Reference For Medicinal Plant Pomegranate

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1. Tanaka, T., Nonaka, G., and Nishioka, I., Tannins and related compounds. XL. Revision of the structures of punicalin and punicalagin, and isolation and characterization of 2-O-galloylpunicalin from the bark of Punica granatum L., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 34, 650, 1986.

2. Tanaka, T., Nonaka, G., and Nishioka, I., Tannins and related compounds. XLI. Isolation and characterization of novel ellagitannins, punicacorteins A, B, C and D, and punigluconin from the bark of Punica granatum L, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 34, 656, 1986.

3. Satomi, H. et al., Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L, Biol. Pharm. Bull., 16, 787, 1993.

4. Mavlyanov, S.M. et al., Polyphenols of the fruits of some varieties of pomegranate growing in Uzbekistan, Chem. Nat. Compd, 33, 98, 1997.

5. El-Toumy, S.A.A., Marzouk, M.S., and Rauwald, H.W., Ellagi- and gallotannins from Punica granatum heartwood, Pharmazie, 56, 823, 2001.

6. Haddock, E.A., Gupta, R.K., and Haslam, E., The metabolism of gallic acid and hexahydroxydiphenic acid in plants. Part 3. Esters of (R) and (S)-hexahydroxy-diphenic acid and dehydrohexahydroxydiphenic acid with D-glucopyranose (1C4 and related conformations), J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1, 2535, 1982.

7. Tanaka, T., Nonaka, G., and Nishioka, I., Tannins and related compounds. Part 30. Punicafolin, an ellagitannin from the leaves of Punica granatum, Phytochemistry, 24, 2075, 1985.

8. Hussein, S.A.M. et al., Tannins from the leaves of Punica granatum, Phytochemistry, 45, 819, 1997.

9. El-Toumy, S.A.A. and Rauwald, H.W., Two ellagitannins from Punica granatum heartwood, Phytochemistry, 61, 971, 2002.

10. Nawwar, M.A.M. and Hussein, S.A.M., NMR spectra analysis of polyphenols from Punica granatum, Phytochemistry, 36, 793, 1994.

11. Wang, R. et al., Bioactive compounds from the seeds of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), J. Nat. Prod., 67, 2096, 2004.

12. Artik, N. et al., Determination of phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice by HPLC, Fruit Processing, 8, 492, 1998.

13. Plumb, G.W. et al., Antioxidant properties of gallocatechin and prodelphinidins from pomegranate peel, Redox Rep., 7, 41, 2002.

14. Hernandez, F. et al., Evolution of juice anthocyanins during ripening of new selected pomegranate (Punica granatum) clones, Eur. Food Res. and Tech., 210, 39, 1999.

15. Santagati, N.A., Duro, R., and Duro, F., Study on pigments present in pomegranate seeds, J. Commodity Sci., 23 , 247, 1984.

16. Nawwar, M.A.M., Hussein, S.A.M., and Merfort, I., Leaf phenolics of Punica granatum, Phytochemistry, 37, 1175, 1994.

17. van Elswijk, D.A. et al., Rapid dereplication of estrogenic compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) using on-line biochemical detection coupled to mass spectrometry, Phytochemistry, 65, 233, 2004.

18. Lugasi, A. and Hovari, J., Flavonoid aglycons in foods of plant origin II. Fresh and dried fruits, Acta Aliment. Hung, 31, 63, 2002.

19. Chauhan, D. and Chauhan, J.S., Flavonoid diglycoside from Punica granatum, Pharm Biol., 39, 155, 2001.

20. Srivastava, R., Chauhan, D., and Chauhan, J.S., Flavonoid diglycosides from Punica granatum, Indian J. Chem., Section B, 40B, 170, 2001.

21. Poyrazoglu, E., Goekmen, V., and Artik, N., Organic acids and phenolic compounds in pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) grown in Turkey, J. Food Composition and Anal., 15, 567, 2002.

22. Chen, Y. et al., Study on fatty acids extracted from pomegranate seed oil, Shipin Kexue, 24, 111, 2003.

23. Yusuph, M. and Mann, J., A triglyceride from Punica granatum, Phytochemistry, 44, 1391, 1997.

24. Fatope, M.O., Al Burtomani, S.K.S., and Takeda, Y., Monoacylglycerol from Punica granatum seed oil, J. Agric Food Chem., 50, 357, 2002.

25. Batta, A.K. and Rangaswami, S., Crystalline chemical components of some vegetable drugs, Phytochemistry, 12, 214, 1973.

26. Brieskorn, C.H. and Keskin, M., Betulic acid in the leaves of Punica granatum, Pharm. Acta Helv., 30, 361, 1955.

27. El Wahab, S.M. et al., Characterization of certain steroid hormones in Punica granatum L. seeds, Bulletin of the Faculty of Pharmacy, 36, 11, 1998.

28. Fayez, M.B.E., Negm, S.A.R., and Sharaf, A., Constituents of local plants. V. The constituents of various parts of the pomegranate plant, Planta Med., 11, 439, 1963.

29. Ahmed, R. et al., Studies on Punica granatum. I. Isolation and identification of some constituents from the seeds of Punica granatum, Pakistan J. Pharm. Sci., 8, 69, 1995.

30. Neuhoefer, H. et al., Alkaloids in the bark of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) from Yugoslavia, Pharmazie, 48, 389, 1993.

31. Fayez, M.B.E., Negm, S.A.R., and Sharaf, A., Constituents of local plants. V. The constituents of various parts of the pomegranate plant, Planta Med., 11, 439, 1963.

32. Gil, M.I. et al., Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing, J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 4581, 2000.

33. Seeram, N.P. et al., Rapid large-scale purification of ellagitannins from pomegranate husk, a by-product of the commercial juice industry. Sep. Purif. Technol., 41, 49, 2005.

34. Narr, B.C, Ayed, N., and Metche, M., Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch, 203, 374, 1996.

Haslam, E., Plant polyphenols: Vegetable tannins revisited. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989, 230.

Kohno, H. et al., Pomegranate seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid suppresses chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Sci., 95, 481, 2004. Melgarejo, P. et al., Total lipids content and fatty acid composition of seed oils from six pomegranate cultivars. J. Sci. Food and Agric., 69, 253, 1995. Heftmann, E., Ko, S.T., and Bennett, R.D., Identification of estrone in pomegranate seeds, Phytochemistry, 5, 1337, 1966.

Moneam, N.M., El Sharaky, A.S., and Badreldin, M.M., Oestrogen content of pomegranate seeds, J. Chromatogr., 438, 438, 1988.

Choi, D.W. et al., Identification of steroid hormones in pomegranate (Punica grana-tum) using HPLC and GC-mass spectrometry, Food Chem., (in press), 2005. Krueger, C.G. et al., Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of polygalloyl polyflavan-3-ols in grape seed extract, J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 1663, 2000.

Krueger, C.G., Vestling, M.M., and Reed, J.D., Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ion-ization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of heteropolyflavan-3-ols and glucosylated heteropolyflavans in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 538, 2003.

Krueger, C.G., Vestling, M.M., and Reed, J.D., Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ion-ization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of anthocyanin-polyflavan-3-ol oligomers in cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ait.) and spray dried cranberry juice, in Red wine color: revealing the mysteries, ACS Symposium Series, eds. A.L. Waterhouse and J.A. Kennedy, vol. 886, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2004, 232. Reed, J.D., Krueger, C.G., and Vestling, M.M., MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of oligomeric food polyphenols, Phytochemistry, 66, 2248, 2005. Porter, M.L. et al., Cranberry proanthocyanidins associate with low-density lipoprotein and inhibit in vitro Cu2+-induced oxidation, J. Sci. Food and Agric., 81, 1306, 2001.

Afaq, F. et al., Anthocyanin and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-kB Pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice, Internl. J. Cancer, 113, 423, 2005.

Quideau, S. and Feldman, K., Ellagitannin chemistry, Chem. Rev., 96, 475, 1996. Seeram, N.P. et al., Identification of phenolics in strawberries by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, Food Chem., 2005 (in press). Mullen, W. et al., Analysis of ellagitannins and conjugates of ellagic acid and quer-cetin in raspberry fruits by LC-MSn, Phytochemistry, 64, 617, 2003. Schubert, S.Y., Lansky, E.P., and Neeman, I., Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids, J. Ethnopharmacol., 66, 11, 1999.

Aviram, M. and Vaya, J., Markers for low-density lipoprotein oxidation, Meth. Enzy-mol., 335, 244, 2001.

Taga, M.S., Miller, E.E., and Pratt, D.E., Chia seeds as a source of natural lipid antioxidants, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 61, 928, 1984.

Murthy, K.N.C., Jayaprakasha, G.K., and Singh, R.P., Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract using in vivo models, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 4791, 2002.

Aviram, M. et al., Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, athero-genic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71, 1062, 2000.

55. Aviram, M. and Dörnfeld, L., Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure, Atherosclerosis, 158, 195, 2001.

56. Kowala, M.C., Grove, R.I., and Aberg, G., Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme decrease early atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Fosinopril reduces plasma cholesterol and captopril inhibits macrophage-foam cell accumulation independently of blood pressure and plasma lipids, Atherosclerosis, 108, 61, 1994.

57. Gimbrone, M.A., Jr., Vascular endothelium, hemodynamic forces, and atherogenesis, Am. J. Pathol., 155, 1, 1999.

58. de Nigris, F. et al., Beneficial effects of pomegranate juice on oxidation-sensitive genes and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity at sites of perturbed shear stress, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 4896, 2005.

59. Schubert, S.Y., Neeman, I., Resnick, N., A novel mechanism for the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in vascular endothelial cells by natural antioxidants, Faseb J., 16, 1931, 2002.

60. Cerda, B. et al., The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolised into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans, Eur. J. Nutr, 43, 205, 2004.

61. Seeram, N.P., Lee, R., and Heber, D., Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice, Clin. Chim. Acta, 348, 63, 2004.

62. Murthy, K.N. et al., Study on wound healing activity of Punica granatum peel. J. Med. Food, 7, 256, 2004.

63. Kohno, H. et al., Pomegranate seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid suppresses chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats, Cancer Sci., 95, 481, 2004.

64. Kohno, H. et al., Dietary conjugated linolenic acid inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats, Jpn J. Cancer Res., 93, 133, 2002.

65. Seeram, N.P. et al., In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice, J. Nutr. Biochem., 6, 360, 2005.

66. Cassidy, A., Bingham, S., and Setchell, K.D., Biological effects of a diet of soy protein rich in isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 60, 333, 1994.

67. Tamir, S. et al., Estrogenic and antiproliferative properties of glabridin from licorice in human breast cancer cells, Cancer Res., 60, 5704, 2000.

68. Das, A.K. et al., Studies on antidiarrhoeal activity of Punica granatum seed extract in rats, J. Ethnopharmacol., 68, 205, 1999.

69. Sumner, M.D. et. al., Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease. Am. J. Cardiol., 96, 810, 2005.

70. Azadzoi, K.M. et al.. Oxidative stress in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction: prophylactic role of antioxidants, J. Urology, 174, 386, 2005.

71. Loren, D.J. et al., Maternal dietary supplementation with pomegranate juice is neu-roprotective in an animal model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, Pediatr. Res. 57, 858, 2005.

72. Feng, Y., Fratkins, J.D., and LeBlanc, M.H., Estrogen attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 507, 77, 2005.

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