Foods That Reduce Inflammation

Reduce Inflammation

This eBook from professional trainer and nutritionist Thomas DeLauer and Dr. Mike Brookins shows you all of the secrets to reducing inflammation all through your body. These body hacks are secrets to the way that your body works that you would never have thought of. You will learn the foods that you will need to avoid in order to have a really healthy life. You will learn to reset your body in 7 days or less just by eating organic, really healthy foods. Food affects they way that your body works so much more than people tend to believe. You will learn how to cut through all the nonsense that you will read on the internet and get right to the part that heals your inflammation and other health problems. Inflammation is only a symptom If you are not healthy and eating well, your whole body will suffer. We give you a way to reverse that! Continue reading...

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Antihistamine and antiinflammatory activities of barbaloin

Aloe Vera Anatomy Images

Be 0.02 and 0.06mg ml, respectively, and barbaloin was focused as an important constituent in Kidachi aloe. Anti-inflammatory activity of barbaloin was exhibited by the monitoring of carrageenin-induced edema in rats and 28.8 inhibition was reported, while that of indomethacin was 48.2 (Yamamoto etal., 1991). In a course of study on cathartic components, aloeresin together with barbaloin was shown to be antibiotic. Aloeresin was hydrolyzed into p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and aloesin. Aloeresin A indicated a p-coumaroyl group located at C-2 position in aloesin (Makino etal, 1974). Since then, a series of aloesin and aloesol (which is hydrogenated at a ketone group in aloesin), was isolated from A. vera leaf extract, and isoaloeresin D showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities (Hutter etal, 1996 Lee etal, 2000). Anti-inflammatory active components

Antiinflammatory activity

Yamada et al. (1992) reported that cardamom showed potent complement system activating property. Complements represent the humoral arm of natural immunological host-defense mechanism and are essential for survival. Once activated this kills certain bacteria, protozoa, fungi and virus as well as cells of higher organism. Thus complement activation forms a major part of natural defense affording a range of mediators possessing immuno-inflamatory potency. Jain et al. (1994) have shown that the drug Brahmi rasayana containing cardamom (together with cloves and long pepper), exhibited a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the case of carrageenan induced rat paw oedema. This drug also inhibited nystatin-induced inflammation in rats. Al-Zuhair et al. (1996) have shown that cardamom oil when administered at 175 and 280 l kg of body weight inhibited the growth of carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats by 69.2 and 86.4 per cent respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity of cardamom...

Antiinflammatory properties

Purified glucomannans have also shown impressive anti-inflammatory activity when separated from other aloe constituents (Davis etal., 1991). This concept has been supported by research in which the administration of mannans prevented arthritic flares in rats (Moreland, 1999). Also, mannose inhibits free radical production by neutrophils, limiting tissue damage (Rest etal, 1988). This is important since the neutrophil is the hallmark cell of inflammation and its presence is crucial to the inflammatory response (Kuby, 1997). Furthermore, polymannose can inhibit the initial step in the migration of neutrophils out of the blood stream and can aid in the clearance of certain pathogens through the presence of cell surface carbohydrate-receptor interactions (Lefkowitz etal., 1999).

Antiinflammatory Diets

The anti-inflammatory diet, although it is not a recent development in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases, serves as the cornerstone for mitigating the generalized, chronic inflammatory response. This treatment is applied in many forms, differing from practitioner to practitioner. What is consistent in the various forms of the anti-inflammatory diet is strict avoidance of foods that contain high amounts of arachidonic acid (AA), the main precursor of the negatively associated inflammatory cascade process. Metabolites of AA include prostaglandins (PGs), LTs, and thromboxanes, which are closely involved in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. The rate-limiting step in the creation of these inflammatory metabolites is the release of AA from membrane phospholipids, which are catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase A2. The clinical implications associated with imbalanced intake and metabolism of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids,...

Alternative Treatments And Lifestyle Changes

N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is an acetylated ester of the amino acid L-cysteine. NAC has a significant ability to raise glutathione levels in the body, important for its potent antioxidant activity. NAC is also used to treat lung conditions as an expectorant and mucous thinner, and to produce anti-inflammatory effects.44 Studies suggest that NAC decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, which have been shown to be elevated in individuals with OSA.45 such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), are often taken as supplements to utilize their potent anti-inflammatory properties. EPA and DHA are found in high levels in fish oils and provide both anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects. Specifically, EPA's cardioprotective effects include decreasing triglycerides, increasing high-density lipoprotein, and preventing arrhythmias.46 EPA and DHA decrease inflammatory eicosanoids by competing with arachidonicacid (AA) in the lipo-oxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase pathways....

Methylsulfonylmethane and Hyaluronic Acid

Both methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and hyaluronic acid are essential for maintaining connective tissue integrity, and thus for ensuring the rigidity and firmness of the underlying cellular matrix of the airway walls. MSM has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Anecdotal evidence suggests that MSM may be effective for addressing many conditions, including snoring and allergic rhinitis.61 Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan, could be considered for treatment of snoring and augmentation of airway connective tissue integrity.62 Because of hyaluronic acid's visco-elastic quality, this substance may work to strengthen the connective tissue surrounding the airway and decrease obstructions.

Treatments For Inflammation Nattokinase and Serrapeptase

Serrapeptase is a proteolytic enzyme originally isolated from the silkworm. It has antiinflammatory and fibrinolytic activity and decreases swelling. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that serrapeptase supplementation rapidly decreased inflammation and decreased symptoms in a group of patients suffering from ENT symptoms.61 Although there are no current studies with serrapeptase and cardiovascular disease, it may provide benefit for decreasing inflammation associated with these conditions. Other anti-inflammatory botanicals worth mentioning include Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), Boswellia serrata, Green tea (Camellia sinensis), and Perilla frutescens. (See Chapter 20 on inflammation.)

Dietary Interventions

Green tea polyphenols, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been studied for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Specific to cardiovascular disease, these catechins have been shown to reduce markers of atherosclerosis and lipid peroxidation, such as oxidized LDL.90 One study found that green tea consumption was significantly higher in patients without CAD than in those with the disease, and showed an inverse relationship between the intake of green tea and the incidence of CAD.91 In one double-blind study, green tea extract high in catechins was supplemented to a group of visceral fat-type obesity patients for 12 weeks, after a 2-week run-in period. The results showed a greater decrease in systolic blood pressure in the catechin group for subjects whose initial systolic BP was 130 mmHg or higher compared with the control group. LDL cholesterol was also decreased to a greater extent in the catechin-supplemented group. In addition, a decrease in body weight,...

Cytological and Genetic Changes During Germination and Presymbiotic Growth

Early evidence of cell cycle activation in AMF growing in the absence of the host was reported by Mosse, who described the development of dense regions containing normal cytoplasm and many dividing nuclei in spores of A. laevis prior to germination (Mosse 1970a). Also, Sward (1981b) observed a large number of nuclei with highly condensed chromatin and prominent nucleoli in G. margarita spores after 24 h of incubation on water agar. Cytological studies showed that nuclei from quiescent spores of G. versiforme were in the GO G1 phase, whereas nuclei from mycorrhizal roots were in the synthetic and G2 M phases (Bianciotto et al. 1995). Mitotic spindles were also detected in germinated spores of G. mosseae by tubulin immunostaining, confirming the occurrence of DNA replication during pre-symbiotic growth (Requena et al. 2000). In the latter work, the gene GmTOR2, encoding a protein with high homology to the C terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TOR2 (controlling cell cycle), was...

Willow Family Salicaceae

The young leaves, shoots, and inner bark of some species are sweet-tasting and high in vitamin C. In northern Alaska, the Native people traditionally stored young petruski (Li-gusticum scoticum) and diamondleaf willow (Salix pulchra) leaves in seal oil, and the method kept both the oil and the leaves fresh (Jones 1981). The bark of many willows is bitter-tasting, due to the salicin, or natural aspirin, it contains. Long known for its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory abilities, our modern aspirin is a chemically derived synthetic of the substance originally found in willows. Although aspirin is faster acting, herbalists find willow bark teas, tinctures, and salves to be effective and lacking the side effects of the synthetic drug.

Supporting Detoxification Within The Body

This common herb, used frequently in the form of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin has been shown to help inhibit the carcinogenic effects of benzopyrene that arise from the consumption of charbroiled meat. This herb has been shown to modulate phase 1 detoxification while inducing phase 2 of the process. When 1.5 g of turmeric was given to 16 smokers and 6 nonsmokers (control subjects), it was shown that, after 30 days of consuming turmeric, urinary excretion of mutagens in smokers was nearly equivalent to that of nonsmokers. This study demonstrated that turmeric is an effective inhibitor of phase 1 detoxification, preventing the excess accumulation of toxic metabolite conversion of

Nutritional View Of Intestinal Inflammation

The role that inflammatory processes, such as those modulated by COX-1 and -2 have in colon cancer, may well be significant in fact, several studies have demonstrated a definite inverse relationship between the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of colon cancer.18,19 In fact, this has led some authorities to recommend aspirin as a preventive. One of the proposed mechanisms of protection by NSAIDs is that, by inhibiting the action of the COX enzymes, production of potentially tumor-favoring prostaglandins is reduced. While it may be the case that the advent of specific COX-2 inhibitors will allow for benefit in this regard without the side effects (such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal damage) of less-specific NSAIDs, there may be distinct advantages to taking a more broad anti-inflammatory approach that includes supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found naturally in fish oil such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic...

Lectinlike Proteins Which React With a2Macroglobulin And a 1Antitrypsin

Lectin proposed by Boyd and Shapleigh (1954) is the term for proteins that possess the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes, and the representative lectin, Con A, can agglutinate erythrocytes as well as precipitate serum protein. Based on these findings, it was speculated that substances in aloe extracts that reacted with a2-macroglobulin and a1-antitrypsin were lectin-like substances. The authors speculated that a lectin-like substance may be implicated in the possible anti-inflammatory action and the therapeutic effects for burns, as serum proteins reacting with aloe extract were a2-macroglobulin and a1-antitrypsin which are known to be the most representative protease inhibitors.

Fatty Acid Supplements

Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) can reduce inflammation. The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA compete with arachidonic acid (AA) in the lipo- and cyclo-oxygenase pathways and, therefore, decrease levels of inflammatory eicosanoids.31-33 Studies have demonstrated that fish oils high in DHA and EPA reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-2, and TNF. These fish oils also can suppress B- and T-lymphocyte synthesis and decrease antibody production.34-37 GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid found in borage (Bor-ago officinalis) seed oil, evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil, and black currant (Ribes nigrum) oil, is metabolized in the body to the anti-inflammatory series 1 prostaglandins and inhibits AA from forming proinflammatory leukotrienes.38 Linoleic acid (LA) is an omega-6 fatty acid that is the precursor to GLA and can be used to stimulate the...

Miscllaneous compounds

Diarylheptanoids are rare compounds found in the family Zingiberaceae. They are found in rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, Alpinia galangal and Hedychium spicatum. Animal studies have shown diarylheptanoids to be potent anti-inflammatory agents as they selectively inhibit cycloxygenase enzyme responsible for inflammation. Gingerenone A and B and galangol are common examples. The pungent odor of Z. officinale and A. galangal is due to the presence of these compounds. This group of compounds has not been thoroughly investigated for pharmacological activity.

Activityguided fractionation and analysis

There has been a long list of biological activities attributed to aloe pulp. Some examples include immunostimulation, anti-inflammation, aspirin-like activity, anti-complement activity, pain inhibition, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activity (Reynolds and Dweck, 1999). However, definitive identification of a component in relation to a specific biological activity has not often been successful or pursued. Furthermore, it is quite possible there is more than one compound with the same biological effect, i.e. although one compound has been identified to have a certain biological activity, it may not be the only one with such an activity in the pulp. This is largely due to a lack of a systematic activity-guided fractionation. It can not be emphasized enough that this approach is critical in efforts to identify active ingredients. This approach depends on a fractionation and purification system coupled with a biological assay. Fortunately, assays for a wide range of biological activities...

Immunopharmacology and inflammation

4.1.7.2 Anti-inflammatory effect A23187-induced pleurisy in mice was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of magnolol, isolated from Chinese medicine Hou p'u (cortex of Magnolia officinalis). A23187-induced protein leakage was reduced by magnolol (10 mg kg, i.p.), indome-thacin (10 mg kg, i.p.) and BW755C (30 mg kg, i.p.). The inhibitory effect is proposed to be, at least partly, dependent on the reduction of the formation of eicosanoid mediators at the inflammatory site (Wang et al., 1992, 1995).

Conventional Therapies

Multiple sclerosis or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), circulating lymphocytes and monocytes macrophages readily cross the blood-brain barrier and gain access to the CNS leading to edema, inflammation, and demyelination. Also often used to modify the disease process in MS is glatiramer acetate, a mixture of synthetic polypeptides composed of four amino acids, and based on the structure of MBP, which is believed to inhibit the T-cell response to multiple antigens in myelin. Glatiramer acetate induces T-regulatory cells known as GA-specific regulatory CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, as well as causing a shift from Th1 to Th2 activity, increasing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppressing the autoimmunity led by Th1 cells.18

Essential Fatty Acids

ROS appear to play a role in the pathology of MS. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of Camellia sinensis (green tea) known for its antioxidant activity, reduced the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice when given at or after the onset of EAE in the animals, by limiting brain inflammation and reducing neuronal damage. EAE is the animal model used to study MS as this condition can be induced in laboratory animals. EAE is a demyelinating disease in which the myelin is damaged and exhibits similar clinical progression. EGCG also directly inhibited the formation of neurotoxic ROS in neurons.38 Curcumin, a constituent of Curcuma longa (turmeric) with potent antioxidant activity, is also known for its anti-inflammatory activity. Supplementation with curcumin in animal models of MS decreased the duration and severity of the disease by decreasing secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 from monocytes and microglial cells resulting...

Relationship Between Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

The contribution of the minor components to the properties of the oil is not well understood, but given the complexity of the composition of the oil, there is considerable potential for interactions between various components. There are reports in the literature that certain monoterpenes affect the functioning of cell membranes (Brown et al. 1987), but whether this is the primary effect of tea tree oil on microbial cells is yet to be determined. It is important to determine the mechanism of action before an understanding of the significance of the minor components can be achieved. In determining the optimal antimicrobial chemistry of tea tree oil, it will also be important to maintain other valuable properties of the oil, especially the reported antiinflammatory and mild anaesthetic effects, in the treatment of conditions of the skin and mucous membranes. The toxicity of tea tree oil precludes its use internally, but the broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil suggests a...

Helena Sestakova and Bohumil Turek

Extracts from various parts of the plants of genus Echinacea (E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida) have become known primarily for their capability to strengthen the activity of an unspecified part of the immune system. North American Indians used these plants to treat febrile conditions and open wounds as well as insect or snake bites (Bauer, 1994). It has also been shown that an extract from the fresh plant, its top and root, acts as an immunostimulant when used in conditions such as the common cold, inflammatory processes, and malignant growths. The genus Echinacea contains substances similar in composition and character of effect. Pronounced immunostimulant, antibacterial, and virostatic effects have been associated primarily with polysaccharides, glycopro-teins, alkamides, echinacoside (a glycoside with a pronounced analgesic effect), and caffeic acid derivatives (cichoric acid) (Bauer, 1996 Facino et al., 1995). The phagocytic activity PMNL in healthy volunteers was...

Botanical And Nutraceutical Medicines

Several herbal medicines are useful for treating pain the herbs addressed in the following section were selected because of their analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. (There are several other herbs that are useful for treating painful conditions, so this coverage is not complete.) These herbs exert beneficial effects on pain via their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and sedative properties. Using a combination of herbs that are best suited for certain conditions produces the best result. It is important to consider how pain affects each individual when offering a course of treatment for each patient.

Nutrients And Herbal Interventions

N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the amino acid L-cysteine. NAC is the precursor to glutathione and is commonly used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and mucolytic actions. A study performed on women with PCOS whose conditions are resistant to clomiphene showed that NAC supplementation of 1.2 g per day plus clomiphene significantly increased ovulation and pregnancy rates.54

South And Central America

An infusion of the leaf of this plant, known as 'core-core', is used in Chile by the Mapuche Amerindians to treat cataract, shock and fever. The root, considered astringent, was used to treat toothache and the whole plant used as an antiinflammatory agent (Rodriguez etal., 1994). It is not normally used for diabetes, but the hypoglycaemic effects of an extract of the whole plant was assessed in normoglycaemic and alloxan diabetic rats and the activity found to be significant, but less than that produced by tolbutamide (Rodriguez etal., 1994).

Effects Of Pomegranates On Inflammation

In our laboratory, male rats that drank 0.0014, 0.014, or 0.14 mg ml of total pomegranate polyphenols in water for 2, 4, or 6 weeks were euthanized, perfused tran-scardially with saline, and brains were removed. The brain stems were homogenized followed by Western gel electrophoresis to measure concentrations of COX-2 (EC 1.14.99.1). Beta-actin was used to confirm that similar amounts of proteins were loaded onto each lane. Pomegranate juice consumption caused a reduction of the amount of the proinflammatory enzyme COX-2 in brain homogenates while actin content was the same in each gel (Figure 5.4). The effect was greatest after 6 weeks of diet. This suggests that pomegranate polyphenols may have anti-inflammatory effects in the brains of rats. In another study,62 anthocyanin mixtures from other plant species (Amelanchier alnifolia, A. arborea, and A. canadensis) inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 51 to 76 . The positive controls (aspirin, Celebrex, and Vioxx) inhibited COX-2 by 69 to...

Use Of Medicinal Plants Of Ginger Refrences

Masuda, T., Jitoe, A., and Mabry, M.J. (1995) Isolation and structure determination of cassumunarins A, B and C New anti-inflammatory antioxidants from a tropical ginger, Zingiber cassumunar. J. American Oil Chemists' Society, 72, 1053-1057. Ozaki, Y., Kawahara, N., and Harada, M. (1991) Anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb and its active principles. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 39, 2353-2356. Panthong, A., Kanhanapothi, D., Niwatananant, W., Tuntiwachurittikul, P., and Reutrakul, V. (1997) Anti-inflammatory activity of compound D isolated from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Phytomedicine, 4, 207-212.

Serrapeptase For Inflammation

Used clinically in Europe and Asia for nearly a quarter century, serrapeptase is utilized for its anti-inflammatory actions to treat conditions such as chronic sinusitis, thinning of bronchopulmonary secretions, sprains and strains, edema, and even postoperative inflammatory states. New research on this novel enzyme demonstrates its efficacy for treating several disease states. Studies on serrapeptase have focused on its use for treating chronic lung disease ear, nose, and throat disorders carpal tunnel syndrome and edema following injury and surgery. Serrapeptase has also been used to treat several chronic conditions with ear, nose, and throat pathology in which inflammatory processes are a component.15 This study on chronic conditions was performed at several treatment centers and 193 subjects were involved. Treatment lasted for seven to eight days and was compared to a placebo. The serrapeptase-treated group experienced significant reduction of symptoms beginning after three days...

Piergiorgio Pietta Pierluigi Mauri and Nicola Fuzzati

Preparations of aerial parts and roots from three Echinacea species (e.g., E. angustifolia DC., roots, E. pallida Nutt., roots and E. purpurea Moench, roots and tops) are generally employed for treatment of cold, flu, and chronic respiratory infections (Grimm and Muller, 1999). Echinacea species contain a variety of components that may contribute to the nonspecific enhancement of the immune system (Bauer et al., 1998) and to antiinflammatory properties (Muller-Jakic et al., 1994). It is accepted that these activities depend on the combined action of the following categories of compounds polar caffeoyl conjugates and polysaccharides and lipophilic alkamides and polyacetylenes. In particular, caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides have been proven to contribute considerably to the biological properties of Echinacea species. Among caffeic acid derivatives, cichoric acid (dicaffeoyl tartaric acid) is known to have in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity. Moreover, it inhibits a key...

Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

Lichen metabolites exert a wide variety of biological actions including antibiotic, antimycobacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects. Even though these manifold activities of lichen metabolites have now been recognized, their therapeutic potential has not yet been fully explored and thus remains pharmaceutically unexploited. The utility of lichens is due to the of range of secondary compounds produced by them.

Mc Lafferty 1974 In Ginger

Masuda, T. (1997) Anti-inflammatory antioxidants from Tropical Zingiberaceae Plants (curcumi-noids). In Risch, S.J. and. Ho, C.T. (eds.) Spices Flavor Chemistry and Antioxidant Properties, ACS Symp. Series, 660 219-233, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington D.C. Schuhbaum, H., Burgermeister, J., Paper, D.H., and Franz, G. (2000) Anti-inflammatory activity of Zingiber officinale extracts. Pharm. Pharmacol. Lett., 10 (2), 82 85.

Mechanism of action of hypoglycaemic plants

Only the leaves (but to some extent also the roots) can be used as sweetening agents, which is what concerns us here. The dried leaves contain 6-10 of glycyrrhizin the dried roots contain 1.5 . This saponoside, first found in the roots and rhizomes of liquorice, is a diglycuronide of glycyrrhetic acid. The substance is widely used as a sweetening agent, being sixty times sweeter than saccharose (Milhet et al., 1978). It also has anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antitussive and antibiotic properties. During prolonged intake glycyrrhetic acid produces oedema through water retention with retention of sodium and chloride ions (Na+ and Cl ) and increased elimination of potassium ions, (K+), an effect similar to that produced by cortisone.

Arborans A and B with hypoglycemic activity

Aloctin A prepared by Suzuki's method showed the following biological and pharmacological activities hemagglutinating activity cytoagglutinating activity mitogenic activity on lymphocytes precipitate-forming reactivity with a2-macroglobulin complement C3-activating activity inhibition of heat-induced haemolysis of rat erythro-cytes antitumor effect antiinflammatory effect and inhibition of gastric secretion and gastric lesions (Saito, 1993).

Properties And Indications Of Ge Gen In Traditional Chinese Medicine

Pharmacological activities of the formula relavent to its applications include antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic actions. Anti-arrythmic actions of the formula have also been reported. Clinically this formula is mainly used in cases of acute intestinal infection such as acute bacillary dysentery, enteritis and diarrhea (Deng, 1990).

Spirulina Aphanizomenon and Chlorella sp

Spirulina platensis Linn., Spirulina fusiformis Voronichin (Oscillatoriaceae) These algal genera deserve special mention as regards to medicine . Animal research has reported antiviral, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and cardio protective activities of S. platensis. Spirulina fusiformis Arch. has been reported to be nephroprotective in animal studies. C-phycocyanin from S. platensis has hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. C-phycocyanin has been reported to affect the stem cells found in bone marrow.

Sex hormones and thyroid hormones

The essential oil from the tubers shows oestrogenic activity. Fractionation of the oil produces an active hydrocarbon, cyperene I, which has a slightly less potent oestrogenic action than the oil and which also has an antispasmodic action on the uterus (Indira et al., 1956a, b Abu-Mustafa el al., 1960) (see also Anti-inflammatory plants (Chapter 5)).

Tea Tree Oil in the Treatment of Fungal Infections of the Skin and Nails

The effectiveness of tea tree oil as an antiinflammatory agent is also supported by the work of Tong et al. (1992). These authors compare the effectiveness of a sorbolene cream containing 10 tea tree oil to a commercially available tolnafate 1 cream over a four week test period. The study included a control group who were treated with sorbolene cream only. At the end of the study, all three groups had reduced symptoms, but the tea tree and tolnafate groups were significantly better than the placebo group. However, only 30 of the tea tree group had negative culture compared to 21 of the placebo group and 85 of the tolnafate group. It is possible that changes to the tea tree formulation might result in enhanced mycocidal activity, but there is no published data on the kill rate of tea tree oil on the fungi responsible for these infections. This is an area which requires further study.

Chamazulene Matricin Chamazulene Carboxylic Acid and Guaiazulene

Even though its constitution was not known at the time, chamazulene was identified as the antiphlogistic principle of chamomile oil in a test system of chemosis caused by mustard oil in rabbit eye as early as 1933 47 , and again in 1942 in cavy eye 92 . Because these test systems were questioned later 17, 89 , the activity of the blue azulene was confirmed in other test models. There was a positive effect on UV erythema of the cavy 50 and on heat-damaged mouse tail 22 . In the rat paw test according to Selye 131, 132 , an antiphlogistic activity of the azulene was proven, although the effect of the total extract was much stronger. Guaiazulene was very helpful in the therapy of dermatitis caused by radiation 8, 30, 74, 88, 96, 100, 131 . It displayed weak antipyretic, analgetic, local anesthetic, and anti-histaminic activity, which contributed to the anti-inflammatory effect clinically observed 127 . Chamazulene carboxylic acid (CCA) is a degradation product of sesquiterpene lactones...

Biologic Effects Of Crude A Barbadensis Extracts On Epithelial Tissues

We began our studies by developing standardized Aloe barbadensis gel materials (Aloe Research Foundation Standard Samples) with uniform chemical and biological properties (Pelley etal, 1993 Waller etal, 1994). The ARF Process 'A' materials used in most experiments with unfractionated aloe represent depulped aloe gel fillets produced under conditions of rigorous sanitation not usual to the industry and lyophilized extremely rapidly, within hours of harvest. ARF materials (Processes B, C, D and E) were also produced approximating to the various processes, pasteurization, filtration, absorption with activated charcoal, treatment with cellulase, and concentration by rising falling thin film evaporation, employed in the industry. The ARF Process A material corresponds to no commercial product in current existence and its production is not economically feasible. These ARF materials were produced at several commercial sites by Todd A. Waller and R.P. Pelley, chemically characterized by RPP...

Alovera Medicine Plants Introduction

Limited range of effects on the cells of the immune system. Indeed, the recognized effects of aloe extracts appear primarily to affect innate immune mechanisms such as inflammation, rather than acquired immunity. They also tend to be quantitatively minor in nature. Nevertheless, taken as a whole, they may well account for the 'good press' that aloes have received over the years and for the continuing interest in the use of aloe extracts as immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory agents.

Chemical Constituents

5-hydroxyaloin A, characteristic of Cape aloe, is absent in Curacao aloe. However, studies carried out on plants grown hydroponically under carefully controlled conditions still show these variations for example, aloin content can vary as much as 80 from one plant to another in the same field. Aloes also contain other healing components such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents, (aloctins, cholesterol, campesterol, P-sitosterol, acemannan, salicylates, etc.), immunostimulant agents, (acemannan, lectin, etc.) and antiseptic agents (lupeol, salicylic acid, phenol, sulphur, etc.). The benefits of aloe are, however, due to synergism between compounds also, it is quite possible that other unidentified co-factors present in aloe may provide for the optimum effects generally encountered.

Other Species Of Artemisia Used In Traditional Chinese Medicine

According to a national survey of the medicinal plants of China, more than sixty Artemisia species are used in different areas for certain ailments such as inflammation, liver and stomach disorders and gynaecological problems (Table 1). The leaves of more than ten species are used for the preparation of moxas (see below). A number of Artemisia species are used as choleretic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic agents in the treatment of hepatitis. Two of these are A. scoparia and A. capillaris and are known by the same Chinese name as Yin Chen. Both species contain essential oils, flavones and coumarins. A flavone, capillarisin, the major constituent of A. capillaris, together with two new stereoisomeric constituents, capillartemisin A and B, showed choleretic effects in experiment studies. The coumarin derivative sco-parone isolated from both species had a preventative effect on carbon tetrachloride or galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in hepatocyte cell cultures, (Hikino, 1985, Kiso...

Modification of the immune system

The following actions of aloe lectins were also evaluated anti-inflammatory and gastric function protective effects of Aloctin A isolated from whole leaves of A. arborescens (Saito etal, 1982 Imanishi etal, 1984) the contribution of a 40 kDa lectin to the healing of thermal burn via the blastogenesis induction after stimulation of DNA synthesis (Yagi etal., 1985) and, the wound-healing effects of the whole leaf homogenate supernatant of A. barbadensis (Winters etal, 1981).

The Effects Of Aloe Vera Gel On Wound Healing

The polysaccharide component of aloe gel is primarily glucommannans that are comprised of glucose and mannose (P1 4 linked acetylated mannan) (Hirata and Suga, 1977). These polysaccharides, unlike other sugars, are absorbed complete and appear in the bloodstream undigested. Here, they have many activities. It has been very clearly indicated that the immunostimulant and wound-healing activities of Aloe vera gel reside, at least in part, in this glucomannan component (Atherton, 1998), for after separation and purification, glucomannans retain immunostimulant, cell-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activity (Davis etal, 1986). One of the most marked biological activities of mannans is the activation of macrophages and stimulation of T cells. In fact, macrophages are known to possess a specific receptor for mannans that is both

Fabaceae Plants For Medicine

Numerous papers deal with the biochemical basis of the anti-inflammatory properties of glycyrrhizin and were summarized in a comprehensive review by Gibson (1978). It is generally concluded that glycyrrhizin has an aldosterone effect in the body, causing retention of sodium ions and a plasma depletion of potassium ions. Glycyrrhizin appears to stimulate the adrenal cortex directly increasing the production of mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. In addition, it inhibits the inactivation of corticoids in the liver and kidneys. These two effects result in a continuous and elevated plasma level of corticoids (Matsuda et al., Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetic acid are also active against coughs and peptic ulcers and have given good results in the treatment of rheumatic thrombophlebitis (Kerharo and Adam, 1974, p. 440). The effect of glycyrrhizin in the treatment of peptic ulcer cannot be completely explained by the anti-inflammatory action, since the deglycyrrhinated...

Bradykinindegrading glycoprotein

A homogeneous glycoprotein (MW 40 Kda), containing 50.7 protein, was isolated, from Kidachi aloe extract by precipitation with 60 ammonium sulfate. Aloe glycoprotein had bradykinin-degrading activity on an isolated guinea pig ileum in vitro. Peptide analysis using a reversed-phase HPLC coupled with amino acid analysis showed that aloe glycoprotein cleaves the Pro7-Phe8 and Phe8-Arg9 bonds of the bradykinin molecule. The proteolytic action suggests that aloe glycoprotein has carboxy-peptidase N- and P-like activity. These results may provide a pharmaceutical basis for the anti-inflammatory action of Kidachi aloe (Yagi etal, 1987b).

Pharmacological investigations

Anti-inflammatory activity The objective of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous extract of the leaves of H. integrifolia. The hind-paw edema was produced in rats by the sub-planter injection of carageenan. The aqueous extract of H. integrifolia at dose (250 and 500 mg kg p+.o) was given to observe inhibition of paw edema which were comparable with indomethacin

Byproducts

Bromelain was originally only extracted from Hawaiian pineapple stems but now is manufactured in Taiwan, Thailand, Brazil and Puerto Rico. The variability in the commercially produced product and its multiple ingredients have limited successful development. Pineapple bromelain has been used commercially as a meat-tenderizing enzyme and as a nutraceutical. Attempts have been made to develop bromelain for pharmaceutical use. The complexity of the active components of bromelain has limited pharmaceutical research. Bromelain has shown the following activity (i) interference with the growth of malignant cells (ii) inhibition of platelet aggregation (iii) fibrinolytic action (iv) anti-inflammatory processes and (v) skin debridement (Lotz-Winter, 1990). These biological properties of bromelain have potential therapeutic activity in (i) tumour growth (ii) blood coagulation (iii) inflammatory changes (iv) debridement of severe burns and (v) enhancement of drug absorption (Taussig and Batkin,...

Ganglion Blockers

However, as future research will no doubt reveal, there are many more ways in which the secretion of hormones can be stimulated or inhibited. This is illustrated by details found under sections dealing with hormone secretion such as plants with anti-inflammatory, oestrogenic, antifertility controlling, hypoglycaemic and other activities on human hormone secretions.

Quercitin

Quercitin is a bioflavonoid frequently used to treat allergies because of its antihistamine, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant effects. It is found in foods such as berries, brassica vegetables, apples, green tea (Camellia sinensis), onions, and red wine. Studies have demonstrated that quercitin inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.50 (Histamine is a chemical mediator responsible for allergy symptoms, such as constriction in the lungs, congestion, and sneezing.) Absorption of quercitin is variable and may be improved by combining it with papain or bromelain.

Fibrinogen

With the knowledge that CRP and fibrinogen are signatures of inflammatory processes in the body, ACM practitioners use these markers as a sign that the body is creating inflammatory processes in the cardiovascular system, and treatments are geared toward lowering levels of these markers in the body. The inflammatory process is considered to be the premier etiologic event that initiates the development and propagation of the atherosclerotic process.53 Elevated CRP and fibrinogen levels are indirectly treated with an overall anti-inflammatory approach, involving diet, supplementation, and botanical medicines. Fibrinogen is known to be elevated in individuals with diabetes those who are overweight, sedentary and in smokers. Even in healthy people, fibrinogen levels have been shown to increase by 25 mg dL per decade.54 Studies have also shown that increased social stress, such as lack of job control, causes an increase in fibrinogen levels, suggesting the possible pathway between elevated...

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is another widely researched adjunctive therapy, with various effects throughout the body and on inflammatory diseases. Vitamin E exists as eight different forms including four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. A powerful antioxidant with several antiatherogenic effects, much attention has been focused on vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin E exerts beneficial effects on LDL oxidation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and CRP levels.64 Providing patients with 1,200 international units (IU) per day of alpha-tocopherol significantly lowered interleukin-6 and hsCRP levels in a five-month study.65 Other studies have shown a direct dose-response effect of up to 1,200 IU of vitamin E on anti-inflammatory effects and inhibition of CRP.66 In another study, 1,200 IU of vitamin E reduced elevated CRP levels by 33 in control subjects who were nondiabetic and by 25 in patients with type 2 diabetes after three months of supplementation.45 A similar...

Bromelain

Bromelain includes a grouping of sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes obtained from the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus). Bromelain is typically derived from either the fruit or stem of the plant, with most commercial sources being derived from the stem. In addition to a proteolytic portion, bromelain contains peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and protease inhibitors. It is interesting to note that the purified proteolytic fraction has been shown to be physiologically inactive whereas whole bromelain extract inhibits platelet aggregation, and also has fibrinolytic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and cytokine modulation effects as well as producing mucolytic effects and cardiovascular and circulatory improvements.74

Glucosinolates

Sulforaphane is currently studied as a portent anticancer agent. The activity of sulforaphane includes increasing glutathione level, the induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes, inhibition of carcinogen-activating phase 1 enzymes, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, and has anti-inflammatory properties as well.24 Ellagic acid and ellagitannins are constituents found in raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, pomegranates, and walnuts. Ellagic acids have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and free-radical scavenging activity. They have also been shown in numerous studies to provide excel lent support for phase 2 detoxification.25

Curcumin

Curcumin is also worthy of continued research. This nutrient is one the constituents of the spice turmeric. Widely used for its anti-inflammatory actions, curcumin has been shown to inhibit AA metabolism and to prevent the occurrence of chemically induced pre-neoplastic colon lesions in rats.33 Some of curcumin's antitumor effects also extend beyond the initial stage of initiation to the late premalignant progression stage, during which curcumin is associated with an increased rate of apoptosis.34 Additionally, curcumin has been shown to decrease inflammation by inhibiting TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation by suppression of NF-kappaB-regulated COX-2 and cyclin D1 protein expression as well as inhibition of the proliferation of tumor cells.35 Curcumin's ability to block initial DNA damage and to limit progression make curcumin a very promising preventive agent.

Pharmacology

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed to manage pelvic pain. Prostaglandins are responsible for much of the pain associated with endometriosis because NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, they often reduce pain. Hormones typically used in treatment are danazol, a weak androgen that decreases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted from the pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting ovulation and menstruation oral contraceptives progestins and gona-dotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH agonists) thatsuppress FSH and LH and inhibitovulation. Studies have demonstrated reduction of symptoms in 67 or more individuals on oral contraceptive treatment (see the box on page 149 entitled Pharmacologic Interventions for Treating Endometriosis'').30

Black Cohosh

Constituents of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) are anti-inflammatory and have estrogenlike activity.53,54 Animal studies suggest that black cohosh suppresses pituitary secretion of LH. Studies indicate that the herb may be a selective estrogen receptor-modulator that has estrogenic effects on some tissues and antiestrogenic effects on other tissues.55 New data suggest that black cohosh does not bind estrogen receptors, stimulate the growth of estrogen-dependent tumors, or up-regulate estrogen-dependent genes.56

Hydroxycoumarins

Hydroxycoumarins represents another group of coumarins (Figs. 5.258, 5.259 ), which are widely distributed in Apiaceae and Gramineae. They are found in Aesculus hippocastanum, Angelica pubescens, Artemisia lactiflora and Crategeus oxycantha. Callophylloide and jacareubin coumarins derived from Calophyllum inophyllum have antiarrhythmic, coronary vasodilator, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic and gastro protective activites, respectively. Calophyllum apetalum contains coumarin named aperalolide.

Abstract

Estafiate or iztauyatl (A. ludoviciana ssp. mexicana) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in Mexican phytotherapy and is nowadays used especially for gastrointestinal pain, as a vermifuge and as a bitter stimulant. The historical and modern uses of this species are reviewed. The first report of its medicinal use dates back to the 16th century, but at that time it was used for completely different illnesses. Only very limited pharmacological studies to evaluate these claims are available antiinflammatory, antibacterial and antihelmintic effects have been reported. The aerial parts contain a large number of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids as well as essential oil which has not yet been studied in detail.

Conclusion

The taxon under discussion is a widely used and very important medicinal plant in Mexico with a well defined principal use the treatment of various forms of gastrointestinal cramps and pain. The plant has been used for at least 500 years, but its uses seem to have undergone considerable changes. It is likely that the sesquiterpene lactones are pharmacologically relevant to its modern uses, not just as bitter stimulants, but also because they have several well documented pharmacologcal effects i.e. cytotoxic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, and anthelmintic (Heinrich, et al., 1997). However, at present there are insufficient pharmacological and parasitological biological data available for this species, and therefore detailed pharmacological and or clinical studies of standardized extracts from estafiate are required. This species is an economically and botanically important member of the genus Artemisia for which further evaluation would be justified.

Allergy Treatment

Eosinophilic esophagitis is frequently misdiagnosed as GERD. Allergy treatment may be indicated in individuals who are not responsive to typical GERD therapies. Allergy testing to measure both IgE and IgG antibodies is indicated. In addition, dietary supplementation, using products to treat allergic reactions directly may also be necessary. Quercitin is a bioflavonoid often used in allergies because it has antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Vitamin C has been shown to be protective against GERD and to have antioxidant and some antihistamine properties.

Omega3 Fatty Acids

Fish oils from fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and herring are especially high in theomega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects because they compete with arachidonic acid in the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Omega-3 fatty acids suppress COX-2 expression and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a).24 A study with highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl esters at a dose of 4 g per day was shown to significantly decrease both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in mildly hypertensive individuals.25 Additional studies have shown that 4 g per day of fish oil reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as decreased triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol.26

Propolis

Propolis is a resinous substance derived from poplar and conifer buds and used by Apis mellifera bees for maintaining their hives. The pharmacologically active molecules in propolis are flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters. These components have proven antibiotic effects on bacteria, fungi, and viruses.22 New evidence suggests that propolis may suppress the lipoxygenase pathway thereby decreasing LT synthesis.23 In studies using the rat paw edema model, it has been theorized that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is the constituent that is most responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of propolis for reducing acute and chronic inflammation.24 The anti-inflammatory effects of this plant medicine have also been studied in other models of inflammation, such as corneal injury and skin burns. It was shown to produce antiinflammatory effects comparable to dexamethasone in treating experimentally induced chemical corneal injury.26 Propolis was compared to silver sulfadiazine...

Other Considerations

Also essential to prevent the progression of deterioration of neuronal tissues and vasculature is the consumption of sufficient antioxidants, and supportive nutrients, and the avoidance of free-radical sources. Well-proven antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, should be given strong consideration. In addition, vitamin E has an anti-platelet-aggregation effect assisting in optimal cerebral blood flow and the prevention of occlusive strokes and impedance of optimal blood flow. General support for nervous-system function including optimal cognition also depends on sufficient levels of each of the B vitamins to support neurotransmitter production and function. Finally, as conventional approaches to prevention of dementia have continued to focus on the use of anti-inflammatory agents such as COX-2 inhibitors, the practitioner may find that eicosapentaenoic acid from fish oil is helpful as adjunctive therapy.

Hormone Balancing

Estrogen levels also appear to play a role in the severity of MS symptoms. Among a group of menopausal women with MS, 82 reported premenstrually increased symptom severity, 54 reported a worsening of symptoms with menopause, and 75 of those who had tried hormone replacement therapy reported an improvement in symptoms.57 Studies indicate that low-dose estradiol may be beneficial for women with MS. Animal models show that low-dose estradiol inhibits T-cell migration into the CNS and has neuroprotective effects that promote axon and myelin survival.58 Estrogens have also been found to inhibit the production of proinflammatory Th1 cytokines such as IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IFN gamma, and to stimulate the production of anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines such as IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-beta. This may explain why estrogen modulates Th1- and Th2-mediated diseases such as MS.59 Studies of pregnancy in women with MS also suggest a role of hormones in the disease. Of the women studied, 75 showed a...

Proteolytic Enzymes

Proteolytic enzymes have analgesic effects in addition to their well-recognized antiinflammatory and antiedemic properties. Enzyme-derived analgesia is based on inhibition of the inflammatory cascade as well as exerting a direct influence on nociceptors.3 Bromelain (pineapple Ananas comosus) is used orally to treat acute swelling and inflammation following trauma. Bromelain is a grouping of proteolytic enzymes obtained from the stem and fruit of pineapple.4 Bromelain is thought to exert its anti-inflammatory effect by altering leukocyte migration and activation. Other mechanisms of action include proteolysis at point of inflammation, fibrinolysis via the plasminogen-plasmin system, depletion of kininogen, inhibition of inflammatory prostaglandins, and induction of prostaglandin E1 (an anti-inflammatory prostaglandin). Side effects of taking bromelain may include GI upset with diarrhea. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions are possible but this has not yet been widely...

Jamaican Dogwood

Jamaican dogwood (Piscidia erythrina piscidia) is a shrub found in tropical America and the West Indies. The medicine is derived from the bark. Jamaican dogwood has several pain-relieving effects. These include sedative, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic (smooth muscle) effects.10 Historically, this herb has been used to treat neuralgia, migraine headaches, toothaches, insomnia, and smooth-muscle spasms (GI spasms). The herb has also been used for

Stinging Nettle

Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is an herb commonly used, because of its antiandrogen and antiinflammatory properties, for treating benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). The lipid portion of the berries is used medicinally to produce these effects. Studies have shown that saw palmetto inhibits 5 alpha-reductase in the prostate, which decreases conversion of testosterone to the more potent form dihydrotestosterone.67 Although saw palmetto has not been studied as a PCOS treatment, the herb's antiandrogenic activity may be beneficial for patients with the condition.

Medicinal Mushrooms

Recent interest in the medicinal qualities of mushrooms has paralleled the rise in widespread commercial cultivation of these useful fungi. Their production and sales in the year 1999 totaled 18 billion, an amount similar to that of coffee sales worldwide.1 However, the use of fungi for medicinal purposes predates modern cultivation and scientific interest by thousands of years. In traditional Eastern medicine, mushrooms were used to treat diseases, increase longevity, and cleanse the mind and spirit.2 Modern investigations into the medicinal effects of mushrooms began in the late 1960s.3 Science continues to reveal the efficacy of mushrooms, and new uses for them will undoubtedly be discovered. Among the 38,000 species of mushrooms, only a small portion of these have been studied for medicinal properties. Research has shown that mushrooms can be used as antioxidants, vascular support agents, immune-system enhancers, and antiinflammatory agents.

Cordyceps

The use of cordyceps as an anti-inflammatory holds promise as well. In conditions with inflammation, cordyceps may be valuable as an adjunctive agent because of its ability to modulate cytokines and increase levels of corticosterone.19 Corticosterone is one of the body's primary means of controlling inflammation. It is not yet known if the fungal extract works directly by increasing adrenal gland output or indirectly through the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. An increase in levels of corticosterone may be responsible, in part, for the tonifying effects of this fungus when it is included in adrenal-gland supportive protocols.

Summary

Davis showed in his book 'Aloe vera- a scientific approach' that the total biological activity in Aloe vera comes from a synergistic modulation of the compounds involved rather than from a single component (Davis, 1997). This is commensurate with Kampo (Oriental) medicine which contains both positive and negative activating materials and acts to normalize or produce a balance in a biological, specially immunoreaction system as an immunomodulator (Yagi etal, 1986 Sato etal, 1990). Kidachi aloe has been widely utilized for several diseases as a folklore medicine in Japan. Some ingredients in water media of the leaf antagonize or synergize with each other to produce a harmonizing efficacy between wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activity through an immuno-reaction. This balance in Kidachi aloe gives us a good understanding as to why it is known as of 'doc-buster'. Kidachi aloe extract is not a only a foodstuff but it is also registered as both a OTC-drug (aloin content about 3mg...

Grapes

Vitis vinifera is commonly known as the classic wine grape. Grapes and theirjuices are high in flavonoids, which are believed to give red wine its cardiovascular protective qualities. Research has shown that grape products, such as grapejuice and red wine, increase NO release from platelets, and decrease platelet aggregation and superoxide production.55 More specifically, research on a constituent of grape skins and seeds known as resveratrol has produced effects on NO. Resveratrol has been demonstrated to have estrogen-like activity and antioxidant, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. Studies indicate that resveratrol up-regulates the gene expression of endothelial NOS with a resulting increase in NO levels.56

Boletus

B. edulis fruit bodies contain ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide (Mattila et al. 2002 Ey et al. 2007 Ribeiroa et al. 2008), with a wide spectrum antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, and cytotoxicity to various tumor cell lines grown in laboratory culture (Lucas et al. 1957 Krzyczkowskia et al. 2008). However, some investigations in the United States do not support this (Lamaison and Polese 2005). The mushroom also contains mitogenic lectin with antiviral properties against the human immunodeficiency virus enzyme reverse transcriptase (Zheng et al. 2007), Vaccinia virus (Kandefer-Szersen et al. 1980) and tobacco mosaic virus grown in culture (Piraino 2006 Li et al. 2009).

Aspirin

Aspirin is used to produce antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent promotion of aspirin (e.g., Bayer Aspirin) as a prophylactic treatment to decrease platelet aggregation to prevent transient ischemic attacks, strokes, and thromboembolisms has increased the use of this over-the-counter medication.31

Flavonoids

Oranges and lemons while neoespheridosides are bitter and can be found in bitter oranges, bergamots and grapefruits. The flavone glycosides and aglycones are more numerous than the flavanones, but they occur in low concentration and are generally tasteless. The flavone aglycones are characteristic constituents of citrus fruits. They are essentially found in the fruit flavedo and generally are highly substituted compounds with many methoxyl and few, if any, hydroxyl groups. Remarkably, the fully methoxy-lated compounds are absent in citrus lemon. Flavanones glycosides and polymethoxylated flavones present typical pattern in different species or part of fruits (Reminiac etal., 1989 Ooghe and Detavernier, 1997 Robards etal., 1997 Mouly etal., 1998 Postorino and Gionfriddo, 1999). The anthocyanins are glycosidic derivates of the 3-hydroxyflavylium cation they characterize the blood orange variety and are found in the endocarp (Maccarone etal., 1985). Flavonoid-correlated compounds, also...

Bioflavonoids

Flavonolignans (hydnowightin, hydnocarpin, and neohydnocarpin) have been isolated from the seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana. They are reported to be hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic (Figs. 5. 122,5.123). Aspalathin is monomeric flavonoid found in Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos tea). It has significant antioxidant property. Chrysoeriol (3-methoxylutein) is a flavonoid found in snapdragons has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (Fig. 5.128). Tricin is a flavone present in rice bran. It has an antioxidant property (Fig. 5.129).

Psoriasis

Topical applications such as licorice root and chamomile may provide anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activity when used on dry, flaky, irritated skin.29,30 Both topical and oral doses of vitamin D (in the form of calcitrol-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) have also been effective as a result of their ability to regulate terminal differentiation of basal cells of epidermal keratino-cytes.31

Sesquiterpene C15

Vasodilator Medicinal Plants

Parthenolide (Fig. 5.238), sesquiterpene lactone, found in Tanacetum parthenium has anti-inflammatory, antisecretory and spasmolytic activities (Fig. 5.165). It also inhibits the release of serotonin through various mediators and inhibits activation of MAP kinase. It has been used in the treatment of migraine. Arglabin isolated from Artemisia myriantha has immunomodulator activity. Inuviscolide isolated from Inula viscosa has anti-inflammatory activity. Lychnophorolide A, sesquiterpene lactone from Eremanthus eriopus is reported to be analgesic. Khusinol and khusol are sesquiterpene alcohol from Vetiveria zizanoides oil (Fig. 5.239). Healianol, triterpene alcohol from Calendula officinalis has antiinflammatory activity. Triterpenoids lupeol and varunol have been isolated from the root and stem bark of Cratavea nurvala. A triterpenoid, Withanolides isolated from the leaves of Withania somnifera have shown significant antitumor and immunomodulator activity. Coagulin F and coagulin G...

Gentianaceae

A number of xanthone derivatives isolated from C. decussata have shown an inhibitory activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, equivalent to that of streptomycin. Toxicity to mice was low. Mangiferin, also isolated from the plant, has proved to have weak antitubercular properties (Ghosal and Chaudhury, 1975), and also to have CNS depressant and significant anti-inflammatory activity in rats (Shankaranarayan et al., 1979).

Who Flos Chamomillae

Both camomile extract and (-)-a-bisabolol demonstrated antipeptic activity in vitro 68, 98, 104 . A hydroalcoholic extract of camomile inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, group B Streptococcus, and Streptococcus salivarius, and it had a bactericidal effect in vitro on Bacillus megatherium and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae 38 . In vitro, the volatile oil of camomile also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis 19 . In vitro, camomile extracts inhibited both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase 110 , and thus the production of pros-taglandins and leukotrienes, known inducers of inflammation. Both bisabolol and bisabolol oxide have been shown to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase, but bisabolol was the more active of the two compounds 21 . Numerous in vivo studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug. The anti-inflammatory effects of camomile extract, the essential oil, and the isolated constituents have been evaluated in...

Phenolics

Knema Furfuracea

Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in plant flora. They constitute an important part of glycosides (phenolic glycosides), flavonoids, and tannins. Curcumins (Fig. 5.189) are phenolics compounds from Curcuma longa. They have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti cancer, and hepatoprotective activities. The pharmacological activities of cucrcuminoids are due to unique molecular structure. In crude extracts of C. longa about 70-76 of curcumin is present alongwith 16 demethoxycurcumin and 8 bisdemethoxycurcumin. Tetracurcuminoids (Fig. 5.189) are derived from curcuminoids. This compound is, unlike the yellow curcuminoids. The oleoresin obtained from rhizome of ginger contains pungent phenylalkylketones or vanillyl ketones, including 6 -gingerol, 6 -paradol, shogaol, and zingerone (Fig. 5.194). They have been reported to possess a strong anti-inflammatory activity. Shogaols are artifacts formed during storage, probably created by a dehydration reaction of the gingerols. The ratio of...

Z zerumbet L Smith

The most studied chemical compound is the sesquiterpene zerumbone, which is reported to be a potent inhibitor of a tumor promoter, the Epstein-Barr virus activation. The IC50 value of zerumbone (0.14 fxM) was noticeably lower than those of the antitumor promoters hitherto obtained (Murakami et al., 1999). Murakami et al. (2002) reported that zerumbone has potent anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive qualities. They found that zerumbone effectively suppressed tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion generation from both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADH)-oxidase in dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and xanthine oxidase in AS 52 Chinese hamster ovary cells. The combined lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma-stimulated protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, together with the release of tumor necrosis factor (alpha) in

Pectins

While the leaf gel consists primarily of a complex carbohydrate mixture, the green plant rind contains many complex organic compounds such as chromones, flavonoids and anthraquinones. The precise composition varies greatly between aloe species (Viljoen and van Wyk, 1988). Some of these molecules, especially the chromones and flavonoids, can have significant anti-inflammatory activity (Read, 1995) or antiviral activity (Andersen etal, 1991). SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES Anti-inflammatory effects The ability of aloe leaf gels to reduce the severity of acute inflammation has been evaluated in many different animal models (Adler etal, 1995 Davis etal, 1989 Beatriz etal, 1996 Davis and Maro, 1989 Davis etal, 1994a Davis etal, 1994b Saito etal, 1982 Vazquez etal, 1996). For example, Adler studied inflammation in the hind paw of the experimental rat induced by kaolin, carrageenan, albumin, dextran, gelatin and mustard (Adler etal., 1995). Of the various irritants tested, A. vera was especially active...

Phytolaccaceae

This plant has anti-inflammatory as well as molluscicidal properties (I). C The constituents have been examined in detail and it was found that up to ten saponins (phytolaccosides) were distributed in all tissues of Phytolacca spp. (P. americana and P. esculenta). Polyphenols have been isolated from the seeds (Woo and Kang, 1978). The saponins contained glucose as a sugar component except for phytolaccoside A, which contained D-xylose. The genins were found to be phytolaccagenic acid, phytolaccagenin, jaligonic acid, and esculentic acid in P. americana and P. esculenta (Woo et al., 1976). In P. dodecandra the presence of the genins oleanolic acid and bayogenin had been reported by Powell and Whalley (1969). P A water-insoluble saponin fraction, in doses of 30-50 mg kg in rats, gave a 50 inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema. The LD50 of the crude saponins was 181 mg kg in mice and 208 mg kg in rats (Woo et al., 1976). Investigation of the anti-inflammatory activity of the...

Nwainmbi Simon Chia

Today, though still not well established in well defined dose regimens, roots of V. zizanioides have been shown to take care of a variety of unrelated health hazards. Amongst such uses are antibiotherapy, antimalarial treatment, anti-inflammatory effects, and the treatment of stomatological and dietetic problems. Anti-inflammatory action The active ingredients in the roots of V. zizanioides makes believe that it is a non-steriodal anti-inflammatory component. Two grams of the ground powder of the roots of V. zizanioides when chewed will relieve toothache in less than fifteen minutes. This treatment can be repeated as often as four times a day depending on the degree of pain.

Rutaceae

P The three coumarins xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol and imperatorin isolated from A. paniculata were tested for their anti-inflammatory properties following oral administration of 100 mg kg to mice. Xanthotoxin had some activity but the other two had none. The oral LD50 of xanthotoxin was more than 4000 mg kg in rats and over 1000 mg kg in mice (Adjangba et al., 1975).

Lipid Signals

As mentioned in Section 2.1, the largest group of lipid-related genes in Arabidopsis is the lipid signalling group (Beisson et al., 2003 Ruuska et al., 2004 Wallis and Browse, 2010). Increasing evidence also implicates fatty acids and their derivatives as signalling molecules, modulating normal as well as disease-related metabolism in animals, plants and single-celled organisms. For example, 18 1 and linoleic acid (18 2) induce protein kinase C-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase, resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species (Cury-Boaventura and Curi, 2005). The T-cell response to infection is modulated by eicosapentanoic acid, which induces anti-inflammatory effects (Denys et al., 2001). Free fatty acids also serve as alarm molecules to repel phylogenetically-related and unrelated species of insects (Rollo et al., 1994). Unsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives regulate sporulation, sexual structure development and host seed colonisation in mycotoxic Aspergillus spp....

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