Remote Sensing Techniques in Aerobiology

Anda et al., (2006) had indicated the possible use of remote sensing to identify terrestrial growth of short ragweed Ambrosia artemisifolia a notorious weed responsible for health hazards. They indicated that remote sensing technology is probably the most efficient tool for locating and detecting ragweed population. The data may be useful for the implemenatation policies aiming at controlling the spread of the obnoxious ragweed. This endeavour of detecting short ragweed from space was possible...

Automatic Pollen Monitor A New Air Sampler for Aerobiological Survey

Teranishi et al. (2006) have advocated the use of a new automatic pollen monitor (KP-1000, Kowa Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan) introduced at the University of Toyama, Faculty of Medicine in 2004. The basic principle of the measurement by this new pollen monitor is based on the auto fluorescence of the individual pollen grains excited by ultraviolet light. In order to study the efficiency and accuracy of this monitor, Teranishi et al., compared the results obtained from this monitor with pollen counts...

Aircraft Samplers

Pollen and spores have also been sampled from aircrafts. Most of these samplers have nonisokinetic entrances, but some isokinetic samplers for use on light aircrafts have been developed. Upper air-spora of the atmosphere in Bangalore, India was studied by Agashe and Chatterjee (1986) by using the aircraft sampling technique. They sampled the air at 305 m, 610 m and 915 m above ground level for a period of seven months (October 1984 to April 1985) with nutrient agar Petri plates and...

Calculations To Obtain Conversion Factor

A) Sampled area 8.4 cm x 1 cm 8.4 sq. cm 84,00,00,000 sq. microns (1 cm 10,000 microns) B) Scanned area 20 microns (length) x 20 microns (width) x 24 hours 9,600 sq. microns C) Volume of air sampled per minute 5 litres min In 24 hours 5 x 24 x 60 7,200 L 24 hour 5 x 0.001000028 0.005 m3 To convert 1 litre into cubic metre Therefore, conversion factor 1000 14.46 (conversion factor) The number of spores, thus scanned, multiplied by conversion factor would give the number of spores in m3 of air....

The Cour Girouette Sampler Cour 1974

The apparatus involves two methods impact and sedimentation gravitational. Two pieces of apparatus are involved during smpling a height-adjustable pole carrying two vertically-aligned filtres (Fig. 13.4-a) and a fixed height sampler carrying a horizontally aligned filtre (Fig. 13.4-b). When sampling the vertical filtres are raised to a height of 3 m above ground level and locked during the exposure period. The horizontal filtre Fig. 13.4a & b a. The Cour Grovette Sampler Showing a...

Field Botanical Studies Pollen Herbarium

The prerequisite of all atmospheric pollen studies is the compilation of a pollen herbarium. Primarily a classification and description of pollen morphotypes responsible for allergic disorders will lead to a pollination calendar for identification of airborne pollen grains. In any particular locality, the first step in the investigation of pollen types responsible for pollinosis consists of a thorough field botanical study of the various plants of that area. A list of local plants classified...

Burkard Sevenday Recording Volumetric Spore Trap

The Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap is similar in principle to the Hirst spore trap. It has a built-in vacuum pump, and samples continuously for a week without attention on an adhesive-coated transparent tape on a clock-driven drum behind the entrance orifice (Figs. 13.8-a, b). Particles are sucked into the orifice beneath the rain shield and impacted on adhesive-coated tape wrapped on a drum, which rotates behind the orifice over a weekly period. After exposure, the tape is...

Gravity Separation Technique

When large number of sedimentary samples are to be investigated for microfossil contents in a short time as done by palynologists of oil and coal exploration laboratories, the gravity separation technique is most suitable. As the matrix, organic matter, spores and pollen grains have different specific gravities, different portions can be separated by floating the processed samples in heavy liquids of about 2 specific gravity. Generally, spores and pollen grains range between the specific...

Experiments with Dust and Pollen

Blackley was scientifically very observant. Once he reported on an attack caused by the dust cloud produced by a moving carriage on the road. Examination of the dust under the microscope revealed the presence of grass pollen grains. He concluded that various channels by which a cause may reach a patient, in out of way places and at out of way times. On account of his ever alert and inquisitive mind, Blackley posed himself some questions Can pollen produce the symptoms of hay fever Does this...

Pollen Extraction from Honey

The extraction of pollen from honey is achieved by heating honey to 38 C in a water bath and stirring properly to ensure a uniform mixing of the pollen. Lieux (1981) recommends 20 gm of honey to be diluted with 100200 ml of distilled water. The aqueous mixture is centrifuged for 10 minutes at 4,000 rpm to ensure complete sedimentation of the pollen. The pollen thus recovered from honey can be acetolyzed and stored in glycerine. There have been very few innovations in the techniques used for the...

Pollen Apertures Form And Function

Thanikaimoni in his classical paper published in 1986, had reviewed various aspects of pollen apertures in relation to form and pollen function. Morphologically, the aperture is an opening or thin area of the exine where the intine is usually thick. Physiologically, it is a germination zone or a harmomegathus. The latter is described as a device to accommodate volume changes in the pollen due to dehydration or rehydration. An aperture is classified as simple or composite. A simple aperture can...

Aerobiology Aeropalynology Part II

This chapter deals with the study of all aspects of aeropollen studies. It is a general practice to group airborne pollen on the basis of habit of their plant sources such as trees, grasses and weeds. In temperate regions this type of grouping corresponds well with major flowering in various seasons in a year. Flowering in trees takes place in the spring, grasses in the early summer and 'weeds' in the late summer and autumn, each linked to well-defined seasons of pollinosis. In North America,...

Pollen Formation Development of the Pollen Wall and Tapetum

Pollen is considered as the male gamete in flowering plants or angiosperms and gymnosperms through which genetic information is transmitted to the offspring. To the naked eye pollen grains appear mainly in the form of a yellow or cream coloured powder, which look alike, but they are quite different in their wall pattern. In fact each pollen grain bears a species-specific wall surface pattern, which helps immensely in identification and classification. These varied pollen wall patterns exhibit...

Functional Factors Influencing Pollen Form

Pollen are known to have a variety of forms and a variety of pollen wall ornamentation, aperture condition, etc. According to Punt (1984) each form of pollen and each type of ornamentation has a definite function. This is more precise with respective to pollination mechanism. It appears that the pollen wall particularly the exine gets modified to suit the transport mechanism of pollen. During transport by wind, pollen grains are influenced by several factors including prevailing climatic...

N n n n

Pollen Monoporate

Fig. 4.18h Cicatricose It has more or less parallel ridges that are narrower than the spaces separating them. Fig. 4.18i Striate The pollen wall with narrow ridges forming the muri in striate pattern. Fig. 4.18j Corrugate syn. Rugulate It has a wrinkled texture. Here the elevated projections are ridges with regular or irregular radial humps or bulges. Fig. 4.18j Corrugate syn. Rugulate It has a wrinkled texture. Here the elevated projections are ridges with regular or irregular radial humps or...

Experiments with Chemicals and Odours

Blackley tried many volatile substances that which produced head symptoms however, in no instances were there any symptoms in the least degree resembled those of Hay fever. Odours given by different flowers had sometimes a marked effect, but as for the preceding substances there were none of the symptoms of hay fever. Blackley voluntarily tried the inhalation of odour from the microscopic fungi of Chaetomium elatum and involuntarily the one of Penicillum glacum. In this last case, Blackley had...

Rotorod Sampler Old Model

Perkins (1957) developed a battery operated rotorod sampler, which is known to sample air at a constant rotational speed. Since the efficiency of the stationary impaction sampler is low and highly variable, the rotating impactor has been more advantageously used. The device relies upon the high efficiency with which small airborne particles are deposited on narrow rods oriented at right angles to high velocity winds (Fig 13.5). It has been developed into a cheap, portable high efficient sampler...

Study Of Pollen Grains Introduction

Palynology involves the study of pollen and encompasses the structural and applied aspects of pollen. Pollen grains are the male reproductive structures produced by the flowering plants (angiosperms) and gymnosperms (naked seeded plants). Palynology is a distinct branch of biology and is unique in many ways. According to the modern and wider definition of palynology, it also includes the study of spores produced by lower plants such as Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. According to...

Allerginicity of Parthenium hysterophorus

Parthenium is a genus of basically the western hemisphere belonging to the family Asteraceae. It has been included in subtribe Ambrosiinae along with the well known and notorius genus Ambrosia (ragweed) and Iva (marsh elder). Parthenium hysterophorus is a ubiquitous annual weed native of the Gulf of Mexico region and West Indies but now disseminated in warm and semi arid subtropical regions of the United States and almost the whole of the Indian subcontinent. It occurs abundantly in the gulf...

Applications of copropalynology

Copropalynology deals with not only the fossil faeces of past animals but also of humans from the Ice Age. Oeggl (2001) has given an excellent account of pollen analysis of the Iceman's colon content. This investigation throws light on the Iceman's (Neolithic) lifestyle, environment, diet and the place he inhabited or where his settlement was located. The origin of this investigation goes back to 1991, when a chance discovery was made in the permanent ice of the Tyrolean Alps. A naked human...

Copropalynology

The term copropalynology is derived from the Greek word Kopros meaning dung, indicating the study of pollen and spores present in dung. It is one of the applied branches of palynology in which droppings (excrements) of various animals such as sheep, goats, kangaroos, giraffes, elephants, horses, bats, etc., are analyzed palynologically which provide interesting insights into their feeding habits. In literature, there is a classical example in this connection with regard to pollen analysis of...

Adaptations to Habitat

In case of pollen of Xerophytic plants, higher temperature of the arid zones seems to select thicker exine and or fewer and smaller apertures to prevent excessive water loss (Lee 1978) as in some members of Umbelliferae and Boraginaceae. Multiaperturate operculate pollen grains with thick exines have a selective advantage in combining the mechanism against desiccation and quick germination in the xerophytic species with a short life span of pollen as in Cactaceae. In contrast, the hydrophytic...

Contaminated And Poisonous Honeys

Honeys containing pollen from plants known to be poisonous or toxic are unsafe for human consumption. Individuals oversensitive to certain pollen may show allergic reactions to honeys contaminated with these airborne pollen. Pollen analysis helps to identify such honeys. Pollen of Lasiosiphon sp are not harmful to bees but honeys contaminated with these pollen are highly dangerous and poisonous for human consumption. In contrast pollen of Euphorbia geniculata is highly toxic, almost lethal to...

Kigelia Pollen Allergy

Aseptic filling into 30 ml 100 ml sterile vials using swinex adapter Fungal antigen preparation for testing purpose involves the following steps 1) Mass culturing of isolated fungi 1) Mass Culturing of Isolated Fungi A few tube slants containing Czapek agar medium are inoculated with fungi isolated earlier and incubated at 30 C 1 C for 5-7 days till maximum sporulation occurs. The subculture spores are then suspended in sterile saline solution. The spore suspension is then used for inoculation...

Anderson 2 Stage Sampler

Andersen 2 - stage sampler is a multi-orifice cascade impactor. This unit is used whenever size distribution is not required and only respirable or nonrespirable segregation or total counts are needed. Viable particles above 0.8 microns can be collected on agar plates. The sampler is constructed of aluminium with two stages, which are held together with three dowel pins, and three teflon caps. Each impactor stage contains multiple precision-drilled orifices. When air is drawn through the...

Furrows

These are similar to boat shaped depressions in the exine, the ektexine being much reduced but with the endexine less affected (Furrow or Colpus, Pl Colpi adj Colpate). Unlike pores, furrows do not completely penetrate the exine and consequently, if pores are lacking, the pollen tube must force its growth through the covering membrane of the exine at germination. The characters of the furrows, such as shape, size, distribution, number are of the greatest value in the identification and...

The Scottish Centre For Pollen Studies

One of the two sampling sites in Scotland, was established in 1987 and began monitoring pollen in 1988. In addition to two volunteer scientists who helped to establish and develop the Pollen Centre's work, a succession of job seeking youngsters, opted to work in the centre to acquire some basic scientific and organizational skills to help them gain full time employment. In 1989, the first of an annual succession of French students - more than 40 - from the universities of Montpellier, Toulon...

Significance of Fungi as Aeroallergens

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT HISTORY OF ALLERGIC DISEASES CAUSED BY FUNGAL AEROALLERGENS The possibility of fungal allergy was first mentioned by Cadham (1924) and Van Leeuwen (1924). However, the first systematic studies of fungal allergy were those of Feinberg (1935). The first systematic aerobiological work including airborne fungi in India was carried out by Cunningham (1873) in Calcutta. Agnihotri (1980) studied the fungi in the bedroom of bronchial asthma patients and found Aspergillus niger,...

Suction Samplers Hirst Spore Trap

The Hirst spore trap, (invented by Hirst in 1952), was the first suction type sampler readily available for sampling pollen and other spores. The vane tail keeps the 2.14 mm intake orifice facing the wind, and a rain shield protects the orifice from precipitation. It must be provided with an external vacuum pump (1 6 HP Motor). The efficiency though variable with wind speed and with particle size, is reasonably high. Inside the housing containing the orifice, a greased microscope slide is drawn...

Minor Applications of Pollen Studies

There is no doubt that pollen studies have many applications, which can be classified into major and minor applications for the sake of convenience and proper understanding. Major applications are incorporated in Chapter 12 on Melissopalynology, Chapters 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 on various aspects of Aerobiology, Chapter 20 on Forensic Palynology and Chapter 21 on use of pollen studies in exploration of fossil fuels Palaeopalynology and reconstruction of past vegetation (Palaeoecology). In...

Palynology of Fungi

The variety of fungi represented by a large number of genera and species perhaps outnumber all other types of plants.They produce different types of reproductive bodies, which are collectively called 'spores'. The analogy between a spore and a seed can be explained by the fact that both of them germinate and produce the mother plant. The spores of fungi are unicellular or multicellular. The morphological features of fungal spores are studied in the same way as pollen morphology. Thus, the study...

Dehiscence Of Anther

Pollen is commonly released from the anther through a longitudinal slitlike opening in the anther wall. Other methods also occur. Dehiscence usually results from hygroscopic shrinkage of the anther wall. Change in humidity may cause repeated opening and closing of the pollen chambers. The pollen may be freed all at once or escape gradually. The air dispersal of pollen and spores depends on various factors such as time of the day, variations in temperature and wind speed. On a bright sunny day,...

Honeybees

In order to understand the interaction between honeybees and plants it is important to know some facts of honeybees, their social life in the hive and a few statistical facts about their role in honey production and consumption. Honeybee Apis belongs to the order Hymenoptera. There are four different species of honeybees. Apis dorsata is diploid (Rock bee). It forms combs on rocks, branches of big trees, walls of buildings. Honey produced by this species is about 30 kg per comb. Apis florea is...

Pollination Management

Honeybees play a major role in improving the yield due to cross-pollination in addition to their byproducts like honey and bee wax. Bees are the most efficient pollinators on account of following assets 1. Bee colonies can be moved to areas, which require pollination. 2. Each colony contains large populations of foragers to work on crop plants. 3. Bees usually work on only one type of flower on each trip (floral fidelity). 4. As honeybees are efficient pollinating agents, by using pheromone...

Pollination

Pollen grains contain the male gametes required to achieve fertilization. The process of transfer of pollen grains to the receptive stigmas of female flowers is known as pollination. Mature pollen grains awaiting suitable conditions for anther dehiscence and dispersal, normally have one or more pores through which pollen tubes grow and develop their passage down the length of the stigma towards the ovule below. Most pollen grains fall into one of two varieties of aperture arrangement those with...

Professor T Sreeramulu 19251974

Professor Tangirala Sreeramulu was born in Aranigadda, Krishna District in Andhra Pradesh, India on November 1, 1925. His early education was in Andhra Pradesh, but for his M.Sc., he went to Agra College, Agra. He specialized in mycology under the guidance of Professor K. C. Mehta, the first scientist to carry out long distance transport of rust spores (uredinales). He worked as a lecturer in the Department of Botany, Andhra University from 1948. His research career started at Rothmstead...

Nature of Laesura

The laesura is the mark at the proximal pole of the spore, and is an 'aperture' in the exine. In tetrahedral spores it is triradiate (trilete laesura), and in bilateral spores appearing as a straight line ('monolete' laesura). Only these two types commonly occur among modern pteridophyta, and their spores are either trilete or monolete, ('alete', spores, that is devoid of a laesura, are reported infrequently, for example Equisetum). The average length of the laesura (one of the arms alone of...

Incidence of Pollen Allergy

According to Iwanami et al. (1988), one out of every ten Japanese suffers from pollinosis. About 90 species of plant pollen have been identified as aeroallergens. The commonest among them are Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort), Oryza sativa (rice) Ambrosia artemisisaefolia (ragweed), Betula tauschii (birch), Nerium indicum (oleander), Castanea crenata (Spanish chestnut). The gymnospermous pollen-causing allergy are Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair tree) and Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese red cedar)....

Rast

Rast studies were carried out with the help of sera of the patients and the pollen extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus and Ambrosia. A number of conclusions were drawn from these studies. First, it is clear that there is significant non-reactivity between Parthenium hysterophorus and Ambrosia. Parthenium hysterophorus pollen may be an important environmental allergen similar to Ambrosia species. Parthenium hysterophorus represents an unique allergen where importance has largely been overlooked...

Tilak Air Sampler

It is a modified version of the Burkard sampler fabricated for Indian weather conditions by the outstanding Indian aerobiologist Professor S. T. Tilak. Instead of a vacuum pump, an exhaust fan is provided on the top position of the sampler. The apparatus runs on electric power supply (AC - 220 V) and provides a continuous sampling of air for eight days. The electric clock fitted in the instrument is synchronized with the drum. Air is sucked through the orifice of the projecting tube at the rate...

Quercus robur

Oak trees are very common in the deciduous forests of Central Europe. The pollen grains are mostly suboblate, tricolpate measuring 20-30 mm. The pollen is mildly allergenic. In Europe Corylus avellana and C. carpinifolia are the chief contributors to airborne pollen spectrum. Corylus avellana is represented by a high shrub with a broad crown and several almost parallel stems. The plants are monoecious with drooping yellow male catkins and small inconspicuous female inflorescences with brightly...

Protocol for Slide Preparation for Daily Pollen Count

1) Remove tape (exposed for previous 24 hours) from drum and align on perspex ruled block. 2) Cut 24 hour exposed section and transfer carefully to clean, dated slide. Placing a small drop of distilled water in the middle of the slide prior to lowering the tape will help the latter to adhere during inversion of slide. Fig. 13.8-a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. Fig. 13.8-a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. Fig. 13.8b Burkard seven-day recording volumetric...

Size Of Pollem Grains In Nm

In the case of tetrahedral spores two measurements are often given which most probably represent the length of the longer side of the triangular amb x (MN x OQ) that of the short side, or the longest diameter in polar view x the shortest diameter in the same view if the amb is triangular with sides of uneven length as it often is and, or alternatively the length of one side of the amb x diameter in polar view, or rarely the palynological concept, polar diameter x longest equatorial diameter....

Current Techniques in Palynology

Understanding and mastering the techniques for studying various aspects of pollen, both modern and fossil, is very important (Faegri and Iversen 1964). The primary purpose of using various palynological techniques is to undertake microscopic examination of pollen and spores. Essential pollen morphological characters can be studied only if proper techniques are employed by the investigators. In case of fossil pollen and spores, maximum caution has to be taken to recover them in an undamaged...

Allergy

The term 'allergy' was coined in 1906 by Dr. Clemens Freiherr von Pirquet, an Austrian physician, to describe any abnormal reaction of the immune system. The immune system is intended to protect the body against the noxious invaders. But in allergy, immunity has gone awry, and the system reacts to substances that are ordinarily harmless. By far the most familiar allergic reactions are respiratory - sneezing, runny nose and watery eyes caused by inhaled allergens from growing weeds, trees and...

Pollen Production

Several workers on pollen have made an attempt to assess the quantum of pollen discharge to the atmosphere (Agnihotri and Singh 1975 Khandelwal and Mittre 1973 Nair and Rastogi 1963 Mondal and Mandal 1998, Kessler & Harley 2004). The quantity of pollen in the air depends on several factors, the most important being pollen production in the individual species. The amount of pollen production and methods of dispersal are very important factors, which are directly or indirectly involved in...

Applied Aspects Of Bee Pollen

Bee gathered pollen is nature's most complete food, rich in vitamins, minerals, amino acids and a complete source of protein. It can give us that extra edge to stay healthy. An all-round nutritional supplement, bee pollen is ideal for daily use. Bee pollen is often referred as the 'perfect food'. Studies from all over the world indicate that the pollen collected by bees from the stamen of flowers is worth its weight in gold. Bee pollen contains 22 amino acids (and higher amounts of the eight...

Pollen Release And Dispersal

Since there is greater exposure to pollen due to the height of the trees they are more easily disseminated by wind or insects and the chance of pollen loss is therefore greater. The higher production is compensated by this loss. A more or less similar observation was drawn by Mondal and Mandal (1998), who stated that there is a tendency for gradual increase in pollen production from herbs to shrubs and then in trees. It is also observed that pollen grains of a small size have wider distribution...

Morphology of Microfossils

During the maceration of sediments along with the pollen grains and spores, a large quantity of microfossils are also recovered, though their affinity with plants and animals is uncertain. These microfossils have abundant applications in interpreting stratigraphical and paleoenvironmental conditions, which have applied scope in the fossil fuel exploration. Technically, the study of these microfossils also forms part of the palynological investigation. The overall composition of organic remains...

Pollen in Honey

A close observation on the life of honeybees indicates that four natural resources such as water, resin, nectar and pollen are required for survival of honeybees. Water is used to cool the hive and dilute honey fed to the larvae. Resin reinforces the hive and plug holes. Nectar serves as the major source of carbohydrates from which honeybees obtain their energy. Pollen is the major source of proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins. It is estimated that a worker larva requires about 142 mg of honey...

The Role Of Palynology In Agriculture Horticulture And Plant Breeding

For many centuries it was known but not understood, that the yellow dust (pollen), when transferred by insects or carried artificially by man, from the dehisced anthers of one flower to the stigmas of another flower, resulted in the formation of fruit. As time progressed from the late 18th century, through the 19th and 20th centuries, an understanding of the nature of this process of transfer, called pollination, took place. The majority of pollen-producing plants require the pollen to be...

Fred Campbell Meier 18931938

The term aerobiology was coined in the 1930s of the 20th Century, by the American plant pathologist, F. C. Meier. This term was probably parallel to hydrobiology. F. C. Meier worked for the U. S. Department of Agriculture for many years in various capacities. He was basically interested in plant diseases, which were distributed by airborne fungal spores. In order to investigate the atmosphere at various levels, in different areas and over considerable distances he worked with the famous aviator...

Allergy Status In Bangalore India

Inspite of the fact that Bangalore has the unique distinction of gaining many adjectives including 'Air Conditioned City of India' , 'Garden City', etc. it is also gaining another dubious distinction as 'Allergy City'. It is said that this city has the highest atmospheric pollution next to Delhi, which is responsible for a large proportion of the population suffering from various types of allergies. On account of the numerous parks and gardens-grasses, weeds and trees, atmospheric pollen occur...

Pollen Calendar Of Allahabad Up India

Aeropalynological survey of Allahabad was carried out by Nautiyal and Midha (1984) during 1973-1979. The survey was carried out mostly by gravity slide method in different areas of Allahabad City. Airspora determined at and around the Allahabad Univesity, Botany Department from Oct 1973-Sep 1974 has been depicted in Fig. 13.10d. Fig. 13.10d Pollen calendar of Allahabad, U.P., India from Oct 1973-Sep 1974. Fig. 13.10d Pollen calendar of Allahabad, U.P., India from Oct 1973-Sep 1974. The pollen...

Symmetry

Pollen Wall

Pollen or spores may be symmetric or asymmetric. Asymmetric grains have no planes of symmetry and are either fixiform (with fixed shape, which is the common case) or nonfixiform (without fixed shape, very rare). Symmetric grains may be of two types radiosymmetric (radial) grains have more than two vertical planes of symmetry, or, if provided with but two such planes, always with equilong equatorial axes. Bilateral spores are more or less flattened having two vertical planes of symmetry but in...

Durham Sampler

Durham Pollen Trap

Durham in 1946, who was for many years Head Botanist at the Abbott Laboratories. Durham's sampler was adopted as the standard pollen sampler by the Pollen and Mold Committee of the American Academy of Allergy. It is still used sometimes by allergists, hospitals, and public health agencies on account of its easy availability. The Durham sampler consists of a mount for positioning a glass microscope slide holder between two horizontal circular metallic disks. It is...

Chemical Composition of Pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus

Gupta and Chanda (1991) worked out the chemical nature of pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus with particular reference to carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents. The results are indicated below Chemical analysis of the pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus (per cent dry weight) Total carbohydrate Total protein Total lipid The amino acid composition of the pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus showed the presence of free amino acids like arginine, aminocaprylic acid, proline, methionine, histidine....

The Development of Palynology

Assyrian Eagle Headed Tree

Hyde and Williams coined the word 'palynology' in 1945 as a substitute for the science of pollen grains and spores. The term 'pollen' in Greek means 'flour'. Palynology is therefore derived from the Greek verb 'palynein' meaning - to strew to spread to disseminate to distribute in recognition of the fact that many pollen grains and spores are easily carried by the wind. However the systematic study of pollen and spores was initiated much earlier. The function of pollen grains and their role in...

Historical Account

In their excellent review of work on melissopalynology, Jones and Bryant (1996) had indicated that the sweet taste of honey had attracted the early primate ancestors of humans and later humans too. Honey being a nature's gift derived from the hard work of honeybees and plant pollen attracted the attention of users and scientists right from prehistoric times. Cave paintings dating back to 15,000 years ago in Altamira region, northern Spain depict the honey combs and the ladders needed to reach...

Step by Step Acetolysis Procedure

Erdtman's (1960) acetolysis technique is the most popular method, which is followed almost throughout the world. The different steps involved in this technique are given below 1) Collection and preservation of pollen material It involves collection of anthers from mature flower buds just before opening and anthesis of flowers by using clean forceps and preserving the anthers or sometimes anthers with a portion of filament of stamens in clean glass vials with 70 glacial acetic acid. Some...

Ruth M Leuschner Born on 20th September 1922

There have been number of instances where scientists have made significant contributions inspite of the hardship they underwent during the early period of their careers. In this context Ruth Leuschner is one of the perfect examples who is considered to be a renowned researcher in the field of aerobiology. In her long innings in the pursuit of scientific knowledge, she witnessed the development of aerobiology and has taken an energetic part in the dissemination of aerobiological information. She...

Applications Of Raw Honey

'Honey is not a product but a mystic universe ' Its riches are beyond description. It contains and encloses the entire nature the sun, the flowers, the freshness, youth, euphoria, the pleasure of living, in short a food for the Gods, the earthy paradise. There is a treasury in every drop of honey Honey contains over 25 different sugars, each one having a different function in the human metabolism. Among them are fructose (as dextro-fructose fruit sugars), glucose, levulose, trehalose, meletoze,...

History Of Aerobiology

History Aerobiology

The term aerobiology was coined as early as 1930s by F. C. Meier who was the plant pathologist working in the Department of Agriculture, United States of America. However, this does not mean that aerobiological studies were not carried out prior to the 1930's. In fact, the preliminary aerobiological work and its applications to health and environmental pollution dates back to the period of the Vedas c. 3000 B.C. Aerobiology involves the study of airborne bioparticles, that is, particles of...

Pollen Morphological Description of Some Plants

A POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CERTAIN TROPICAL ANGIOSPERMOUS PLANTS Tropical angiospermous flora of India, very rich in families, genera and species is highly diversified. Similarly the pollen morphology of these plants shows great variation. It is not possible to describe pollen morphology of many of these plants in this volume. However, the Mimosaceae Mimosoids family is chosen for a detailed pollen morphological description for two reasons. The plants belonging to this family are cultivated widely...

Pollen Physiology Palynophysiology

Pollen Tube Calcium

Pollen physiology has attracted the attention of plant breeders and horticulturists for plant improvement programmes ever since the discovery of the pollen tube by Giovanni Batista Amici 1924 , an Italian astronomer and mathematician, while examining the papillate stigma of Portulaca oleracea. Physiological studies have mainly centred round pollen germination, storage, and on the artificial induction of pollen sterility in cultivated plants, to be of benefit in large-scale hybridization...

Pollen Morphology

Pollen morphology is one of the most important and fundamental branches of palynology. It will not be an exaggeration if pollen morphology is referred to as the mother of palynological studies. Proper identification of pollen and spores both of living and fossil plants is a prerequisite for exploiting their applications. Pollen morphology is the principle tool used for correct identification. The slightest error in identification leads to an erroneous conclusion. A recent example in this...

Root Of Polypodiaeceae

Fig. 7.6a-f Outline of spores of Loxogramme lanceolata showing trilete, monolete and intermediate forms. In the case of bilateral spores, there are only two contact surfaces, and these are generally rounded. The laesura is a single, thin, elongated aperture on the proximal side between the two contact surfaces of the spore, resulting in the 'monolete' condition. The term 'monolete' denotes that there is only one letus constituting the laesura of a bilateral spore, but in all probability there...

Pollen Calendar Of Bangalore City India

The magnitude as well as the quality of pollen load in the atmosphere vary from year to year. There can be significant variations in atmospheric pollen even between successive years. This aspect was highlighted by Agashe and Abraham 1990 while compiling the pollen calendar of Bangalore city for the two consecutive years, 1982-1983 and 1983-1984. It is seen that in these two pollen calendars, 15 major pollen types constituted over 96 of the total pollen load in the atmosphere of Bangalore. There...

The Chemical Composition Of Pollen

Though chemical composition of pollen from different plant species varies over a fairly wide range, generally it contains proteins 7-40 fats 1.52.3 , carbohydrates 7-12 , minerals 2.8-10.6 and traces of enzymes, hormones, vitamins, pigments and other components. Nectar, an aqueous sweet secretion by nectaries contains 5-80 sugars. Depending on the position, the nectaries may be floral or extra floral. Bees also feed on honeydew secreted by plant-feeding insects such as aphids. Nectar is...

Vertical Cylinder Pollen Trap

Vertical Cylinder Spore Trap

Glass vertical cylinders were shown to be reasonably efficient in sampling air-spora Gregory 1951 Hirst 1959 . The sampler was modified by Ramalingam 1968 to suit for routine aerobiological work in Indian conditions Fig. 13.4 . Vertical cylinder pollen trap, a wind impaction air sampler, is found to be most suitable on account of its simple construction and efficiency. The spore-trapping surface is an adhesive-coated cellophane tape wrapped around a glass cylinder of 0.53 cm in diameter,...

Oleaceae Olive Tree Family

Show Oxalis Amaranth

Two predominant anemophilous plants producing allergenically significant pollens belong to the genera Fraxinus ash and Olea olive tree . The latter one is also an important source of olive oil. Fraxinus excelsior is widespread in north western and central Europe. Olea europea trees are common in the Mediterranean. Fraxinus flowers mostly in spring, during April and May. Olea europea flowers in May and June. Pollen grains are sub-oblate, tricolpate, measuring about 20 mm in size and possess...

Furrows or colpi

Ornamentation

The difference between furrows and pores seems to be purely morphological. Phylogenetically, furrows are apparently the primitive form pores must have developed later by the contraction of furrows. Transitional forms also occur. Monocolpate grains generally occur in Monocotyledons such as in Lilium longiflorum as well as many primitive dicotyledons and in Ranales. Majority of the Dicotyledons produce pollen with three equidistant furrows referred Fig. 4.29 Sulcate pollen in equatorial and polar...

Trends Of Melissopalynological Work In India

Pollen analysis of pollen loads and honey samples have been carried out by various melissopalynologists such of Deodikar 1965 , Chaturvedi 1973 from Lucknow and the adjacent area, by Garg and Nair 1993 from Kumaon in the Himalayan region, Ramajujam and Kalpana 1994 from Andhra Pradesh, Phadke 1962 from Mahabaleshwar, Rao and Lakshmi 1996 from the Western Ghat forests. The Indian hive bee - Apis cerana indica, the rock bee Apis dorsata, the Himalayan bee Apis laboriosa, the dwarf bee Apis florea...

Melissopalynological Work in Brazil South America

Bruguiera Pollen

Luz and Barth 2001 undertook a melissopalynological investigations in a mangrove area next to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in South America. They noted that the evaluation of the apicultural importance of mangrove plant species that furnish nectar and pollen grains for the honeybees, may be a valuable option for the rational management of this ecosystem. Similar to other parts of the world, most of the mangrove areas around the Guanabara Bay of Rio de Janeiro have been covered with soil. The purpose...

Melissopalynological Work in Africa

Apicultural studies have been done extensively in Africa particularly in Ghana. Nectar and pollen sources for the African honeybee, Apis-mellifera-adensonii from different geographical regions of Ghana were investigated by Amoko and Picard 2001 . The commonest nectar sources for the honeybees come from the plants Elaeis guineense, Tridax procumbems, Panicum maximum, Ceiba pentandra, Mimosa p dica, Zea mays, Leucaena glauca, Securinega virosa, Morus mesozygia and Cocos nucifera Fig. 12.12 ....

Germinal Furrows

The form and character of the germinal furrows are normally strictly phyletic, tending to be constant throughout families and other large groups. However, their number and arrangement are controlled to a large extent by their internal environment, which in turn is determined by the number and arrangement of the grains as they are formed from the pollen mother cells, and may therefore be different even in grains from the same anther. If the germ pores are absent in pollen, the furrow functions...

Pollen Calendar

The ultimate aim of an aerobiologist is to compile a pollen spore calendar, which will be useful to allergologists and the patients suffering from allergy. The aerobiological survey of an area involves aeropalynological surveys, identification of airborne pollen and spores, and determination of atmospheric pollen count. Although the atmosphere consists of an array of pollen and fungal spores, only a few of them are responsible for allergic manifestations. The knowledge of the occurrence and...

Predominant Weed Pollen Include

Amaranthus spinosus, Artemisia scoparia, Brassica campestris, Cannabis sativa, Chenopodium album, Mimosa pudica, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Xanthium strumarium. While working on the allergenicity of various plants belonging to the family Mimosacae, Panicker 2002 had estimated protein contents in pollen grains of some plants of this family. He had reported that the highest protein contents of 201.3 mg gms of dry pollen of Acacia auriculiformis followed by Acacia mangium 196.4...

Rotorod Sampler Model

Rotorod Pollen Sampler

Rotorod Sampler model 40 is volumetric, intermittent rotation impaction sampling device capable of quantitatively and qualitatively sampling airborne particles in the size range of 1 to 100 mm at sampling rates up to 120 litres of air per minute. The sampler consists of a constant speed motor of 2,400 rpm and two aerodynamically designed collector Lucite rods 1.3 mm in width , which are rotated by the sampler motor at 2,400 rpm. The retracting head holds two rods within the protective housing...

Palynology of Bryophytes

Bryophytes have a very long geological history and are known from Carboniferous to the present. They have played a very important role in forming ground vegetation since the remote past. The spore morphology of Bryophytes has not received adequate attention though it has been proved that bryophytic spore morphology is very useful in taxonomy. Roth, at the beginning of the 20th century described spore morphology of mosses paying attention to their colour, size and sculpturing of the wall. Knox...

Scope Of Medical Palynology Threshold Values for Allergy Forecasts

In the past, several attempts have been made to define thresholds for pollen counts in connection with allergic symptoms. Most of them are based on personal experience and most of them are close to meeting the target. Unfortunately they are valid only for a given regional or local situation, dependent on several circumstances such as location of the pollen sampler or sampling height. As such, these threshold values cannot be generalized. J ger 2006 has described this important aspect of...

Most Common Fungal Aeroallergens

Cladosporium Spore Sem

A comprehensive illustrated manual of the air-spora was recently published by Lacey and West 2006 . The commonest fungal allergenic species belonging to the Zygomycetes are Rhizopus nigricans black bread mould and Mucor racemosus. Two significant allergenic ascomycetes are Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast yeast and Chaetomium indicum. In addition, skin sensitivity to conidia of powdery mildew, Microsphaera alvi has been reported. Among the basidiomycetes, known allergenic fungi belonging...