Rain Water Air Spora

It has been estimated since 1850s that rainwater also contains many microorganisms but the study of rainwater was difficult for researchers, as they could not collect the rainwater directly without any contamination. At the end of 19th century it was revealed that rainwater also contains many microbes. Experiments were conducted in which rainwater was collected in a platinum crucible that was kept at about 1.7 m from the ground on a wooden frame. Then raindrops were inoculated onto a medium....

Aerobiology In The United Kingdom

Studies on airborne pollen in the United Kingdom has a history extending over 60 years. Monitoring of pollen in the air began in Wales in the 1940s and in London in the 1950s using Hirst spore traps. The number of sampling sites increased gradually during the ensuing decades. It was not until some 50 years late in 1990 that a collaborative network was established in the U.K. The network became known as the British Aerobiology Federation (BAF), which had its origin in a meeting held in the...

Aeropalynological Researches In India

In India the first systematic aerobiological survey was started in Calcutta by Cunningham in the 1880s of the 19th century (1873). Kasliwal et al. (1959) started such studies in Jaipur, Rajasthan. In Delhi Shivpuri et al. (1960) conducted such studies. Later on similar studies were conducted all over India by various researchers. Nair et al. (1986) have summarized pollen count as reported from various cities in India in their publication entitled 'Airborne pollen, spores and other plant...

Correlation Of Aeroallergens With Meteorological Factors

Although the flowering nature is a pre-determined factor for a given species, it is observed that climatic factors influence the flowering pattern by either shortening or lengthening the flowering period or shifting the flowering period earlier or later. The length of the sporulation period is genotypically controlled by external factors such as temperature, wind speed, humidity and rainfall. The environmental conditions are also known to be important for the release, dispersion, transportation...

Diurnal Patterns

Variations in concentration close to a source are influenced by diurnal patterns of emission, but distant from sources these variations in concentration are influenced more by meteorological variable factors. Weather plays a significant role in this process. Among grasses, it is known that some blue grasses (Poa) shed pollen between 3-8 am in the morning some fescues (Festuca) between 3 and 8 pm in the afternoon. Timothy (Phleum pratense), orchard grass Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), and reed...

Seasonal Patterns

The seasonal occurrence of various atmospheric pollen is primarily determined in two ways 1) The presence and abundance of these pollen investigated by samplers and field observations of the source plants growing in the vicinity. 2) Periodic examination of plants known or suspected to shed airborne pollen and dated observations as to the maturation of the male cones and flowers over a period of several years will accumulate the desired information. These data greatly aid in the identification...

Patterns Of Occurrence Of Airborne Pollen Regional Patterns

It is important to know not only the airborne pollen-producing plants in the general area under investigation but also their positions with respect to distance from the pollen sampler. If this is known and daily records of wind direction are kept, these data are of value in understanding the catch with respect to the sources. Some pollen may travel long distances and in large quantities (Tyldesley 1973), so knowledge of occurrence over regions beyond the local area is desirable. Range maps for...

Pollen Networks In North America

Pollen monitoring in North America does not appear to have the close integration of sites and data obtained that is characteristic now for most West European countries. There may be a number of reasons for this situation. The sheer geographical size of the United States of America and Canada may preclude the organizational problems involved in the establishment of networks. The uneven distribution of palynologists especially in Alaska, Canada and the more remote parts of the U.S.A. again, may...

Choice of Samplers

1) Particles < 5 mm in diameter and not requiring culture are best sampled by suction samplers. Anisokinetic conditions do not introduce serious errors for these small particles. 2) Particles between 5 and 15 mm in diameter are not sampled very efficiently by either suction or impaction samplers. 3) It is generally important to determine the collection efficiency for the particles being considered. 4) Above a diameter of 15 mm, particles are best sampled by rotating impactors using...

Persons Hair as a Pollen Trap

A very unique way of collecting pollen trapped in a person's hair was deviced by Penel and De Clercq (2006) in France. Every individual has a natural pollen trap such as hair or clothes. Hair is a very significant pollen trap since hair by its nature, 'follows' you everywhere, 24 hours a day. It was surprising to note that after hiking in a ragweed field in mid-September a person's hair yielded up to 140,000 pollen grains trapped. The pollen were recovered by a simple hair wash. Obviously a...

Flag Sampler

The flag sampler (Fig. 13.3) consists of a 5 cm length of 2.5 cm wide transparent cellulose tape wrapped around a 5 cm long straight pin, 1 mm in diameter (Harrington et al., 1959). The tape is pressed together except near the tail where the ends are separated by a thin piece of folded paper to facilitate removal after exposure. The portion of tape around the pin is coated with an adhesive. The pin is inserted in a 1.8 cm long and 0.3 cm wide glass tubing sealed at the bottom. This serves as a...

Impaction

When the airborne particles are subjected to some obstacles in their way, they impact to the obstacle surface with some force and are deposited. Impaction is defined as collision by inertial forces of a small, airborne particle with an obstacle or surface in the air stream, usually at right angles to the mean direction of flow. Since wind speeds are generally much greater than gravitational settling rates, most small airborne particles travel a nearly horizontal course. Their mass and velocity...

Long Distance Dispersal Of Pollen

Interesting observations on long distance dispersal of pollen were made by Erdtman (1937), above the mid-ocean between Europe and North America, he made these observations during his voyage from Gothenburg to New York and back. The occurrence of large quantities of pollen of Pinus, Picea and grasses in the coastal areas of Greenland at 600 to 1,000 km from the nearest forest has been recorded. According to Moar (1985) Casuarina pollen on a glacier in the South Island of New Zealand was assumed...

Liberation Of Pollen And Spores

The liberation process includes detachment of pollen grains or the spores from the mother plant followed by take off of the air-spora into the atmosphere. The liberation process may be active or passive. In his classical book Fungal Spores-their liberation and dispersal Ingold (1971) discussed in detail, various mechanisms of liberation and dispersal of fungal spores. In gymnosperms and angiosperms the microsporangium or the anther wall ruptures on drying in different ways to discharge the...

Significance Of Pollination In Aeroallergen Studies

Pollination is thus the transfer of pollen from male structures to female structures of the same species. Pollination is accomplished by several methods, the commonest method in flowering plants is by insects. In these cases, flowers may be showy, colourful, fragrant and otherwise attractive to the pollinating agents. The pollen may be large, sculptured and often with an adhesive coating. The pollen which are important in aerobiology are from plants in which wind is the pollinating agent. In...

Settling Of Pollen And Spores From Atmosphere

Various characters are taken into account for settling of airborne pollen and spores on the substrates. The specific weight of pollen and spores and the velocity of fall are significant. It is known that the size, shape, volume, density, morphology and other properties together decide the air buoyancy, mode and rate of deposition of air-spora. Bacteria and viruses occasionally become dispersed along with pollen and spores. Air pollutants such as soot particles may act as rafts for pollen and...

Professor John Malcolm Hirst D Sc F R S 19211997

He was born in 1921 near Birmingham, England. He is remembered by aerobiologists as the designer of the Hirst type spore trap, which is known all over the world as a standard instrument for volumetric spore sampling. He served in the Royal Navy until 1946 and later went to Reading University to study agricultural botany. In the summer of 1948, he met Philip Gregory at Rothamsted where he worked from 1950 onwards. He obtained a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) from University of London in 1955. He...

Philip Herries Gregory 19071986

Gregory, primarily a phytopathologist was a Professor of Botany in London. His main interest was in fungi, particularly the dispersal of fungal spores. His fundamental studies on fungal spores are used by allergists. He gave particular emphasis to basidiospores of the dry rot fungus. He observed that many residences in London and other cities in the United Kingdom, which were damaged in bombings during the World War, were inadequately repaired and hence ideal for the growth and occurrence...

Melissopalynologycal Work In Karnataka

Sheshagiri (1985), Agashe and Scinthia (1995), Agashe (1997), Rangaswamy (2001) carried out honey and pollen load analysis during a melissopalynological investigation at Thally, Dharampuri District, Bangalore and its environs, the coastal Karnataka districts of Mangalore and Udupi. They brought out important findings such as the occurrence of unifloral honeys from Eucalyptus, Coriandrum sativum, Syzygium cumini, Psidium gujava, Pongamia pinnata and Phyllanthus. Melissopalynological...

Pollination Bee Foraging Plants In Europe And North America

The majority of angiosperms (flowering plants) are entomophilous. Among the insects involved, the most important to man are the hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). The relationship between flowers and insects has been an evolutionary development. In both cases specific plants are dependent on specific insects to ensure survival for which pollination is the first step. Without successful pollination - no fertilization will occur, no seed will form and no fruit develop to disperse or achieve seed...

Sources of Pollen

Entomophilous species of Salix (willow), Quercus (oak), Celtis (hackberry) and several Poaceae (grasses) members as well as some of the windpollinated types of Asteraceae are considered important pollen sources for foraging honeybees. Certain families of flowering plants such as Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Tiliaceae (entomophilous), Asteraceae (Compositae), Scrophulariaceae, Labiatae, Aceraceae, Verbenaceae, Poaceae are known to be chief sources of pollen for honeybees. The following plants are...

Info

Corisndrum sativum* 700 Deridioplttittje felcstaxBOO Dbspyros satdanlKiexfflO Multifloral honey (ADH-7) showing pollen grains of Citrus sp., Cocos nuciiera, Gmviitea mbusta. MultHloral honey UMCH-3) showing pollen grains of Acacia sp., Jua aa sp., ooriandnm sativum. Multifloral honey (ADH-7) showing pollen grains of Citrus sp., Cocos nuciiera, Gmviitea mbusta. Unifloral honey ADH-9) showing poller grains of Asteraceae type. Unifloral honey (ADH-10) showing pollen grains of Asteraceae type,...

Geographical Origin Of Honeys

Local floras have characteristic plant associations that are reflected in the corresponding spectrum of pollen types represented in local honeys. This often enables to identify the geographical origin of honey samples. Honeys are often marketed under labels indicating their locality such as Kashmir honey, Nepal honey, Coorg honey, Mahabaleshwar honey and regions such as Mediterranean, African and Caribbean, Australian and New Zealand, Mexican, Candian, Asiatic Russia, etc. (Sawyer 1988) with...

Melissopalynology And Pollen Flora

There is a very close relationship between honeybees, honey and pollen, which is referred to as bee botany. Pollination is a well-established fact. Bees and certain flowering plants have evolved a well-adjusted system of interdependence that ensures mutual benefits. Establishment of this mutual relationship between the flowering plants and their pollinators is one of the most significant events in organic evolution. Pollen analysis of honey is the most important aspect of melissopalynology. The...

Aerobiological Aspects of Pollen Contamination of Bats Chiroptera

Caulton (2006) worked extensively on interesting aerobiological aspects of pollen inadvertently caught by bats during their food foraging flights for insects many of which are involved in the process of pollination. The pollen ingested with the insect prey by the bats is eventually passed out of the bats' gut as a faecal component. The bats' bodies become contaminated with pollen released by plants including grasses. It was possible to recover anemophilous as well as entomophilous pollen of...

Aerobiology Of Pollen

Pollen constitutes a small part of the aeroplankton or air-spora present in the atmosphere. The most frequent particles of biological origin are microorganisms, especially the spores of fungi. For example pollen represents only 2 of air-spora detected annually in Cardiff, United Kingdom. The others are fungal spores belonging to various groups Fungi Imperfecti 43 , Basidomycetes 37 , Ascomycetes 17 and Phycomycetes less than 1 . Particles when dispersed in air are termed as 'aerosols'. The...

Pollen Graivn Preface

Palynology finds applications in various fields. Some of them are taxonomy, plant evolution, plant breeding programmes, biotechnology, microbiology of water, soil and air, the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetic industry, energy food industry, forensic science, aerobiology, allergy, epidemiology, meteorology, fossil fuel exploration and biodiversity. On account of the above-mentioned applications, palynology has gained a lot of importance and is attracting different scientific disciplines....

Pollen Allergy

Airborne pollen of Phoenix sylvestris of the Palmae family commonly occurs in and around areas of Kolkata, the North East and the South eastern regions of India. The plants grow wild and are also cultivated on account of their fruit-yielding sugar and alcoholic drinks. Janaki Bai and Subba Reddi (1982) had reported its occurence in and around Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, South eastern India. Recently Gupta-Bhattacharya and Chakraborty (2006) have exploited the allergenic significance of...

Gravitational Settling

This principle involves settling or sedimentation of airborne particles from the air due to gravitational pull. When the airborne particles reach the terminal velocity they fall down to the earth. This is because the gravitational force will be more than the terminal velocity. Exposure of a horizontal surface on which particles can settle by gravity is the simplest method of collecting airborne pollen. In theory, particles simply settle at their terminal velocity and are retained by an adhesive...

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Fig. 7.1 Bilateral spore of Pyrossia nummularifolia. a. Spore before acetolysis showing perine b. spore after acetolysis. are either bilaterally symmetrical (Fig. 7.2) or radially symmetrical (tetrahedral) (Fig. 7.3). The surface of the spore facing the centre of the tetrad is the 'proximal surface', and diametrically opposite to it, facing the periphery of the tetrad, is the 'distal surface'. It is often easy to locate the proximal surface in isolated spores, because it is on this side that...

Spiny

Fig. 5.7 Pollen Group Irregularly shaped Daucus. Other Triaperturate Nyssa Netted Garrya, Fraxinus, Olea, Ligustrum Porate Plantago major, P.lanceolata Spiny Iva xanthifolla, Solidago, Ambrosia, Artemisia. Fig. 5.10 Betula (SEM). Fig. 5.12 Erica (LM). Fig. 5.10 Betula (SEM). Fig. 5.12 Erica (LM). Fig. 5.13 Tilia (LM). Fig. 5.14 Plantago (SEM). Fig. 5.13 Tilia (LM). Fig. 5.14 Plantago (SEM). Fig. 5.8 to 5.14 Photomicrographs of pollen of angiospermous plants from temperate region.

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Pilate They are sexine elements usually standing directly on the nexine, consisting of a rod-like base or stock (columella) and a swollen apical part head (caput). Fig. 4.17b Clavae sing. clava, adj. Clavate Club shaped elements of the sexine ektex-ine that are higher than 1 jm, with diameter smaller than height and thicker at the apex than the base. Fig. 4.17b Clavae sing. clava, adj. Clavate Club shaped elements of the sexine ektex-ine that are higher than 1...

Microgametogenesis

Fig. 3.3 Microsporogenesis and microgametogensis. Fig. 3.3 Microsporogenesis and microgametogensis. Separation of pmc Pollen tetrad Pollen grains Usually these four microspores or pollen grains remain attached as tetrad in various ways such as tetrahedral, tetragonal, linear (e.g. Mimosa pudica), rhomboidal (e.g. Anona muricata), decussate (e.g. Magnolia grandiflora), square depending on the orientation of meiotic spindle axes and the related cleavage planes. Pollen grains get separated from...

Remote Sensing Techniques in Aerobiology

Anda et al., (2006) had indicated the possible use of remote sensing to identify terrestrial growth of short ragweed Ambrosia artemisifolia a notorious weed responsible for health hazards. They indicated that remote sensing technology is probably the most efficient tool for locating and detecting ragweed population. The data may be useful for the implemenatation policies aiming at controlling the spread of the obnoxious ragweed. This endeavour of detecting short ragweed from space was possible...

Automatic Pollen Monitor A New Air Sampler for Aerobiological Survey

Teranishi et al. (2006) have advocated the use of a new automatic pollen monitor (KP-1000, Kowa Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan) introduced at the University of Toyama, Faculty of Medicine in 2004. The basic principle of the measurement by this new pollen monitor is based on the auto fluorescence of the individual pollen grains excited by ultraviolet light. In order to study the efficiency and accuracy of this monitor, Teranishi et al., compared the results obtained from this monitor with pollen counts...

Calculations To Obtain Conversion Factor

A) Sampled area 8.4 cm x 1 cm 8.4 sq. cm 84,00,00,000 sq. microns (1 cm 10,000 microns) B) Scanned area 20 microns (length) x 20 microns (width) x 24 hours 9,600 sq. microns C) Volume of air sampled per minute 5 litres min In 24 hours 5 x 24 x 60 7,200 L 24 hour 5 x 0.001000028 0.005 m3 To convert 1 litre into cubic metre Therefore, conversion factor 1000 14.46 (conversion factor) The number of spores, thus scanned, multiplied by conversion factor would give the number of spores in m3 of air....

The Cour Girouette Sampler Cour 1974

The apparatus involves two methods impact and sedimentation gravitational. Two pieces of apparatus are involved during smpling a height-adjustable pole carrying two vertically-aligned filtres (Fig. 13.4-a) and a fixed height sampler carrying a horizontally aligned filtre (Fig. 13.4-b). When sampling the vertical filtres are raised to a height of 3 m above ground level and locked during the exposure period. The horizontal filtre Fig. 13.4a & b a. The Cour Grovette Sampler Showing a...

Field Botanical Studies Pollen Herbarium

The prerequisite of all atmospheric pollen studies is the compilation of a pollen herbarium. Primarily a classification and description of pollen morphotypes responsible for allergic disorders will lead to a pollination calendar for identification of airborne pollen grains. In any particular locality, the first step in the investigation of pollen types responsible for pollinosis consists of a thorough field botanical study of the various plants of that area. A list of local plants classified...

Operculum

It is defined as a thick exinous lid covering the aperture. It is distinguished from the thick non-apertural exine by the underlying thick intine. It is generally surrounded by a thinning of the exine which demarcates it from the non-apertural region. Operculae are of various shapes circular, elliptic, annular or bridge like. The last one is also referred as ponto-operculum. The pollen grains of Chamaerops humilis are described as monosulcate ponto-operculate. The number of apertures and their...

Burkard Sevenday Recording Volumetric Spore Trap

The Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap is similar in principle to the Hirst spore trap. It has a built-in vacuum pump, and samples continuously for a week without attention on an adhesive-coated transparent tape on a clock-driven drum behind the entrance orifice (Figs. 13.8-a, b). Particles are sucked into the orifice beneath the rain shield and impacted on adhesive-coated tape wrapped on a drum, which rotates behind the orifice over a weekly period. After exposure, the tape is...

Gravity Separation Technique

When large number of sedimentary samples are to be investigated for microfossil contents in a short time as done by palynologists of oil and coal exploration laboratories, the gravity separation technique is most suitable. As the matrix, organic matter, spores and pollen grains have different specific gravities, different portions can be separated by floating the processed samples in heavy liquids of about 2 specific gravity. Generally, spores and pollen grains range between the specific...

Experiments with Dust and Pollen

Blackley was scientifically very observant. Once he reported on an attack caused by the dust cloud produced by a moving carriage on the road. Examination of the dust under the microscope revealed the presence of grass pollen grains. He concluded that various channels by which a cause may reach a patient, in out of way places and at out of way times. On account of his ever alert and inquisitive mind, Blackley posed himself some questions Can pollen produce the symptoms of hay fever Does this...

Disadvantages

1) The efficiency and the volume sampled vary with wind speed so if quantitative measurements are desired, the wind speed must be measured. Fig. 13.3 Flag sampler (wind impaction sampler). 2) The efficiency varies with particle size and density. 3) The small size may lead to overloading during prolonged sampling periods if concentrations of airborne particulates are high. 4) Difficulty is sometimes experienced in separating the two halves of the tape and in placing the exposed portion flat on a...

Pollen Extraction from Honey

The extraction of pollen from honey is achieved by heating honey to 38 C in a water bath and stirring properly to ensure a uniform mixing of the pollen. Lieux (1981) recommends 20 gm of honey to be diluted with 100200 ml of distilled water. The aqueous mixture is centrifuged for 10 minutes at 4,000 rpm to ensure complete sedimentation of the pollen. The pollen thus recovered from honey can be acetolyzed and stored in glycerine. There have been very few innovations in the techniques used for the...

Pollen Apertures Form And Function

Thanikaimoni in his classical paper published in 1986, had reviewed various aspects of pollen apertures in relation to form and pollen function. Morphologically, the aperture is an opening or thin area of the exine where the intine is usually thick. Physiologically, it is a germination zone or a harmomegathus. The latter is described as a device to accommodate volume changes in the pollen due to dehydration or rehydration. An aperture is classified as simple or composite. A simple aperture can...

Aerobiology Aeropalynology Part II

This chapter deals with the study of all aspects of aeropollen studies. It is a general practice to group airborne pollen on the basis of habit of their plant sources such as trees, grasses and weeds. In temperate regions this type of grouping corresponds well with major flowering in various seasons in a year. Flowering in trees takes place in the spring, grasses in the early summer and 'weeds' in the late summer and autumn, each linked to well-defined seasons of pollinosis. In North America,...

Pollen Formation Development of the Pollen Wall and Tapetum

Pollen Wall Rice Sem

Pollen is considered as the male gamete in flowering plants or angiosperms and gymnosperms through which genetic information is transmitted to the offspring. To the naked eye pollen grains appear mainly in the form of a yellow or cream coloured powder, which look alike, but they are quite different in their wall pattern. In fact each pollen grain bears a species-specific wall surface pattern, which helps immensely in identification and classification. These varied pollen wall patterns exhibit...

Functional Factors Influencing Pollen Form

Pollen are known to have a variety of forms and a variety of pollen wall ornamentation, aperture condition, etc. According to Punt (1984) each form of pollen and each type of ornamentation has a definite function. This is more precise with respective to pollination mechanism. It appears that the pollen wall particularly the exine gets modified to suit the transport mechanism of pollen. During transport by wind, pollen grains are influenced by several factors including prevailing climatic...

Monoaperturate Pollen Grains

Pollen Monoporate

Fig. 4.18h Cicatricose It has more or less parallel ridges that are narrower than the spaces separating them. Fig. 4.18i Striate The pollen wall with narrow ridges forming the muri in striate pattern. Fig. 4.18j Corrugate syn. Rugulate It has a wrinkled texture. Here the elevated projections are ridges with regular or irregular radial humps or bulges. Fig. 4.18j Corrugate syn. Rugulate It has a wrinkled texture. Here the elevated projections are ridges with regular or irregular radial humps or...

Experiments with Chemicals and Odours

Blackley tried many volatile substances that which produced head symptoms however, in no instances were there any symptoms in the least degree resembled those of Hay fever. Odours given by different flowers had sometimes a marked effect, but as for the preceding substances there were none of the symptoms of hay fever. Blackley voluntarily tried the inhalation of odour from the microscopic fungi of Chaetomium elatum and involuntarily the one of Penicillum glacum. In this last case, Blackley had...

Rotorod Sampler Old Model

Perkins (1957) developed a battery operated rotorod sampler, which is known to sample air at a constant rotational speed. Since the efficiency of the stationary impaction sampler is low and highly variable, the rotating impactor has been more advantageously used. The device relies upon the high efficiency with which small airborne particles are deposited on narrow rods oriented at right angles to high velocity winds (Fig 13.5). It has been developed into a cheap, portable high efficient sampler...

Study Of Pollen Grains Introduction

Palynology involves the study of pollen and encompasses the structural and applied aspects of pollen. Pollen grains are the male reproductive structures produced by the flowering plants (angiosperms) and gymnosperms (naked seeded plants). Palynology is a distinct branch of biology and is unique in many ways. According to the modern and wider definition of palynology, it also includes the study of spores produced by lower plants such as Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. According to...

Allerginicity of Parthenium hysterophorus

Parthenium is a genus of basically the western hemisphere belonging to the family Asteraceae. It has been included in subtribe Ambrosiinae along with the well known and notorius genus Ambrosia (ragweed) and Iva (marsh elder). Parthenium hysterophorus is a ubiquitous annual weed native of the Gulf of Mexico region and West Indies but now disseminated in warm and semi arid subtropical regions of the United States and almost the whole of the Indian subcontinent. It occurs abundantly in the gulf...

Applications of copropalynology

Copropalynology deals with not only the fossil faeces of past animals but also of humans from the Ice Age. Oeggl (2001) has given an excellent account of pollen analysis of the Iceman's colon content. This investigation throws light on the Iceman's (Neolithic) lifestyle, environment, diet and the place he inhabited or where his settlement was located. The origin of this investigation goes back to 1991, when a chance discovery was made in the permanent ice of the Tyrolean Alps. A naked human...

Copropalynology

The term copropalynology is derived from the Greek word Kopros meaning dung, indicating the study of pollen and spores present in dung. It is one of the applied branches of palynology in which droppings (excrements) of various animals such as sheep, goats, kangaroos, giraffes, elephants, horses, bats, etc., are analyzed palynologically which provide interesting insights into their feeding habits. In literature, there is a classical example in this connection with regard to pollen analysis of...

Adaptations to Habitat

In case of pollen of Xerophytic plants, higher temperature of the arid zones seems to select thicker exine and or fewer and smaller apertures to prevent excessive water loss (Lee 1978) as in some members of Umbelliferae and Boraginaceae. Multiaperturate operculate pollen grains with thick exines have a selective advantage in combining the mechanism against desiccation and quick germination in the xerophytic species with a short life span of pollen as in Cactaceae. In contrast, the hydrophytic...

Contaminated And Poisonous Honeys

Honeys containing pollen from plants known to be poisonous or toxic are unsafe for human consumption. Individuals oversensitive to certain pollen may show allergic reactions to honeys contaminated with these airborne pollen. Pollen analysis helps to identify such honeys. Pollen of Lasiosiphon sp are not harmful to bees but honeys contaminated with these pollen are highly dangerous and poisonous for human consumption. In contrast pollen of Euphorbia geniculata is highly toxic, almost lethal to...

Kigelia Pollen Allergy

Aseptic filling into 30 ml 100 ml sterile vials using swinex adapter Fungal antigen preparation for testing purpose involves the following steps 1) Mass culturing of isolated fungi 1) Mass Culturing of Isolated Fungi A few tube slants containing Czapek agar medium are inoculated with fungi isolated earlier and incubated at 30 C 1 C for 5-7 days till maximum sporulation occurs. The subculture spores are then suspended in sterile saline solution. The spore suspension is then used for inoculation...

Anderson 2 Stage Sampler

Andersen 2 - stage sampler is a multi-orifice cascade impactor. This unit is used whenever size distribution is not required and only respirable or nonrespirable segregation or total counts are needed. Viable particles above 0.8 microns can be collected on agar plates. The sampler is constructed of aluminium with two stages, which are held together with three dowel pins, and three teflon caps. Each impactor stage contains multiple precision-drilled orifices. When air is drawn through the...

Furrows

These are similar to boat shaped depressions in the exine, the ektexine being much reduced but with the endexine less affected (Furrow or Colpus, Pl Colpi adj Colpate). Unlike pores, furrows do not completely penetrate the exine and consequently, if pores are lacking, the pollen tube must force its growth through the covering membrane of the exine at germination. The characters of the furrows, such as shape, size, distribution, number are of the greatest value in the identification and...

The Scottish Centre For Pollen Studies

One of the two sampling sites in Scotland, was established in 1987 and began monitoring pollen in 1988. In addition to two volunteer scientists who helped to establish and develop the Pollen Centre's work, a succession of job seeking youngsters, opted to work in the centre to acquire some basic scientific and organizational skills to help them gain full time employment. In 1989, the first of an annual succession of French students - more than 40 - from the universities of Montpellier, Toulon...

Significance of Fungi as Aeroallergens

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT HISTORY OF ALLERGIC DISEASES CAUSED BY FUNGAL AEROALLERGENS The possibility of fungal allergy was first mentioned by Cadham (1924) and Van Leeuwen (1924). However, the first systematic studies of fungal allergy were those of Feinberg (1935). The first systematic aerobiological work including airborne fungi in India was carried out by Cunningham (1873) in Calcutta. Agnihotri (1980) studied the fungi in the bedroom of bronchial asthma patients and found Aspergillus niger,...

Suction Samplers Hirst Spore Trap

The Hirst spore trap, (invented by Hirst in 1952), was the first suction type sampler readily available for sampling pollen and other spores. The vane tail keeps the 2.14 mm intake orifice facing the wind, and a rain shield protects the orifice from precipitation. It must be provided with an external vacuum pump (1 6 HP Motor). The efficiency though variable with wind speed and with particle size, is reasonably high. Inside the housing containing the orifice, a greased microscope slide is drawn...

Minor Applications of Pollen Studies

There is no doubt that pollen studies have many applications, which can be classified into major and minor applications for the sake of convenience and proper understanding. Major applications are incorporated in Chapter 12 on Melissopalynology, Chapters 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 on various aspects of Aerobiology, Chapter 20 on Forensic Palynology and Chapter 21 on use of pollen studies in exploration of fossil fuels Palaeopalynology and reconstruction of past vegetation (Palaeoecology). In...

Palynology of Fungi

The variety of fungi represented by a large number of genera and species perhaps outnumber all other types of plants.They produce different types of reproductive bodies, which are collectively called 'spores'. The analogy between a spore and a seed can be explained by the fact that both of them germinate and produce the mother plant. The spores of fungi are unicellular or multicellular. The morphological features of fungal spores are studied in the same way as pollen morphology. Thus, the study...

Dehiscence Of Anther

Pollen is commonly released from the anther through a longitudinal slitlike opening in the anther wall. Other methods also occur. Dehiscence usually results from hygroscopic shrinkage of the anther wall. Change in humidity may cause repeated opening and closing of the pollen chambers. The pollen may be freed all at once or escape gradually. The air dispersal of pollen and spores depends on various factors such as time of the day, variations in temperature and wind speed. On a bright sunny day,...

Honeybees

Pollen Plants India

In order to understand the interaction between honeybees and plants it is important to know some facts of honeybees, their social life in the hive and a few statistical facts about their role in honey production and consumption. Honeybee Apis belongs to the order Hymenoptera. There are four different species of honeybees. Apis dorsata is diploid (Rock bee). It forms combs on rocks, branches of big trees, walls of buildings. Honey produced by this species is about 30 kg per comb. Apis florea is...

Pollination Management

Honeybees play a major role in improving the yield due to cross-pollination in addition to their byproducts like honey and bee wax. Bees are the most efficient pollinators on account of following assets 1. Bee colonies can be moved to areas, which require pollination. 2. Each colony contains large populations of foragers to work on crop plants. 3. Bees usually work on only one type of flower on each trip (floral fidelity). 4. As honeybees are efficient pollinating agents, by using pheromone...

Pollination

Pollen grains contain the male gametes required to achieve fertilization. The process of transfer of pollen grains to the receptive stigmas of female flowers is known as pollination. Mature pollen grains awaiting suitable conditions for anther dehiscence and dispersal, normally have one or more pores through which pollen tubes grow and develop their passage down the length of the stigma towards the ovule below. Most pollen grains fall into one of two varieties of aperture arrangement those with...

Professor T Sreeramulu 19251974

Professor Tangirala Sreeramulu was born in Aranigadda, Krishna District in Andhra Pradesh, India on November 1, 1925. His early education was in Andhra Pradesh, but for his M.Sc., he went to Agra College, Agra. He specialized in mycology under the guidance of Professor K. C. Mehta, the first scientist to carry out long distance transport of rust spores (uredinales). He worked as a lecturer in the Department of Botany, Andhra University from 1948. His research career started at Rothmstead...

Nature of Laesura

The laesura is the mark at the proximal pole of the spore, and is an 'aperture' in the exine. In tetrahedral spores it is triradiate (trilete laesura), and in bilateral spores appearing as a straight line ('monolete' laesura). Only these two types commonly occur among modern pteridophyta, and their spores are either trilete or monolete, ('alete', spores, that is devoid of a laesura, are reported infrequently, for example Equisetum). The average length of the laesura (one of the arms alone of...

Incidence of Pollen Allergy

According to Iwanami et al. (1988), one out of every ten Japanese suffers from pollinosis. About 90 species of plant pollen have been identified as aeroallergens. The commonest among them are Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort), Oryza sativa (rice) Ambrosia artemisisaefolia (ragweed), Betula tauschii (birch), Nerium indicum (oleander), Castanea crenata (Spanish chestnut). The gymnospermous pollen-causing allergy are Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair tree) and Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese red cedar)....

Rast

Rast studies were carried out with the help of sera of the patients and the pollen extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus and Ambrosia. A number of conclusions were drawn from these studies. First, it is clear that there is significant non-reactivity between Parthenium hysterophorus and Ambrosia. Parthenium hysterophorus pollen may be an important environmental allergen similar to Ambrosia species. Parthenium hysterophorus represents an unique allergen where importance has largely been overlooked...

Tilak Air Sampler

It is a modified version of the Burkard sampler fabricated for Indian weather conditions by the outstanding Indian aerobiologist Professor S. T. Tilak. Instead of a vacuum pump, an exhaust fan is provided on the top position of the sampler. The apparatus runs on electric power supply (AC - 220 V) and provides a continuous sampling of air for eight days. The electric clock fitted in the instrument is synchronized with the drum. Air is sucked through the orifice of the projecting tube at the rate...

Is Alnus Poisonous Pollen Grain

Oak trees are very common in the deciduous forests of Central Europe. The pollen grains are mostly suboblate, tricolpate measuring 20-30 mm. The pollen is mildly allergenic. In Europe Corylus avellana and C. carpinifolia are the chief contributors to airborne pollen spectrum. Corylus avellana is represented by a high shrub with a broad crown and several almost parallel stems. The plants are monoecious with drooping yellow male catkins and small inconspicuous female inflorescences with brightly...

Protocol for Slide Preparation for Daily Pollen Count

1) Remove tape (exposed for previous 24 hours) from drum and align on perspex ruled block. 2) Cut 24 hour exposed section and transfer carefully to clean, dated slide. Placing a small drop of distilled water in the middle of the slide prior to lowering the tape will help the latter to adhere during inversion of slide. Fig. 13.8-a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. Fig. 13.8-a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. Fig. 13.8b Burkard seven-day recording volumetric...

Size Of Pollem Grains In Nm

In the case of tetrahedral spores two measurements are often given which most probably represent the length of the longer side of the triangular amb x (MN x OQ) that of the short side, or the longest diameter in polar view x the shortest diameter in the same view if the amb is triangular with sides of uneven length as it often is and, or alternatively the length of one side of the amb x diameter in polar view, or rarely the palynological concept, polar diameter x longest equatorial diameter....

Current Techniques in Palynology

Understanding and mastering the techniques for studying various aspects of pollen, both modern and fossil, is very important (Faegri and Iversen 1964). The primary purpose of using various palynological techniques is to undertake microscopic examination of pollen and spores. Essential pollen morphological characters can be studied only if proper techniques are employed by the investigators. In case of fossil pollen and spores, maximum caution has to be taken to recover them in an undamaged...

Honeybees And Pollination

Pollination is the process involving transfer of pollen grains from anthers to the stigmatic surface of gynoecium. Pollination is important to plants as the means by which the next generation is produced. The process of pollination requires a pollinator, which is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. The...

Phenology

It is the science of the relations of climate and periodic biological phenomena, such as the shedding of pollen. One of the useful aids in identification of pollen is the knowledge of pollination times in comparison to the dates when the samples were obtained. Frequent observations should be made on the development of flowers. Annual records over a period of a few years will enable one to predict for local areas, the onset of pollen types of the different species. It is advisable to include in...

Allergy

The term 'allergy' was coined in 1906 by Dr. Clemens Freiherr von Pirquet, an Austrian physician, to describe any abnormal reaction of the immune system. The immune system is intended to protect the body against the noxious invaders. But in allergy, immunity has gone awry, and the system reacts to substances that are ordinarily harmless. By far the most familiar allergic reactions are respiratory - sneezing, runny nose and watery eyes caused by inhaled allergens from growing weeds, trees and...

Pollen Production

Several workers on pollen have made an attempt to assess the quantum of pollen discharge to the atmosphere (Agnihotri and Singh 1975 Khandelwal and Mittre 1973 Nair and Rastogi 1963 Mondal and Mandal 1998, Kessler & Harley 2004). The quantity of pollen in the air depends on several factors, the most important being pollen production in the individual species. The amount of pollen production and methods of dispersal are very important factors, which are directly or indirectly involved in...

Applied Aspects Of Bee Pollen

Bee gathered pollen is nature's most complete food, rich in vitamins, minerals, amino acids and a complete source of protein. It can give us that extra edge to stay healthy. An all-round nutritional supplement, bee pollen is ideal for daily use. Bee pollen is often referred as the 'perfect food'. Studies from all over the world indicate that the pollen collected by bees from the stamen of flowers is worth its weight in gold. Bee pollen contains 22 amino acids (and higher amounts of the eight...

Pollen Release And Dispersal

Since there is greater exposure to pollen due to the height of the trees they are more easily disseminated by wind or insects and the chance of pollen loss is therefore greater. The higher production is compensated by this loss. A more or less similar observation was drawn by Mondal and Mandal (1998), who stated that there is a tendency for gradual increase in pollen production from herbs to shrubs and then in trees. It is also observed that pollen grains of a small size have wider distribution...

Morphology of Microfossils

During the maceration of sediments along with the pollen grains and spores, a large quantity of microfossils are also recovered, though their affinity with plants and animals is uncertain. These microfossils have abundant applications in interpreting stratigraphical and paleoenvironmental conditions, which have applied scope in the fossil fuel exploration. Technically, the study of these microfossils also forms part of the palynological investigation. The overall composition of organic remains...

Pollen in Honey

A close observation on the life of honeybees indicates that four natural resources such as water, resin, nectar and pollen are required for survival of honeybees. Water is used to cool the hive and dilute honey fed to the larvae. Resin reinforces the hive and plug holes. Nectar serves as the major source of carbohydrates from which honeybees obtain their energy. Pollen is the major source of proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins. It is estimated that a worker larva requires about 142 mg of honey...

The Role Of Palynology In Agriculture Horticulture And Plant Breeding

For many centuries it was known but not understood, that the yellow dust (pollen), when transferred by insects or carried artificially by man, from the dehisced anthers of one flower to the stigmas of another flower, resulted in the formation of fruit. As time progressed from the late 18th century, through the 19th and 20th centuries, an understanding of the nature of this process of transfer, called pollination, took place. The majority of pollen-producing plants require the pollen to be...

Fred Campbell Meier 18931938

The term aerobiology was coined in the 1930s of the 20th Century, by the American plant pathologist, F. C. Meier. This term was probably parallel to hydrobiology. F. C. Meier worked for the U. S. Department of Agriculture for many years in various capacities. He was basically interested in plant diseases, which were distributed by airborne fungal spores. In order to investigate the atmosphere at various levels, in different areas and over considerable distances he worked with the famous aviator...

Allergy Status In Bangalore India

Inspite of the fact that Bangalore has the unique distinction of gaining many adjectives including 'Air Conditioned City of India' , 'Garden City', etc. it is also gaining another dubious distinction as 'Allergy City'. It is said that this city has the highest atmospheric pollution next to Delhi, which is responsible for a large proportion of the population suffering from various types of allergies. On account of the numerous parks and gardens-grasses, weeds and trees, atmospheric pollen occur...

Pollen Calendar Of Allahabad Up India

Aeropalynological survey of Allahabad was carried out by Nautiyal and Midha (1984) during 1973-1979. The survey was carried out mostly by gravity slide method in different areas of Allahabad City. Airspora determined at and around the Allahabad Univesity, Botany Department from Oct 1973-Sep 1974 has been depicted in Fig. 13.10d. Fig. 13.10d Pollen calendar of Allahabad, U.P., India from Oct 1973-Sep 1974. Fig. 13.10d Pollen calendar of Allahabad, U.P., India from Oct 1973-Sep 1974. The pollen...

Symmetry

Pollen or spores may be symmetric or asymmetric. Asymmetric grains have no planes of symmetry and are either fixiform (with fixed shape, which is the common case) or nonfixiform (without fixed shape, very rare). Symmetric grains may be of two types radiosymmetric (radial) grains have more than two vertical planes of symmetry, or, if provided with but two such planes, always with equilong equatorial axes. Bilateral spores are more or less flattened having two vertical planes of symmetry but in...

Description of Air Samplers Pollen Traps Including their Merits and Demerits

Many sampling devices operating on the principles described above have been used for sampling pollen and other airborne particles. The samplers used for sampling airborne pollen should have as many as possible of the following characteristics 1) The samplers should have a reasonably high efficiency for the particles of interest under all normal operating conditions. 2) If the efficiency differs with wind speed or other factors, the manner of variation should be known. 3) The sampler should test...

Durham Sampler

Durham Pollen Trap

Durham in 1946, who was for many years Head Botanist at the Abbott Laboratories. Durham's sampler was adopted as the standard pollen sampler by the Pollen and Mold Committee of the American Academy of Allergy. It is still used sometimes by allergists, hospitals, and public health agencies on account of its easy availability. The Durham sampler consists of a mount for positioning a glass microscope slide holder between two horizontal circular metallic disks. It is...

Chemical Composition of Pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus

Gupta and Chanda (1991) worked out the chemical nature of pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus with particular reference to carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents. The results are indicated below Chemical analysis of the pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus (per cent dry weight) Total carbohydrate Total protein Total lipid The amino acid composition of the pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus showed the presence of free amino acids like arginine, aminocaprylic acid, proline, methionine, histidine....

The Development of Palynology

Assyrian Eagle Headed Tree

Hyde and Williams coined the word 'palynology' in 1945 as a substitute for the science of pollen grains and spores. The term 'pollen' in Greek means 'flour'. Palynology is therefore derived from the Greek verb 'palynein' meaning - to strew to spread to disseminate to distribute in recognition of the fact that many pollen grains and spores are easily carried by the wind. However the systematic study of pollen and spores was initiated much earlier. The function of pollen grains and their role in...

Historical Account

In their excellent review of work on melissopalynology, Jones and Bryant (1996) had indicated that the sweet taste of honey had attracted the early primate ancestors of humans and later humans too. Honey being a nature's gift derived from the hard work of honeybees and plant pollen attracted the attention of users and scientists right from prehistoric times. Cave paintings dating back to 15,000 years ago in Altamira region, northern Spain depict the honey combs and the ladders needed to reach...

Step by Step Acetolysis Procedure

Erdtman's (1960) acetolysis technique is the most popular method, which is followed almost throughout the world. The different steps involved in this technique are given below 1) Collection and preservation of pollen material It involves collection of anthers from mature flower buds just before opening and anthesis of flowers by using clean forceps and preserving the anthers or sometimes anthers with a portion of filament of stamens in clean glass vials with 70 glacial acetic acid. Some...

Ruth M Leuschner Born on 20th September 1922

There have been number of instances where scientists have made significant contributions inspite of the hardship they underwent during the early period of their careers. In this context Ruth Leuschner is one of the perfect examples who is considered to be a renowned researcher in the field of aerobiology. In her long innings in the pursuit of scientific knowledge, she witnessed the development of aerobiology and has taken an energetic part in the dissemination of aerobiological information. She...

Applications Of Raw Honey

'Honey is not a product but a mystic universe ' Its riches are beyond description. It contains and encloses the entire nature the sun, the flowers, the freshness, youth, euphoria, the pleasure of living, in short a food for the Gods, the earthy paradise. There is a treasury in every drop of honey Honey contains over 25 different sugars, each one having a different function in the human metabolism. Among them are fructose (as dextro-fructose fruit sugars), glucose, levulose, trehalose, meletoze,...

History Of Aerobiology

History Aerobiology

The term aerobiology was coined as early as 1930s by F. C. Meier who was the plant pathologist working in the Department of Agriculture, United States of America. However, this does not mean that aerobiological studies were not carried out prior to the 1930's. In fact, the preliminary aerobiological work and its applications to health and environmental pollution dates back to the period of the Vedas c. 3000 B.C. Aerobiology involves the study of airborne bioparticles, that is, particles of...