments held under tension. When touched by a large bee, the stamens suddenly spring forward, showering the insect with sticky strands of pollen, which subsequently may be deposited on another flower's stigma, resulting in cross-pollination. If no pollinator visits the flower, the anther filaments will spring as the flower senesces, thereby flinging pollen onto the flower's own stigma,...

Strategy I genes

All plants, except grasses, use Strategy I to acquire Fe by three reactions (i) initial excretion of protons carried out by a plasma membrane P-type ATPase to acidify the surrounding rhizosphere therefore increasing Fe3+ solubility (ii) reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ completed by a Fe3+-chelate reductase and finally (iii) transport of Fe2+ by transporters across the plasmalemma of root epidermal cells (Hell and Stephan, 2003 Fox and Guerinot, 1998). It has been shown that both the Fe3+-chelate reductase and Fe2+-transport activities are enhanced under Fe deficiency (Connolly et al., 2002 Fox and Guerinot, 1998 Robinson et al., 1999 Vert et al., 2002).

Strategy II genes

Grasses and important food plants such as rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays) use Strategy II for Fe acquisition. Roots release (i) phytosidero-phores (PSs) that chelate Fe3+ in the rhizosphere, and (ii) specific plasmalemma transporter proteins import the Fe3+-PS complexes into the plant (Romheld and Marschner, 1986). Both processes are enhanced in response to Fe deficiency via up-regulation of the underlying genes (Hell and Stephan, 2003) indicating their importance in Fe acquisition. Most of the underlying genes for Strategy II have been cloned from barley and rice, and Mori has scholarly reviewed the topic (1999). Fe chelation was recognised when plant PSs were first identified by Takagi in 1976 (Mori et al., 1991). PSs belong to the mugineic acid (MA) family of chelators, solubilizing inorganic Fe3+ compounds by chelation, and the Fe-PS complexes are taken into the root cells by a specific transport system of the plasma membrane (Mori, 1999). Biosynthesis of MA starts from...

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