Resin Glycosides 2017

Coma, and respiratory paralysis (lethal dose for hyoscyamine 100 mg adult human). On the other hand, atropine is used as an antidote in poisoning by cholinesterase inhibitors such as physostigmine, its synthetic derivatives or alkyl phosphate thiophosphate type insecticides. For further pharmacological and toxicological details the reader is referred to the textbooks of pharmacology and toxicology. Apparently due to non-spectacular results, solanaceous tropane alkaloids of other structural...

Occurrence in the Solanaceae Table 31

Data of Table 3.1, as far as tropane alkaloids are concerned and if not taken directly from the original reports (cited in the last column of the table), are based on the extensive review of Lounasmaa and Tamminen (1993) comprising literature up to June 1992 and covering all known tropane-positive species throughout the plant kingdom. These authors had listed in detail the occurrence of all tropanes known at that time in their Table III in the systematic order of plant families according to the...

Occurrence in the Solanaceae Tables 31 and

Our knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of nicotinoids is based on (i) traditional isolation and structure elucidation procedures until the 1960s and (ii) in more recent times on different chromatographic methods, predominantly GC MS analysis. The accumulation of large amounts of nicotine and or its congeners is confined to four solanaceous genera belonging to two clades of the subfamily Nicotianoideae (Nicotianeae clade Nicotiana Cyphanthera clade Crenidium, Cyphanthera, Duboisia)....

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(IRpmt) orientation demonstrated that N. attenuata was under relentless herbivore pressure. IRpmt plants when planted in their native habitat were preferred unequivocally by different native herbivores compared with wild-type plants (Steppuhn et al. 2004). These results provide strong evidence for the assumption that nicotine functions as an efficient defence in nature. A study on the survival and development of the tobacco budworm larvae, Heliothis virescens F. (Lepidoptera Noctuidae), on...

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Fig. 3.15 Schizanthines, unique dimeric tropane alkaloids of the genus Schizanthus (Spacer linking tropanol monomers itaconic acid) Schizanthine D mesaconic acid linked isomer of schizanthine E Fig. 3.15 Schizanthines, unique dimeric tropane alkaloids of the genus Schizanthus alkaloids could be separated already some 50 years ago from hyoscyamine sco-polamine by steam distillation since they turned out to be volatile in contrast to the tropoyl esters (Rosenblum 1954). There are only a few...

Convolvulus Sagittatus Root

Fig. 3.22 Bonabilines, unique alkaloids from the roots of Bonamia spectabilis (Convolvulaceae) highlighted in grey structurally related components of certain (non-convolvulaceous) essential oils for comparison. a-Pinene, myrtenol, and myrtenal are constituents of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae (Savikin-Fodulovic et al. 2000) the corresponding carboxylic acid, myrtenic acid, was detected as a constituent of the essential oil of Cedronella canariensis (L.) Webb. & Berthel.,...

Significance

Nicotine is a very potent poison for most animals from protozoa to humans. The acutely fatal peroral dose for an adult is probably 60 mg (Taylor 1995) which is equivalent to the nicotine content of five cigarettes or one cigar. However, smoking results in a considerable decomposition of this alkaloid due to pyrolysis furthermore, much of the remaining volatile nicotine is not absorbed due to exhalation. Its toxicity was proved scientifically during the ninetenth century based on experiments...

Biosynthesis of Pyrrolidine Type Nicotinoids Fig 310

Nicotine Biosynthesis

Nicotine is synthesized mainly in the roots (> 97 ) as has been proved, e.g., for N. tabacum and N. rustica (Dawson 1941 Dawson and Solt 1959). Besides its accumulation in the roots it is transported to the shoots in the xylem stream (Baldwin 1989). There it is accumulated especially in young leaves, stems, and reproductive organs as a defence agent. One of its precursors, the N-methyl-A1-pyrrolinium cation is also synthesized in the roots. The formation of this cation has been explained...

Xfr

Of trachelanthamidine, e.g., of the phalaenopsine type, were known from different genera of the Orchidaceae (Hartmann and Witte 1995). A corresponding novel structural type of PAs named minalobines has been discovered in Ipomoea lobata (Cerv.) Thell. (syn. Mina lobata Cerv.), Spanish flag firecracker vine. This is a neotropical twiner with worldwide horticultural use as a popular ornamental due to its unusual corolla form, stamens and style finally twice as long as the corolla, and unusual...