Stephanocolporate

Orchid Care Tips

Orchid Growing Training Course

Get Instant Access

stephano-: prefix meaning equatorially situated; see "Alphabetic Glossary"

Juncaceae Pollen

Moltkia petraea Boraginaceae oblique polar view

Symphytum caucasicum

Boraginaceae oblique polar view

Moltkia petraea Boraginaceae oblique polar view

Justicia menesii Acanthaceae equatorial view

Polygala major Polygalaceae oblique polar view

Symphytum caucasicum

Boraginaceae oblique polar view

Echinopepon wrightii Cucurbitaceae equatorial view

Buglossoides arvensis Boraginaceae equatorial view ulcus: more or less circular aperture situated distally.

Pollen Grain Angiospermic Plant

Poa annua Poaceae

Cephalanthera longifolia

Orchidaceae oblique distal polar view

Sansevieria dooneri Dracaenaceae dry pollen

Sparganium erectum Sparganiaceae distal polar view

Luzula luzuloides Juncaceae tetrads

Juniperus communis Cupressaceae distal polar view

LM SEM

ulcus: more or less circular aperture situated distally.

Heliconia sp. Heliconiaceae equatorial view, dry pollen

Cyrtosperma beccarianum

Araceae distal polar view

Heliconia sp. Heliconiaceae equatorial view, dry pollen

Bromus erectus Poaceae oblique distal polar view Amborella trichopoda Amborellaceae

Cyrtosperma beccarianum

Araceae distal polar view

Neoffia nidus-avis

Orchidaceae tetrad

Drimys granatensis

Winteraceae tetrad sulcus: elongated aperture situated distally.

Micro Fossil

Lilium martagon

Liliaceae distal polar view

Doryanthes palmeri

Agavaceae dry pollen

Lilium martagon

Liliaceae distal polar view

Doryanthes palmeri

Agavaceae dry pollen

Cabomba palaeformis Cabombaceae oblique distal polar view

Galanthus nivalis Amaryllidaceae distal polar view

Allium ursinum Alliaceae distal polar view

Asphodeline lutea Liliaceae

LM SEM

sulcus: elongated aperture situated distally.

Iris reichenbachii Iridaceae oblique distal polar view

Lachenalia aloides Hyacinthaceae

Cafopsis floribunda Bromeliaceae distal polar view

Paradisea liliastrum Anthericaceae equatorial view

Iris reichenbachii Iridaceae oblique distal polar view

Vriesea neoglutinosa Bromeliaceae dry pollen

Chamaedorea microspadix

Arecaceae dry pollen sulcus: elongated aperture situated distally.

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae oblique distal polar view

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae equatorial view

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae oblique distal polar view

Liriodendron tulipifera

Magnoliaceae

PA+TCH+SP

Anaphyllopsis americana

Araceae

U+Pb

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae equatorial view

Liriodendron tulipifera Magnoliaceae PA+TCH+SP detail of sulcus

Anaphyllopsis americana

Araceae

U+Pb detail of sulcus ana fnc disulcate: pollen grain with two sulci.

Tofieldia calyculata Tofieldiaceae equatorial view

Uvulaña grandiflora Convallariaceae equatorial view

Eichhornia crassipes Pontederiaceae dry pollen

Tofieldia calyculata Tofieldiaceae dry pollen

Uvularia grandiflora Convallariaceae dry pollen

Crinum augustum Amaryllidaceae dry pollen ana fnc trichotomosulcus: three-radiate sulcus.

polychotomosulcus: sulcus with more than three arms.

Dianellaintermedia Phormiaceae oblique distal polar view

Dianella intermedia Phormiaceae

Dianella tasmanica Phormiaceae distal polar view

Dianellaintermedia Phormiaceae oblique distal polar view

Dianella tasmanica Phormiaceae dry pollen

Hedyosmum goudotianum

Chloranthaceae polar view, acetolyzed

Hedyosmum goudotianum

Chloranthaceae polar view, acetolyzed

LM SEM

ring-like aperture: circumferential aperture (situated more or less equatorially or, rarely, meridionally).

Limnanthes douglasii

Limnanthaceae ring-like aperture running equatorially

Cephalostemon riedelianus Rapateaceae oblique equatorial view, ring-like aperture running equatorially

Pedicularis rostrato-capitata

Scrophulariaceae dry pollen, ring-like aperture running meridi-

onally

Limnanthes douglasii

Limnanthaceae ring-like aperture running equatorially

Iris histrioides Iridaceae dry pollen, ring-like aperture running equatorially

Pedicularis palustris

Scrophulariaceae dry pollen, ring-like aperture running meridi-

onally

Cephalostemon riedelianus Rapateaceae oblique equatorial view, ring-like aperture running equatorially

Pedicularis rostrato-capitata

Scrophulariaceae dry pollen, ring-like aperture running meridi-

onally

Pedicularis palustris

Scrophulariaceae ring-like aperture running meridionally ring-like aperture: circumferential aperture (situated more or less equatorially or, rarely, meridionally).

Zamioculcas zamiifolia Araceae equatorial view, acetolyzed

Zamioculcas zamiifolia Araceae oblique polar view, artificially ruptured, acetolyzed

Zamioculcas zamiifolia Araceae equatorial view, acetolyzed

Zamioculcas zamiifolia

Araceae equatorial view

Gonatopus angustus Araceae oblique polar view, dry pollen

Zamioculcas zamiifolia Araceae oblique polar view, artificially ruptured, acetolyzed

Monstera deliciosa Araceae equatorial view

Gonatopus angustus Araceae equatorial view ana fnc margo: exine area surrounding an aperture and differentiated in ornamentation.

Discocleidion rufescens Euphorbiaceae tricolporate, polar view

Medicago minima

Fabaceae tricolporate

Discocleidion rufescens Euphorbiaceae tricolporate, polar view

Fatsia japonica Araliaceae tricolporate

Lysimachia vulgaris Primulaceae tricolporate

Medicago minima

Fabaceae tricolporate

Begonia heracleifolia Begoniaceae tricolporate, equatorial view

Limnanthes douglasii

Limnanthaceae ring-like aperture, equatorial view

SEM TEM

ana fnc annulus: ring-like thickening of the pollen wall surrounding a porus or ulcus. Comment:

"anulus" orthographical variant of "annulus".

Secale cereale Poaceae distal polar view

Betula humilis Betulaceae

Fumaria officinalis Fumariaceae

Morina longifolia Morinaceae equatorial view

Secale cereale Poaceae distal polar view

Trichosanthes anguina Cucurbitaceae

Circaea lutetiana

Onagraceae equatorial view, viscin threads

SEM TEM

ana fnc annulus: ring-like thickening of the pollen wall surrounding a porus or ulcus. Comment:

"anulus" orthographical variant of "annulus".

Myriophyllum spicatum Haloragaceae dry pollen

Triticum aestivum

Poaceae

U+Pb

Zea mays Poaceae

U+Pb

Epilobium angustifolium

Onagraceae viscin threads

Triticum aestivum

Poaceae

U+Pb indet. Poaceae acetolyzed

SEM TEM

ana fnc aperture membrane: exine layer covering an aperture; aperture membrane can be smooth or ornamented.

Comment:

the terms "smooth" and "ornamented" should be used when the feature is remarkably expressed.

Scrophularia vernalis Scrophulariaceae tricolporate, equatorial view Melampyrum subalpinum Scrophulariaceae tricolpate

Kickxia spuria Scrophulariaceae tricolporate, equatorial view

Doryanthes palmeri Agavaceae sulcate, distal polar view

Aechmea caesia Bromeliaceae diporate

Scrophularia vernalis Scrophulariaceae tricolporate, equatorial view Melampyrum subalpinum Scrophulariaceae tricolpate

Kickxia spuria Scrophulariaceae tricolporate, equatorial view

Doryanthes palmeri Agavaceae sulcate, distal polar view

Aechmea caesia Bromeliaceae diporate

Tragopogon dubius Asteraceae tricolporate

SEM TEM

ana fnc aperture membrane: exine layer covering an aperture; aperture membrane can be smooth or ornamented.

Comment:

the terms "smooth" and "ornamented" should be used when the feature is remarkably expressed.

Convolvulus tricolor Convolvulaceae tricolpate, polar view

Aesculus hippocastanum

Hippocastanaceae tricolporate

Billbergia macrocalyx Bromeliaceae sulcate, distal polar view

Salix alba Salicaceae tricolpate, equatorial view

Moltkia petraea Boraginaceae stephanocolporate

Arenaria serpyllifolia Caryophyllaceae pantoporate

Convolvulus tricolor Convolvulaceae tricolpate, polar view

Aesculus hippocastanum

Hippocastanaceae tricolporate

Billbergia macrocalyx Bromeliaceae sulcate, distal polar view

Salix alba Salicaceae tricolpate, equatorial view

Moltkia petraea Boraginaceae stephanocolporate

Arenaria serpyllifolia Caryophyllaceae pantoporate

SEM TEM

ana fnc aperture membrane: exine layer covering an aperture; aperture membrane can be smooth or ornamented.

Comment:

the terms "smooth" and "ornamented" should be used when the feature is remarkably expressed.

Saxifraga vandellii Saxifragaceae tricolpate, equatorial view

Veronica cinerea Scrophulariaceae tricolpate

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae sulcate

Saxifraga vandellii Saxifragaceae tricolpate, equatorial view

Veronica cinerea Scrophulariaceae tricolpate

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae sulcate

Galeopsis tetrahit Lamiaceae tricolpate

Clarkia pulchella

Onagraceae triporate

Gagea villosa Liliaceae sulcate aperture membrane: exine layer covering an aperture; aperture membrane can be smooth or ornamented.

Comment:

the terms "smooth" and "ornamented" should be used when the feature is remarkably expressed.

Chenopodium hybridum

Chenopodiaceae

U+Pb

Mercurialis perennis Euphorbiaceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

Lamiastrum montanum Lamiaceae

Aesculus carnea

Hippocastanaceae

U+Pb

Ulmus minor

Ulmaceae

U+Pb

Aconitum lycoctonum Ranunculaceae

SEM TEM

ana fnc

SEM TEM

ana fnc operculum: coherent exine structure covering an aperture.

Dianthus carthusianorum Caryophyllaceae

Babiana velutina Iridaceae sulcate, two opercula oblique equatorial view

Dionaea muscipula Droseraceae

Teucrium pyrenaicum Lamiaceae

Zea mays Poaceae

Potentilla arenaria Rosaceae operculum: coherent exine structure covering an aperture.

Tulipa sylvestris Liliaceae distal polar view

Knautia drymeia Dipsacaceae

Cucurbita pepo Cucurbitaceae

Agrostemma githago Caryophyllaceae

Tulipa sylvestris Liliaceae distal polar view

Camellia japonica Theaceae

Passiflora citrina Passifloraceae oblique equatorial view

SEM TEM

ana fnc

SEM TEM

ana fnc operculum: coherent exine structure covering an aperture.

Passiflora suberosa Passifloraceae equatorial view

Rosa pendulina Rosaceae

Poa pratensis Poaceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

Plantago lanceolata

Plantaginaceae

U+Pb

Passiflora suberosa Passifloraceae equatorial view

Triticum aestivum Poaceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

Poa angustifolia

Poaceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

ana fnc pontoperculum: operculum covering a colpus, not completely isolated from the remainder of the sexine.

Rozsivky Schr Nky

■ Veratrum nigrum ■ Sanguisorba minor Melanthiaceae Rosaceae dry pollen polar view

Sanguisorba cretica Sanguisorba cretica

® Rosaceae ® Rosaceae equatorial view ana fnc bridge: exine connection between the margins of a colpus in the equatorial region. Comment:

the term is often used in a more general context, e.g., for exine connections within tetrads.

Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnaceae

Cunonia capensis Cunoniaceae equatorial view

Typha latifolia Typhaceae tetrad

Rehderodendron sp. Styracaceae, fossil equatorial view

Epilobium hirsutum

Onagraceae tetrad

Thelethylax minutiflora

Podostemaceae dyad

LM SEM

papilla: small protuberance typical for Taxoidoideae-pollen (Cupressaceae).

Cryptomeria japonica Cupressaceae equatorial view

Cryptomeria sp. Cupressaceae, fossil equatorial view

Cryptomeria japonica Cupressaceae equatorial view

Cryptomeria japonica Cupressaceae

Mefasequoia glypfosfroboides Cupressaceae

Cryptomeria sp. Cupressaceae, fossil equatorial view

Mefasequoia glypfosfroboides

Cupressaceae dry pollen

Cunninghamia lanceolata

Cupressaceae oblique distal polar view ana fnc reticulum: network-like pattern formed by exine elements (muri), where the lumina are wider than 1 pm.

Cardamine pratensis Brassicaceae

Polygala major Polygalaceae

Luffa cylindrica Cucurbitaceae

Veratrum album Melanthiaceae

Aechmea azurea Bromeliaceae

Razisea citrina Acanthaceae equatorial view ana fnc reticulum: network-like pattern formed by exine elements (muri), where the lumina are wider than 1 pm.

■ Persicaria sp. ■ Cephalanthera longifolia Polygonaceae, fossil Orchidaceae equatorial view

Ruellia brevifolia Beloperone guttata

® Acanthaceae ® Acanthaceae reticulate, perforate

Buxus sempervirens Impatiens glandulifera a Buxaceae a Balsaminaceae ana fnc reticulum: network-like pattern formed by exine elements (muri), where the lumina are wider than 1 pm.

Lupinus polyphyllus Fabaceae reticulate, perforate

Opuntia paraguayensis

Cactaceae free standing columellae

Poncirus trifoliata Rutaceae

Sollya heterophylla Pittosporaceae reticulate to rugulate

Lupinus polyphyllus Fabaceae reticulate, perforate

Opuntia paraguayensis

Cactaceae free standing columellae

Poncirus trifoliata Rutaceae

Sollya heterophylla Pittosporaceae reticulate to rugulate

Ibicella lutea Martyniaceae clypeate, reticulate

Lathyrus vernus Fabaceae reticulate, perforate ana fnc reticulum: network-like pattern formed by exine elements (muri), where the lumina are wider than 1 pm.

Persicaria mitis Polygonaceae pantoporate, free standing columellae

Salix daphnoides Salicaceae polar view

Paradisea liliastrum Liliaceae

Ecballium elaterium Cucurbitaceae

Persicaria mitis Polygonaceae pantoporate, free standing columellae

Trifolium rubens Fabaceae reticulate, perforate

Ajuga genevensis Lamiaceae reticulate, perforate ana fnc reticulum: network-like pattern formed by exine elements (muri), where the lumina are wider than 1 pm.

Aechmea allenii Bromeliaceae reticulate to foveolate

Adenia fruticosa Passifloraceae incomplete reticulum

Melilofus officinalis Fabaceae

Aechmea allenii Bromeliaceae reticulate to foveolate

Epipactis helleborine Orchidaceae incomplete reticulum

Tropaeolum majus Tropaeolaceae reticulate, perforate

Adenia fruticosa Passifloraceae incomplete reticulum

Melilofus officinalis Fabaceae

Physostegia virginiana Lamiaceae reticulate, perforate ana fnc reticulum: network like pattern formed by exine elements (muri), where the lumina are wider than 1 pm.

Pisum sativum Fabaceae reticulate, perforate

Harpochilus neesianus Acanthaceae reticulate, brochi with inclined columellae

Pisum sativum Fabaceae reticulate, perforate

Werauhia tarmaensis Bromeliaceae

Thladiantha hookeri Cucurbitaceae oblique equatorial view, incomplete reticulum

Harpochilus neesianus Acanthaceae reticulate, brochi with inclined columellae

Plectranthus ornatus

Lamiaceae bireticulate

Pinguicula alpina

Lentibulariaceae incomplete reticulum ana fnc bireticulate: special type of reticulate ornamentation, where the brochi of the large-meshed reticulum are filled by a small-meshed reticulum.

Salvia argentea Lamiaceae

Prunella grandiflora Lamiaceae

Pachystachys lutea Acanthaceae

Salvia glutinosa Lamiaceae

Phlox paniculata Polemoniaceae

Melittis melissophyllum Lamiaceae ana fnc brochus: mesh of a reticulum consisting of one lumen and the adjoining half of the muri.

homobrochate: reticulate pollen wall with lumina of uniform size. Comment:

the term "homobrochate" should be used when the feature is remarkably expressed.

Acantholimon glumaceum Plumbaginaceae

Eranthemum wattii Acanthaceae polar view

Ruellia graecizans Acanthaceae

Abeliophyllum distichum Hamamelidaceae

Strobilanthes roseus Acanthaceae

Thlaspi montanum Brassicaceae ana fnc brochus: mesh of a reticulum consisting of one lumen and the adjoining half of the muri.

heterobrochate: reticulate pollen wall with lumina of different sizes. Comment:

the term "heterobrochate" should be used when the feature is remarkably expressed.

Hedera helix Araliaceae equatorial view

Fritillaria meleagris Liliaceae

Billbergia seidelii Bromeliaceae

Lachenalia aloides Hyacinthaceae

Anthericum ramosum Anthericaceae

Limodorum abortivum Orchidaceae ana fnc

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment