Ornamentation echinate

peculiarities: remarkable endoaperture

10jim polar view equatorial view

SEM-diagnosis method: pollen grains critical-point-dried (hydrated condition) and air-dried, respectively size: medium (longest axis about 40 pm)

shape: spheroidal (in hydrated condition); prolate, lobate (in dry condition) aperture: tricolporate ornamentation: echinate, perforate peculiarities: —

CONTENT

Pollen Unit

59-67

polychotomosulcus

139

monad

59

ring-like aperture

140-141

dyad

60

marao

142

pseudomonad

61

annulus, annulate

143-144

tetrad

62-65

aperture membrane

145-148

massula

66

operculum, operculate

149-151

pollinium

67

pontoperculum,pontoperculate 152

pollinarium

67

bridge

153

Pollen Class

68-72

papilla, papillate

154

clypeate

68

Ornamentation

155-198

colpate

68

reticulum, reticulate

155-167

colporate

68

bireticulate

161

dyad

69

homobrochate

162

inaperturate

69

heterobrochate

163

lophate

69

microreticulate

164

plicate

70

reticulum cristatum

165-167

polyad

70

plicae, plicate

168

porate

70

striae, striate

169-172

saccate

71

striato-reticulate

173-174

spiraperturate

71

rugulae, rugulate

175-176

sulcate

71

granulum, granulate

177

synaperturate

72

psilate

178-179

tetrad

72

perforate

180-181

ulcerate

72

foveola, foveolate

182

Shape & Size

73-100

fossula, fossulate

183

Pollen size

73

lophae, lacunae, lophate

184-185

spheroidal

74-75

echinus, echinate

186-189

prolate

76-77

microechinate

190

oblate

78-79

verruca, verrucate

191

outline

80-87

baculum, baculate

192

outline, pollen infoldings

88-93

clava, clavate

193-194

isopolar

94

free-standing columellae

195

heteropolar

95-96

gemma, gemmate

196

saccus, saccate

97-99

areola, areolate

197

arcus, arcuate

100

clypeate

198

Aperture__________________

101-154

Pollen Wall

199-211

aperture, aperturate

101-102

pollen wall

199

inaperturate

103

infratectum

200-202

angulaperturate

104

internal tectum

203

planaperturate

105

foot layer

204

stephanoaperturate

106-109

endexine

205-208

pantoaperturate

110-112

intine

209

brevicolpus, brevicolpate

113

semitectum, semitectate

210

brevicolporus, brevicolporate

113

atectate

211

synaperturate

114

Miscellaneous

212-223

spiraperturate

115

primexine

212

heteroaperturate

116

vegtative nucleus

213

pseudocolpus

117

generative cell

214

colpus, colpate

118-120

sperm cell

215

porus, porate

121-125

tapetum

216

poroid, poroidate

126

pollenkitt

217

tenuitas

127

primexine matrix

218

colporus, colporate

128-132

tryphine

218

ulcus, ulcerate

133-134

viscin thread

219-220

sulcus, sulcate

135-138

Ubisch body

221-223

trichotomosulcus

139

POLLEN UNIT monad monad: dispersal unit consisting of a single pollen grain.

Dactylis glomerata Poaceae ulcerate, equatorial view Tragopogon orientalis Asteraceae tricolporate, oblique polar view

Iris pumila

Iridaceae sulcate, oblique distal polar view

Pinus strobus Pinaceae bisaccate, equatorial view Leuchtenbergia principis Cactaceae tricolpate, oblique polar view Exacum affine Gentianaceae tricolporate, oblique polar view

Dactylis glomerata Poaceae ulcerate, equatorial view Tragopogon orientalis Asteraceae tricolporate, oblique polar view

Iris pumila

Iridaceae sulcate, oblique distal polar view

Pinus strobus Pinaceae bisaccate, equatorial view Leuchtenbergia principis Cactaceae tricolpate, oblique polar view Exacum affine Gentianaceae tricolporate, oblique polar view

POLLEN UNIT

dyad

LM SEM

dyad: dispersal unit of two pollen grains.

Polypleurum stylosum Podostemaceae acetolyzed, pollen collapsed

Polypleurum stylosum Podostemaceae

Zeylanidium olivaceum Podostemaceae

Thelethylax mlnutlflora Podostemaceae

Polypleurum stylosum Podostemaceae acetolyzed, pollen collapsed

Zeylanidium subulatum Podostemaceae

Thelethylax minutiflora Podostemaceae acetolyzed, pollen collapsed

POLLEN UNIT

pseudomonad pseudomonad: dispersal unit of a permanent tetrad with three rudimentary pollen grains.

Cyperaceae Cyperaceae

Schoenoplectus lacustris Scirpus sylvaticus

® Cyperaceae ® Cyperaceae

Carex distans Cyperus longus a Cyperaceae _ Cyperaceae

POLLEN UNIT

tetrad tetrahedral

LM SEM

tetrad tetrahedral: dispersal unit of four pollen grains in which the centers of the grains define a tetrahedron.

Erica herbacea Ericaceae

Drimys granatensis Winteraceae

Mimosa pudica Mimosaceae

Arbutus unedo Ericaceae

Moneses uniflora Ericaceae

Epilobium parviflorum

Onagraceae dry pollen, viscin threads

POLLEN UNIT

tetrad tetrahedral tetrad tetrahedral: dispersal unit of four pollen grains in which the centers of the grains define a tetrahedron.

Epilobium montanum Onagraceae viscin threads

Oxyanthus subpunctatus Rubiaceae

Juncus effusus Juncaceae

Luzula campestris Juncaceae

Dionaea muscipula Droseraceae

Rhododendron hirsutum

Ericaceae viscin threads

LM SEM

tetrad: dispersal unit of four pollen grains (spores).

Chlorospatha kolbii Araceae tetrads planar (tetrahedral and T-shaped) Chlorospatha dodsonii Araceae tetrad planar

Catalpa bungei Bignoniaceae tetrad decussate

Chlorospatha ceronii Araceae tetrad planar (left) and decussate (right) Chlorospatha dodsonii Araceae tetrad decussate

Epipactis helleborine Orchidaceae tetrads decussate

Chlorospatha kolbii Araceae tetrads planar (tetrahedral and T-shaped) Chlorospatha dodsonii Araceae tetrad planar

Catalpa bungei Bignoniaceae tetrad decussate

Chlorospatha ceronii Araceae tetrad planar (left) and decussate (right) Chlorospatha dodsonii Araceae tetrad decussate

Epipactis helleborine Orchidaceae tetrads decussate tetrad planar: dispersal unit of four pollen grains arranged in one plane; can be: tetragonal, T-shaped, linear.

Typha latifolia Typhaceae tetrad tetragonal

Typha latifolia Typhaceae tetrad tetragonal

Typha latifolia Typhaceae tetrad T-shaped

Typha latifolia Typhaceae tetrad linear

Typha latifolia Typhaceae tetrad tetragonal

Typha latifolia Typhaceae tetrad T-shaped

Typha latifolia Typhaceae tetrad linear

LM SEM

massula: dispersal unit of more than four pollen grains and fewer than the locular content.

Acacia myrtifolia Mimosaceae

Calliandra emarginata Mimosaceae

Anteriorchis coriophora Orchidaceae

Acacia binerva Mimosaceae

Nigritella rhellicani Orchidaceae massulae connected by elastoviscin threads

Platanthera bifolia

Orchidaceae pollinium: dispersal unit of a more or less interconnected loculiform pollen mass.

pollinium: dispersal unit of a more or less interconnected loculiform pollen mass.

pollinarium: dispersal unit of pollinium (or pollinia) and a single interconnecting sterile appendage.

■ Ophrys sphegodes ■ Anteriorchis coriophora

Orchidaceae Orchidaceae

Polystachya sp. Stephanotis floribunda

Orchidaceae ® Asclepiadaceae

Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Aerides mulfiflora a Asclepiadaceae _ Orchidaceae

LM |SEM TEM Imo 0

pollen class: artificial grouping of pollen grains that share a single distinctive character, pollen class: clypeate

pollen class: colpate
pollen class: colporate

Iris bucharica

Ibicella lutea

Iridaceae

Martyniaceae

Bunias orientals

Corylopsis glabrescens

Brassicaceae

Hamamelidaceae

Viola alba

Orlaya grandiflora

Violaceae

Apiaceae

TEmI mo and fnc pollen class: dyad

pollen class: inaperturate
pollen class: lophate

Zeylanidium subulatum Podostemaceae

■ Polypleurum munnarense Podostemaceae

Hedychium gardnerianum Zingiberaceae

■ Sauromatum venosum ® Araceae

Prenanthes purpurea Asteraceae

Gazania sp. a Asteraceae

ana fnc pollen class: plicate

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