MlSii Bterittsa I

10 um pollen class: polyad pollen class: polyad

pollen class: porate

Ephedra distachya Ephedraceae

■ Welwitschia mirabilis Welwitschiaceae

Acacia myrtifolia Mimosaceae

■ Himantoglossum adriaticum ® Orchidaceae

Lychnis flos-cuculi Caryophyllaceae

Pachypodium saundersii a Apocynaceae

TEMl mo and fnc pollen class: saccate

pollen class: spiraperturate
pollen class: sulcate

Abies cephalonica Pinaceae dry pollen

■ Pinusmugo Pinaceae

Berberis thunbergii Berberidaceae

■ Thunbergia alata ® Acanthaceae dry pollen

Sandersonia aurantiaca Colchicaceae

Gagea villosa g Liliaceae

pollen class: synaperturate

pollen class: tetrad
pollen class: ulcerate

Acca sellowiana

Primula farinosa

Myrtaceae

Primulaceae

polar view

equatorial view

Morieses uniflora

Listera ovata

Ericaceae

Orchidaceae

Sesleria uliginosa

Typha minima

Poaceae

ana fnc spheroidal

Lavatera thuringiaca Malvaceae pantoporate

Cirsium oleraceum Asteraceae tricolporate, equatorial view

Pinellia ternata

Araceae inaperturate

Silene alba Caryophyllaceae pantoporate

Phlox paniculata Polemoniaceae pantoporate

Luffa cylindrica Cucurbitaceae tricolporate, equatorial view ana fnc spheroidal

Oxalis acetosella Oxalidaceae tricolpate, equatorial view

Stellaria holostea Caryophyllaceae pantoporate

Ruellia macrantha Acanthaceae tricolporate, polar view

Adansonia gregorii

Bombacaceae triporate

Cistus creticus Cistaceae tricolporate, polar view

Sagittaria sagittifolia

Alismataceae pantoaperturate ana fnc prolate: pollen grain with the polar axis longer than the equatorial diameter.

Crossandra flava Acanthaceae equatorial view

Torilis arvensis Apiaceae dry pollen

Astragalus onobrychis Fabaceae equatorial view

Jurinea mollis Asteraceae dry pollen

Peucedanum cervaria

Apiaceae equatorial view

Symphytum officinale

Boraginaceae dry pollen

TEmI mo and fnc prolate: pollen grain with the polar axis longer than the equatorial diameter.

indet.

Sapotaceae, fossil equatorial view

Buglossoides purpurocaerulea

Boraginaceae equatorial view

Plafycodon grandiflorum

Campanulaceae dry pollen

Lathyrus tuberosus Fabaceae dry pollen indet.

Sapotaceae, fossil equatorial view

Stenandriopsis guineensis Acanthaceae equatorial view

Salvia sclarea Lamiaceae dry pollen ana fnc oblate: pollen grain with the polar axis shorter than the equatorial diameter.

Salvia argentea Lamiaceae equatorial view

Carya sp.

Juglandaceae, fossil equatorial view

Salvia argentea Lamiaceae equatorial view

Knautia drymeia Dipsacaceae dry pollen

Hakea kippistiana Proteaceae

Carya sp.

Juglandaceae, fossil equatorial view

Cuphea purpurea

Lythraceae dry pollen

Corylus avellana Betulaceae dry pollen, equatorial view ana fnc oblate: pollen grain with the polar axis shorter than the equatorial diameter.

Impatiens glandulifera Balsaminaceae

Vriesea neoglutinosa Bromeliaceae equatorial view

Veratrum album Melanthiaceae dry pollen

Aechmea caudata Bromeliaceae

Godetia purpurea Onagraceae dry pollen

Heliconia sp. Heliconiaceae dry pollen

LM |SEM TEM Imo |o outline circular

Ligustrum sp. Oleaceae, fossil equatorial view

Fraxinus ornus Oleaceae polar view

Anthurium trisulcatum Araceae

Galium lucidum Rubiaceae polar view

Ligustrum sp. Oleaceae, fossil equatorial view

Ginkgo biloba Ginkgoaceae oblique distal polar view

Phleum pratense Poaceae distal polar view ana fnc outline elliptic

Allium oleraceum Alliaceae distal polar view

Aechmea dealbata Bromeliaceae

Impatiens parviflora Balsaminaceae polar view

Salvia coccinea Lamiaceae polar view

Galeopsis tetrahit Lamiaceae dry pollen

Physostegia virginiana Lamiaceae dry pollen ana fnc outline quadrangular

Anchusa officinalis Boraginaceae dry pollen

Viola tricolor Violaceae polar view

Herniaria glabra Caryophyllaceae

Nonea pulla

Boraginaceae polarview

Lithospermum officinale

Boraginaceae polarview

Impatiens glandulifera Balsaminaceae polarview ana fnc outline polygonal

Stellaria holostea Caryophyllaceae dry pollen

Arbutus unedo Ericaceae tetrads, dry pollen

Talinum paniculatum Portulacaceae dry pollen

Viola arvensis Violaceae polar view

Opuntia basilar's Cactaceae dry pollen

Silene nutans Caryophyllaceae dry pollen ana fnc outline triangular

Callistemon coccineus

Myrtaceae polar view

Echinops ritro Asteraceae polar view

Paullinia tomentosa Sapindaceae polar view

Hypoestes phyllostachya

Acanthaceae dry pollen

Bupleurum rotundifolium

Apiaceae polar view

Primula denticulata Primulaceae dry pollen ana fnc outline triangular

Circaea lutetiana

Onagraceae polar view, viscin threads

Cunonia capensis Cunoniaceae polar view

Potentilla inclinata

Rosaceae polar view

Orlaya grandiflora

Apiaceae dry pollen

Jovibarba hirta Crassulaceae polar view

Dipsacus fullonum Dipsacaceae polar view

Circaea lutetiana

Onagraceae polar view, viscin threads

Cunonia capensis Cunoniaceae polar view

Potentilla inclinata

Rosaceae polar view

TEM jmo ana| fnc outline lobate

Acer pseudoplatanus

Sapindaceae dry pollen

Sanguisorba officinalis

Rosaceae dry pollen

Gunnera chilensis Gunneraceae polar view

Artemisia pontica Asteraceae polar view

Orthilia secunda Ericaceae dry pollen

Gunnera chilensis Gunneraceae dry pollen, equatorial (left) and polar view (right)

ana fnc

LM SEM

outline lobate

Viola alba Violaceae dry pollen

Sedum rupestre Crassulaceae dry pollen

Clematis heracleifolia Ranunculaceae dry pollen

Pinguicula ehlersiae Lentibulariaceae dry pollen

Viola alba Violaceae dry pollen

Sanicula europaea Apiaceae dry pollen

Bellis perennis Asteraceae dry pollen

LM |sEM TEM

ana fnc outline, pollen infoldings, irregular

Urtica dioica Urticaceae dry pollen

Populus alba Salicaceae dry pollen

Urtica dioica Urticaceae dry pollen

Sesleria albicans Poaceae dry pollen

Coriaria sinica Coriariaceae dry pollen

Populus alba Salicaceae dry pollen

Anthurium radicans

Araceae dry pollen

Orobanche hederae Orobanchaceae dry pollen outline, pollen infoldings, apertures sunken outline, pollen infoldings, apertures sunken

Artemisia pontica Asteraceae tricolporate, dry pollen

Carex alba Cyperaceae pseudomonads with poroids, dry pollen

Artemisia pontica Asteraceae tricolporate, dry pollen

Lachenalia aloides Liliaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Moehringia muscosa Caryophyllaceae pantoporate, dry pollen

Carex alba Cyperaceae pseudomonads with poroids, dry pollen

Luzula sylvestris

Juncaceae tetrads ulcerate, dry pollen

Anemone hortensis Ranunculaceae stephanocolpate to spiraperturate, dry pollen

LM |SEM TEM

ana fnc outline, pollen infoldings, interapertural area sunken

Erica arborea Ericaceae dry pollen

Alnus glutinosa Betulaceae dry pollen

Bupleurum rotundifolium

Apiaceae dry pollen

Leucadendron discolor

Proteaceae dry pollen

Erica arborea Ericaceae dry pollen

Melampyrum arvense Scrophulariaceae dry pollen

Verbena officinalis Verbenaceae dry pollen outline, pollen infoldings, cup-shaped: characteristic shape of pollen grains caused by infoldings as a consequence of harmomegathy; see "Pollen Morphology"

Bougainvillea sp. Nyctaginaceae dry pollen

Tilia euchlora Tiliaceae dry pollen

Luzula campestris Juncaceae tetrads, dry pollen

Heliconia sp. Heliconiaceae dry pollen

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Elaeagnaceae dry pollen

Tsuga canadensis

Pinaceae dry pollen

LM |SEM TEM

ana fnc outline, pollen infoldings, boat-shaped: characteristic shape of sulcate pollen grains caused by an infolding as a consequence of harmomegathy; see "Pollen Morphology".

Asphodeline lutea Asphodelaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Lilium candidum Liliaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Ginkgo biloba Ginkgoaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Billbergia seidelii Bromeliaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Galanthus nivalis Amaryllidaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Asphodeline lutea Asphodelaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Lilium candidum Liliaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Ginkgo biloba Ginkgoaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Billbergia seidelii Bromeliaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Galanthus nivalis Amaryllidaceae sulcate, dry pollen outline, pollen infoldings, boat-shaped: characteristic shape of sulcate pollen grains caused by an infolding as a consequence of harmomegathy; see "Pollen Morphology".

Lysichiton americanus

Araceae sulcate, dry pollen

Gagea lutea Liliaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Dioon edule Zamiaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Piper nigrum Piperaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Lysichiton americanus

Araceae sulcate, dry pollen

Gagea lutea Liliaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Dioon edule Zamiaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Piper nigrum Piperaceae sulcate, dry pollen

Sparganium erectum Sparganiaceae ulcerate (exception), dry pollen

Symplocarpus foetidus

Araceae sulcate, dry pollen

LM |sEM TEM Imo [a isopolar: pollen grain with identical proximal and distal faces.

Cerinthe minor Boraginaceae dry pollen

Viburnum tinus Viburnaceae equatorial view

Aesculus flava Hippocastanaceae equatorial view

Asperula tinctoria Rubiaceae dry pollen

Myosotis palustris Boraginaceae dry pollen

Monotropa hypopitys Ericaceae equatorial view ana fnc heteropolar: pollen grain with different proximal and distal faces.

Billbergia seidelii Bromeliaceae equatorial view

Onosma visianii Boraginaceae

Microrrhinum minus Scrophulariaceae dry pollen

Sesleria albicans Poaceae oblique view

Billbergia seidelii Bromeliaceae equatorial view

Limnanthes douglasii Limnanthaceae dry pollen

Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnaceae oblique polar view

LM |sEM TEM Imo |o heteropolar: pollen grain with different proximal and distal faces.

Heliconia sp. Heliconiaceae dry pollen

Erica arborea

Ericaceae tetrad

Nuphar luteum Nymphaeaceae equatorial view

Quesnelia augusto-coburgn Bromeliaceae

Pinus strobus Pinaceae

Sansevieria dooneri Dracaenaceae dry pollen

SEM TEMA mo ana fnc saccus: exinous expansion forming an air sac.

Tsuga sp. Pinaceae, fossil monosaccate, polar view

Tsuga sp. Pinaceae, fossil monosaccate, equatorial view

Tsuga sp. Pinaceae, fossil monosaccate, polar view

Tsuga canadensis Pinaceae monosaccate

Pinus heldreichii Pinaceae bisaccate, dry pollen

Tsuga sp. Pinaceae, fossil monosaccate, equatorial view

Pinus nigra Pinaceae bisaccate, equatorial view Pinus sp. Pinaceae, fossil bisaccate, oblique distal polar view

SEMTEMlmo ana fnc saccus: exinous expansion forming an air sac.

Abies cephalonica Pinaceae bisaccate, distal polar view Picea abies Pinaceae bisaccate, equatorial view Abies nordmanniana Pinaceae bisaccate

Picea abies Pinaceae bisaccate, dry pollen

Abies cephalonica Pinaceae bisaccate, distal polar view Picea abies Pinaceae bisaccate, equatorial view Abies nordmanniana Pinaceae bisaccate

Picea abies Pinaceae bisaccate, dry pollen

Pinus mugo Pinaceae bisaccate, equatorial view Picea pungens Pinaceae bisaccate, distal polar view

SEM TEMl mo ana fnc saccus: exinous expansion forming an air sac.

Podocarpus sp. Podocarpaceae bisaccate, proximal polar view

Podocarpus sp.

Podocarpaceae bisaccate, oblique equatorial view

Podocarpus sp. Podocarpaceae bisaccate, proximal polar view

Microstrobus niphophilus Podocarpaceae trisaccate, equatorial view

Dacrycarpos dacrydioides Podocarpaceae trisaccate, distal polar view

Podocarpus sp.

Podocarpaceae bisaccate, oblique equatorial view

Microstrobus niphophilus Podocarpaceae trisaccate, proximal polar view

Dacrycarpos dacrydioides Podocarpaceae trisaccate, proximal polar view

ana fnc arcus: a curved wall thickening interconnecting apertures.

arcus: a curved wall thickening interconnecting apertures.

Betulaceae, fossil polar view

Alnus viridis ® Betulaceae polar view

Alnus incana _ Betulaceae polar view

Alnus glutinosa Betulaceae equatorial view

Alnus glutinosa ® Betulaceae

Alnus incana _ Betulaceae dry pollen

SEM TEMi mo ana fnc aperture: region of the pollen wall which differs significantly morphologically and/or anatomically from the rest of the pollen wall, presumed to function usually as germination site and to play a role in harmomegathy.

Eupatorium cannabinum Asteraceae tricolporate, equatorial view

Clinopodium vulgare Lamiaceae hexacolpate, polar view

Eupatorium cannabinum Asteraceae tricolporate, equatorial view

Euchañs grandiflora Amaryllidaceae sulcate, distal polar view

Sesleria sadleriana Poaceae ulcerate, equatorial view

Clinopodium vulgare Lamiaceae hexacolpate, polar view

Alisma plantago-aquatica Alismataceae pantoporate, dry pollen

Carex alba Cyperaceae poroids, pseudomonad

SEMTEMlmo ana fnc aperture: region of the pollen wall which differs significantly morphologically and/ or anatomically from the rest of the pollen wall, presumed to function usually as germination site and to play a role in harmomegathy.

Apium nodiflorum

Apiaceae

PA+TCH+SP

Pseudolysimachion barrelieri

Scrophulariaceae

KMnO4

Ophiorrhiza sp.

Rubiaceae

PA+TCH+SP

apertural intine protrusion; becomes eliminated during pollen maturation

Apium nodiflorum

Apiaceae

U+Pb

Mentha aquatica Lamiaceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

Geranium robertianum

Geraniaceae

PA+TCH+SP

apertural intine protrusion inaperturate: pollen grain without distinct aperture(s).

' J Vm^

Pinellia ternata Araceae

Chlorospatha dodsonii

Araceae tetrad

Phoebe sheareri Lauraceae

Populus alba Salicaceae

Aglaodorum griffifhii Araceae

Posidonia sp. Posidoniaceae

LM |SEM TEM Imo |a angulaperturate: pollen grain with an angular outline, where the apertures are situated at the angles.

Leucadendron brunoides

Proteaceae dry pollen

Oenothera biennis

Onagraceae polar view, viscin threads

Tropaeolum majus Tropaeolaceae dry pollen

Symplocos sp. Symplocaceae, fossil polar view

Isopogon dawsonii Proteaceae polar view

Anthyllis vulneraria Fabaceae polar view ana fnc planaperturate: pollen grain with an angular outline, where the apertures are situated in the middle of the sides.

Centaurea cyanus Asteraceae polar view

Pachira aquatica Bombacaceae tricolpate, polar view

Beloperone guttata Acanthaceae dry pollen

Persicaria bistorta Polygonaceae dry pollen

Pachira aquatica Bombacaceae

Pedilanthus smallii Euphorbiaceae polar view ana fnc stephanoaperturate: apertures situated at the equator (term usually used for more than three apertures).

Borago officinalis Boraginaceae equatorial view

Dracocephalum austriacum Lamiaceae polar view

Galium mollugo Rubiaceae

U+Pb cross section

Platycodon grandiftorum Campanulaceae polar view

Cyclanthera pedata Cucurbitaceae oblique equatorial view

Pinguicula ehlersiae Lentibulariaceae oblique equatorial view ana fnc stephanoaperturate: apertures situated at the equator (term usually used for more than three apertures).

Asperula tinctoria Rubiaceae hexacolpate, polar view

Impafiens parviflora Balsaminaceae tetracolpate, equatorial view

Lycopus europaeus Lamiaceae hexacolpate, dry pollen

Galium glaucum Rubiaceae polar view

Primula veris Primulaceae hexacolpate, polar view

Galium lucidum Rubiaceae dry pollen

stephanoaperturate: apertures situated at the equator (term usually used for more than three apertures).

Viola arvensis Violaceae pentacolporate, equatorial view Nicotiana tabacum Solanaceae tetracolporate, polar view

Sanguisorba officinalis Rosaceae equatorial view

Viola arvensis Violaceae pentacolporate, equatorial view Nicotiana tabacum Solanaceae tetracolporate, polar view

Justicia menesii Acanthaceae polar view

Sanguisorba officinalis Rosaceae equatorial view

Symphytum caucasicum

Boraginaceae dry pollen

Polygala chamaebuxus Polygalaceae equatorial view ana fnc stephanoaperturate: apertures situated at the equator (term usually used for more than three apertures).

Campanula alpina Campanulaceae equatorial view

Pterocarya sp. Juglandaceae, fossil polar view

Myriophyllum spicatum

Haloragaceae polar view

Carpinus sp. Betulaceae, fossil polar view

Legousia speculum-veneris

Campanulaceae polar view

Ulmus minor Ulmaceae equatorial view

LM |SEM TEM Imo |o pantoaperturate: pollen grain with apertures distributed more or less regularly over the whole surface.

■ Portulaca grandiflora ■ Opuntia basilar's Portulacaceae Cactaceae pantocolpate pantocolpate

Sideritis syriaca Talinum paniculatum

® Lamiaceae ® Portulacaceae pantocolpate, hexacolpate, dry pollen pantocolpate, dry pollen

Ranunculus lanuginosus Banisteria argentea a Ranunculaceae a Malpighiaceae pantocolpate, dry pollen pantocolporate ana fnc pantoaperturate: pollen grain with apertures distributed more or less regularly over the whole surface.

■ Trichostigma peruvianum ■ Hepatica transsylvanica Phytolaccaceae Ranunculaceae pantocolpate, dry pollen pantocolpate

Corydalis cava Fumaria vaillantii

® Fumariaceae ® Fumariaceae pantocolpate, hexacolpate pantoporate

Costus barbatus Opuntia sp.

a Zingiberaceae a Cactaceae pantoporate pantoporate ana fnc pantoaperturate: pollen grain with apertures distributed more or less regularly over the whole surface.

Cucurbita pepo Cucurbitaceae pantoporate

Stellaria graminea Caryophyllaceae pantoporate

Chenopodium hybridum Chenopodiaceae pantoporate, dry pollen

Fumaria officinalis

Fumariaceae pantoporate

Phaleria capitata Thymelaeaceae pantoporate

Ribes aureum Grossulariaceae pantoporate and fnc brevicolpus: short colpus brevicolporus: short colpus in a compound aperture.

Impatiens columbaria Balsaminaceae brevicolpate, equatorial view Scabiosa ochroleuca Dipsacaceae brevicolpate, equatorial view Dalechampia roezliana Euphorbiaceae brevicolporate, equatorial view

Mendoncia albida Acanthaceae brevicolpate, equatorial view Tilia americana Tiliaceae brevicolporate, equatorial view, acetolyzed Symphytum orientale Boraginaceae brevicolporate, equatorial view

Impatiens columbaria Balsaminaceae brevicolpate, equatorial view Scabiosa ochroleuca Dipsacaceae brevicolpate, equatorial view Dalechampia roezliana Euphorbiaceae brevicolporate, equatorial view

Mendoncia albida Acanthaceae brevicolpate, equatorial view Tilia americana Tiliaceae brevicolporate, equatorial view, acetolyzed Symphytum orientale Boraginaceae brevicolporate, equatorial view ana fnc synaperturate: pollen grain with anastomosing apertures.

Pedicularis verticillata Scrophulariaceae syncolpate, dry pollen

Nymphoides peltata Menyanthaceae syncolpate, polar view

Pedicularis verticillata Scrophulariaceae syncolpate, dry pollen

Cuphea purpurea Lythraceae syncolporate, polar view

Cassia pulcherrima Caesalpiniaceae syncolporate

Nymphoides peltata Menyanthaceae syncolpate, polar view

Onosma visianii

Boraginaceae syncolporate

Callistemon coccineus Myrtaceae syncolporate, equatorial view ana fnc spiraperturate: pollen grain with one or more spiral aperture(s).

Mimulus guttatus Scrophulariaceae

Thunbergia alata Acanthaceae

Claytonia perfoliata Portulacaceae dry pollen

Mimulus guttatus Scrophulariaceae dry pollen

Crocus speciosus Iridaceae

Berberis vulgaris Berberidaceae

TEMl mo ana heteroaperturate: pollen grain with two different types of apertures; only one type presumed to function as germination site.

Comment:

the term "heterocolpate" is commonly used for pollen grains with alternating colpi and colpori but "heterocolpate" means two different types of colpi; therefore we prefer the more general term "heteroaperturate".

Lythrum hyssopifolia Lythraceae equatorial view

Pardoglossum sp. Boraginaceae

Tetramerium nervosum Acanthaceae equatorial view

Phacelia tanacetifolia Hydrophyllaceae polar view

Lythrum hyssopifolia Lythraceae equatorial view

Cynoglossum officinale Boraginaceae equatorial view

Myosotis ramosissima Boraginaceae

SEM TEM

pseudocolpus: colpus in heteroaperturate pollen grains, presumably non-functional.

Lythrum salicaria Lythraceae equatorial view

Asperugo procumbens Boraginaceae equatorial view

Lythrum salicaria Lythraceae equatorial view

Lumnitzera racemosa Combretaceae equatorial view

Justicia furcata Acanthaceae equatorial view, two pseudocolpi flanking colporus

Asperugo procumbens Boraginaceae equatorial view

Cynoglossum officinale Boraginaceae

Pachystachys lutea Acanthaceae equatorial view, two pseudocolpi flanking colporus

LM SEM

colpus: elongated aperture (length : width ratio > 2) situated at the equatorial region or regularly distributed over the pollen grain.

Cruciata laevipes Rubiaceae stephanocolpate, equatorial view

Chimonanthus praecox Calycanthaceae dicolpate, polar view

Cruciata laevipes Rubiaceae stephanocolpate, equatorial view

Melampyrum arvense Scrophulariaceae tricolpate, polar view

Sherardia arvensis Rubiaceae stephanocolpate, oblique equatorial view

Chimonanthus praecox Calycanthaceae dicolpate, polar view

Clinopodium vulgare Lamiaceae hexacolpate, equatorial view Talinum paniculatum Portulacaceae pantocolpate ana fnc tricolpate: pollen grain with three colpi.

Lamium maculatum Lamiaceae

Nelumbo nucifera Nelumbonaceae polar view

Stachys palustris Lamiaceae dry pollen

Erysimum odoratum Brassicaceae polar view

Lonicera fragrantissima Caprifoliaceae equatorial view

Acer sp.

Sapindaceae, fossil equatorial view

LM |sEM TEM Imo |a tricolpate: pollen grain with three colpi.

Fraxinus excelsior Oleaceae equatorial view

Nandina domestica Berberidaceae polar view

Trollius europaeus Ranunculaceae polar view

Odontites luteus Scrophulariaceae dry pollen

Corylopsis platypetala Hamamelidaceae equatorial view

Veronica serpyllifolia Scrophulariaceae equatorial view ana fnc porus: more or less circular aperture situated at the equator or regularly spread over the pollen grain.

Arenaria pungens Caryophyllaceae pantoporate

Urtica dioica Urticaceae triporate, oblique equatorial view

Campanula sp. Caryophyllaceae, fossil stephanoporate, polar view

Juglans regia Juglandaceae equatorial view pores irregularly spread (exception) Chenopodium glaucum Chenopodiaceae pantoporate

Arenaria pungens Caryophyllaceae pantoporate

Urtica dioica Urticaceae triporate, oblique equatorial view

Aechmea allenii Bromeliaceae diporate, equatorial view

Campanula sp. Caryophyllaceae, fossil stephanoporate, polar view

Juglans regia Juglandaceae equatorial view pores irregularly spread (exception) Chenopodium glaucum Chenopodiaceae pantoporate ana fnc diporate: pollen grains with two pori.

Aechmea drakeana Bromeliaceae equatorial view

Whiffieldia lateralis Acanthaceae dry (left) and turgescent pollen (right) Quesnelia lateralis Bromeliaceae

Colchicum autumnale Colchicaceae

Sanchezia nobilis Acanthaceae

Broussonetia papyrifera Moraceae

Aechmea drakeana Bromeliaceae equatorial view

Whiffieldia lateralis Acanthaceae dry (left) and turgescent pollen (right) Quesnelia lateralis Bromeliaceae ana fnc triporate: pollen grain with three pori.

stephanoporate stephano-: prefix meaning equatorially situated; see "Alphabetic Glossary".

Cannabis sativa Cannabaceae equatorial view

Betula pendula Betulaceae equatorial view

Campanula saxatilis Campanulaceae polar view

Cannabis sativa Cannabaceae equatorial view

Carya sp.

Juglandaceae, fossil polar view

Legousia speculum-veneris Caryophyllaceae equatorial view

Alnus viridis Betulaceae oblique equatorial view ana fnc pantoporate panto-: prefix for global;see"Alphabetic Glossary"

Bassia scoparia Chenopodiaceae

Cobaeascandens Polemoniaceae

Echinodorus quadricosfafus Alismataceae

Thalictrum minus Ranunculaceae dry pollen

Ipomoea batatas Convolvulaceae

Calystegia sepium Convolvulaceae and fnc pantoporate panto-: prefix for global;see "Alphabetic Glossary"

7f\J jL/drS Aj/HTIIVjL1

ffl/t

7f\J jL/drS Aj/HTIIVjL1

ffl/t

Plantago major Plantaginaceae

Malva moschata Malvaceae

Arenaria ciliata Caryophyllaceae

Aechmea azurea Bromeliaceae

Liquidambar sp. Hamamelidaceae, fossil

Buxus sempervirens Buxaceae

LM SEM

poroid: circular or elliptic aperture, with indistinct margin.

Carex remota

Cyperaceae pseudomonad

Sagittaria sagittifolia Alismataceae

Schoenoplectus lacustris Cyperaceae

Cercidiphyllum japonicum Cercidiphyllaceae triporoidate (in turgescent state)

Caldesia parnassifolia Alismataceae

Scirpus sylvaticus Cyperaceae

SEM TEM

tenuitas: general term for a thinning of the pollen wall.

Agapetes variegata

Ericaceae tetrad

Viola tricolor Violaceae polar view

Odontites vulgaris Scrophulariaceae dry pollen

Agapetes variegata Ericaceae

Viola tricolor Violaceae

Odontites vulgaris Scrophulariaceae dry pollen

LM SEM

colporus: compound aperture composed of a colpus (ektoaperture) combined with an endoaperture of variable size and shape.

Lathyrus vernus Fabaceae tricolporate, equatorial view Hieracium hoppeanum Asteraceae tricolporate, equatorial view

Poncirus trifoliata Rutaceae tetracolporate, polar view

Kraussia floribunda Rubiaceae tricolporate, equatorial view Erica herbacea Ericaceae tricolporate, tetrad

Cerinthe minor Boraginaceae stephanocolporate, equatorial view

Lathyrus vernus Fabaceae tricolporate, equatorial view Hieracium hoppeanum Asteraceae tricolporate, equatorial view

Poncirus trifoliata Rutaceae tetracolporate, polar view

Kraussia floribunda Rubiaceae tricolporate, equatorial view Erica herbacea Ericaceae tricolporate, tetrad

Cerinthe minor Boraginaceae stephanocolporate, equatorial view colporus: compound aperture composed of a colpus (ektoaperture) combined with an endoaperture of variable size and shape.

■ Justicia xylosteoides ■ Adhatoda schimperiana Acanthaceae Acanthaceae dicolporate dicolporate, equatorial view

Centaurea scabiosa Rhododendron hirsutum

® Asteraceae ® Ericaceae tricolporate, polar view tricolporate, tetrad

■ Justicia xylosteoides ■ Adhatoda schimperiana Acanthaceae Acanthaceae dicolporate dicolporate, equatorial view

Centaurea scabiosa Rhododendron hirsutum

® Asteraceae ® Ericaceae tricolporate, polar view tricolporate, tetrad

Tricolporopollenites wackersdorfensis Pulmonaria mollissima a Fabaceae, fossil _ Boraginaceae equatorial view stephanocolporate, equatorial view ana fnc tricolporate: pollen grain with three colpori.

Fagus sp. Fagaceae, fossil equatorial view

Rumex acetosa Polygonaceae equatorial view

Parnassia palustris Parnassiaceae equatorial view

Verbena officinalis Verbenaceae polar view

Echium vulgare Boraginaceae equatorial view

Fatsia japonica Araliaceae ana fnc tricolporate: pollen grain with three colpori.

Antennaria dioica Asteraceae equatorial view

Lycium barbarum Solanaceae equatorial view

Antennaria dioica Asteraceae equatorial view

Lycium barbarum Solanaceae equatorial view

Potentilla erecta Rosaceae equatorial view

Erica arborea Ericaceae tetrad

Myrrhis odorata Apiaceae dry pollen

Cirsium oleraceum Asteraceae equatorial view ana fnc

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment