O

Distal view Proximal view

Fig. 4.44 Various types of apertures in distal and proximal views.

Inaperturate Monosulcate Zonosulcate Trichotomosulcate Monoporate

Syncolpate

Tricolpate Tricolpate P. V. E. V.

E. V

Stephanocolpate

Pericolpate

r\

w y

[ )

Voy

Peri po rate

Diporate

Q)

\y

Brevitri

Peri colporate

colporate

colporate E.V.

Dyad Tetrad Polyad

Fig. 4.45 Different types of pollen based on features of apertures.

Di

TRI-

TETRA-

PENTA-

HEXA-

POLY-

polar eq.

Polar eq.

Polar eq.

Polar eq.

Polar eq.

Polar eq.

ZONOPORATE

oe

OB

e. g. Colchicum

e. g. Betxda

ZONOCOLPATE

e. g. Tofieldia

e. g. Hippuries

om

Labiatae, Rubiacae

ZONOCOLPORATE

©#

om

e. g. Pamassia

e. g. Rumex

e. g. FioJa

e. g. Sanguisorba

e. g. Utricularia

PANTOPORATE

e. p. Urtica ^

-►

Chenopodiaceae

PANTOCOLPATE

e. g. Ranunculaceae

e. g. Spergula

e. Polygonum ampnib ium

PANTOCOLPORATE

e. 51. Rumex

e. g. Polygonum raii

Fig. 4.46 Types of pollen wall apertures.

Table 4.1c Summary of the aperture terminology

Group

Aperture type

Aperture condition

BRYOPHYTES

Laesura (pl.laesurae; adj.-lete)

monolete, trilete (cata-)

Leptoma (pl-leptomata; adj- -lept)

-lept (cata-)

No apertures

alete, inaperturate

PTERIDOPHYTES

Laesura (pl.laesurae; adj.- lete)

monolete, trilete (cata-)

No apertures

alete, inaperturate

GYMNOSPERMS

Sulcus (pl. sulci; adj. Sulcate)

monosulcate (ana-)

Leptoma (pl. leptomata; adj.-lept)

-lept (ana)

No apertures

inaperturate

ANGIOSPERMS

Sulcus (pl. sulci; adj. Sulcate),

monosulcate (ana-)

Monocots

cf.colpus

trichotomosulcate (ana-)

Sulcus (branched)

meridionosulcate (ring-like)

Meridionosulcus (syn. Nonasulcus)

Sulculus (pl- sulculi; adj. Sulculate),

Sulculate

cf. colpus:

Zonasulculcus

Sulculate (ring-like,

Ulcus (pLulci;adj. Ulcerate), cf. porus Equatorial)

Foramen (pl. foramina; akj. Forate),

Ulcerate (ana-)

cf. panto- porate

Forate (panto-)

Spiral aperture(s)

spiraperturate

No aperture(s)

inaperturate

Dicots

Colpus (pl.colpi; adj. Colpate), cf.

colpate (equatorial, panto-)

Simple

Sulcus

trichotomocolpate

Apertures

Colpus (branched)

porate (equatorial, panto-)

Porus (pl. pori; adj. porate), cf.

colporate

Ulcus, foramen

Compound

Colporus pl. colpori; adj.

Apertures

Colporate), i.e.

Colpus + os (endopore)

Porus + os (endopore)

pororate

Spiral aperture(s)

spiraperturate

No aperture(s)

inaperturate

The apertures may be irregular-shaped or like a spiral. The apertures may be located at the proximal pole (fern-moss-spores), at the distal pole (Gymnosperms, Monocotyledons and primitive Dicotyledons), at the equator (Dicotyledons) or scattered ±regularly over the surface that is panto-position (Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons). Erdtman and Straka (1961) proposed a classification system for pollen called NPC-system (Fig. 4.43) based on number (N), position (P), and character (C) of apertures. The following prefixes may be used: ana- (distal), cata- (proximal), Panto- (spread over the surface).

In order to bring clarity in the understanding of various types of apertures in distal and proximal views and pollen types based on various apertural features, summarized illustrations have been included in Figs. 4.44, 4.45 and 4.46 respectively.

CHAPTER 5

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Allergy Relief

Allergy Relief

Have you ever wondered how to fight allergies? Here are some useful information on allergies and how to relief its effects. This is the most comprehensive report on allergy relief you will ever read.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment