Oxidative stress management

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely superoxide radicals (O2' ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (OH ), are produced in aerobic cellular processes and the production accumulation of these radicals reaches toxic levels in cells under various abiotic stresses (see Chapter 7). Since ROS causes oxidative damage to membrane lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, ROS detoxification is a crucial defense against abiotic stresses. Plants employ antioxidant metabolites and enzymes to...

Cytoskeleton remodeling by Roprac Gtpase during immune responses

The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in innate immune response at the early stage of fungal penetration (Kobayashi et al., 1997). Actin microfilaments are polarized toward the penetration sites of the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) in barley mutant lacking the susceptibility factor mildew resistance locus (MLO) (Opalski et al., 2005). The polarization of actin microfilaments is closely associated with successful prevention of penetration of Bgh, in...