Microechinate

micro-: prefix for small;features smaller as 1 |_im;see "Alphabetic Glossary".

Claytonia perfoliata Portulacaceae microechinate, perforate

Babiana velutina Iridaceae microechinate, perforate Plafycodon grandiflorum Campanulaceae microechinate, striato-microreticulate

Petrorhagia prolifera Caryophyllaceae microechinate, perforate

Claytonia perfoliata Portulacaceae microechinate, perforate

Pulsatilla pratensis Ranunculaceae microechinate, perforate

Galium lucidum Rubiaceae microechinate, perforate

Babiana velutina Iridaceae microechinate, perforate Plafycodon grandiflorum Campanulaceae microechinate, striato-microreticulate

Petrorhagia prolifera Caryophyllaceae microechinate, perforate

ORNAMENTATION verruca, verrucate ana fnc verruca: wart-like element more than 1 |m broad, broader than high.

Aristolochia salvadorensis Aristolochiaceae verrucate, perforate

Aristolochia tricaudata Aristolochiaceae verrucate, perforate

Corydalis cava Fumariaceae dry pollen

Plantago media Plantaginaceae verrucate, microechinate

Calliandra emarginata Mimosaceae

Aristolochia salvadorensis Aristolochiaceae verrucate, perforate

Aristolochia tricaudata Aristolochiaceae verrucate, perforate

Corydalis cava Fumariaceae dry pollen

Plantago media Plantaginaceae verrucate, microechinate

Calliandra emarginata Mimosaceae

Teucrium chamaedrys Lamiaceae microverrucate, perforate

ana fnc baculum: rod-like, free standing element, more than 1 pm in height and never pointed.

Viscum laxum Viscaceae

Viscum album Viscaceae polar view

Erythrochiton brasiliensis

Rutaceae equatorial view

Viscum laxum Viscaceae

Nymphaea alba Nymphaeaceae

Erythrochiton brasiliensis Rutaceae large bacula and smaller bacula or clavae

ORNAMENTATION clava, clavate and fnc clava: club-shaped element, higher than 1 pm.

Iris alata Iridaceae

Hex aquifolium Aquifoliaceae equatorial view

Llnum fíavum Linaceae heterostylous, long-styled morph

Ilex sp.

Aquifoliaceae, fossil equatorial view

Plumbago auriculata Plumbaginaceae

Aratitiyopea lopezii Xyridaceae clavae of two different sizes clava, clavate ORNAMENTATION

ana fnc clava: club-shaped element, higher than 1 pm.

Geranium robertianum Geraniaceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

Geranium robertianum Geraniaceae toluidine blue

Geranium pratense

Geraniaceae reticulum cristatum with clavae

Geranium robertianum Geraniaceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

Geranium sibiricum

Geraniaceae reticulum cristatum with clavae

ORNAMENTATION free-standing columellae ana fnc free-standing columellae: columellae in the infratectal layer not covered by a tectum in semitectate pollen grains.

Dipteracanthus devosianus Acanthaceae

Erophila verna Brassicaceae

Viburnum opulus Caprifoliaceae

Impatiens parviflora Balsaminaceae

Bougainvillea sp. Nyctaginaceae

Thladiantha hookeri Cucurbitaceae gemma, gemmate ORNAMENTATION

ana fnc gemma: globular exine element more than 1 pm in diameter.

Dionaea muscipula Droseraceae gemmate, clavate

Stenandrium dulce Acanthaceae large and small gemmae and granules Fatsia japonica Araliaceae gemmate, reticulate

Cephalopentandra ecirrhosa Cucurbitaceae gemmate, reticulate, polar view

Dionaea muscipula Droseraceae gemmate, clavate

Stenandrium dulce Acanthaceae large and small gemmae and granules Fatsia japonica Araliaceae gemmate, reticulate

Cephalopentandra ecirrhosa Cucurbitaceae gemmate, reticulate, polar view

Asarum europaeum Aristolochiaceae gemmate, microgemmate

Hakea kippistiana Proteaceae gemmate, microreticulate ana fnc areola: small, mostly convex exine island.

Peperomia rubella Piperaceae

Mimosa pudica Mimosaceae tetrad

Cynodon dactylon Poaceae

Dracunculus vulgaris Araceae

Poikilacanthus macranthus

Acanthaceae areolae reticulate

Beloperone guttata Acanthaceae areolae in apertural area ana fnc clypeate: pollen wall where the exine is subdivided into shields.

Ibicella lutea

Martyniaceae inaperturate

Phyllanthus sp. Euphorbiaceae pantoporate

Banisteria argentea

Malpighiaceae pantocolporate

Corydalis lutea Fumariaceae pantocolpate, syncolpate

Iris bucharica

Iridaceae inaperturate

Catalpa bignonioides Bignoniaceae tetrads, inaperturate, dry pollen

Ibicella lutea

Martyniaceae inaperturate

Phyllanthus sp. Euphorbiaceae pantoporate

Banisteria argentea

Malpighiaceae pantocolporate

Corydalis lutea Fumariaceae pantocolpate, syncolpate

Iris bucharica

Iridaceae inaperturate

Catalpa bignonioides Bignoniaceae tetrads, inaperturate, dry pollen

POLLEN WALL

pollen wall

SEM TEMl mo ana fnc pollen wall: layer(s) enclosing the cytoplasm of a pollen grain.

supratectal elements

tectum

& <D

foot layer

c endexine

intine

structure of the pollen wall schematic drawing pollenkitt (pk)

Ambrosia arfemisiifolia Asteraceae

Scrophularia nodosa Scrophulariaceae

Ambrosia arfemisiifolia Asteraceae acetolyzed

Ambrosia arfemisiifolia Asteraceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

Scrophularia nodosa Scrophulariaceae

KMnO.

POLLEN WALL

infratectum, alveolate mo|~ana| fnc

SEM TEM

infratectum: layer between tectum and foot layer or endexine (if foot layer is missing); infratectum can be alveolate, columellate, granular or absent.

Abies sp. Pinaceae, fossil fractured pollen wall, proximal area (cappa) Pinus sp. Pinaceae, fossil

Pinus sp.

Pinaceae, fossil alveolae inside detached saccus

Tsuga sp. Pinaceae, fossil

Abies sp. Pinaceae, fossil fractured pollen wall, proximal area (cappa) Pinus sp. Pinaceae, fossil

Gonafopus angusfus

Araceae

PA+TCH+SP

Pinus sp.

Pinaceae, fossil alveolae inside detached saccus

Tsuga sp. Pinaceae, fossil

Zamioculcas zamiifolia

Araceae

U+Pb

POLLEN WALL

infratectum, columellate

SEM TEM mo ana I

infratectum: layer between tectum and foot layer or endexine (if foot layer is missing); infratectum can be alveolate, columellate, granular or absent.

Microrrhinum minus Scrophulariaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short)

Mentha aquatica

Lamiaceae

KMnO4

Melampyrum pratense Scrophulariaceae PA+TCH+SP (short)

Gladiolusillyricus Iridaceae fractured pollen wall

Microrrhinum minus Scrophulariaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short)

Bassia scoparia

Chenopodiaceae

U+Pb indet.

Asteraceae acetolyzed honey sample fractured pollen wall infratectum, granular, absent POLLEN WALL

EM TEM jmo| gnaj fnc infratectum: layer between tectum and foot layer or endexine (if foot layer is missing); infratectum can be alveolate, columellate, granular or absent.

infratectum: layer between tectum and foot layer or endexine (if foot layer is missing); infratectum can be alveolate, columellate, granular or absent.

Corylus colurna Betulaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short)

Juglans regia Juglandaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short)

Amydrium medium

Araceae

U+Pb

Viola tricolor

Violaceae

U+Pb

Corylus colurna Betulaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short)

Juglans regia Juglandaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short)

Dieffenbachia humilis

Araceae

U+Pb

Mahonia aquifolium

Berberidaceae

U+Pb

POLLEN WALL

internal tectum internal tectum: a ± continuous layer between foot layer and tectum, separated from them by columellae.

Argyranthemum sp.

Asteraceae

U+Pb

Agrimonia eupatoria Centaurea cyanus

Rosaceae ® Asteraceae

Argyranthemum sp.

Asteraceae

U+Pb

Agrimonia eupatoria Centaurea cyanus

Rosaceae ® Asteraceae

foot layer POLLEN WALL

EM TEM jmo| ana| fnc foot layer: inner layer of the ektexine; foot layer can be continuous, discontinuous, perforated or absent.

Microrrhinum minus Scrophulariaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) continuous

Plantago maritima Plantaginaceae TCH+SP continuous

Microrrhinum minus Scrophulariaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) continuous

Clinopodium vulgare Lamiaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short) discontinuous

Pachypodium succulentum Apocynaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) absent

Plantago maritima Plantaginaceae TCH+SP continuous

Acinos alpinus

Lamiaceae

KMnO4

discontinuous Fraxinus excelsior Oleaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) absent

LM SEM

ana endexine: distinct exine layer between ektexine and intine; endexine (E) can be compact, spongy or lamellar as well as continuous, discontinuous, absent or in aperture only.

Odontites luteus

Scrophulariaceae

KMnO4

compact, continuous Pulmonaria officinalis Boraginaceae PA+TCH+SP compact, continuous

Ailanthus altissima

Simaroubaceae

TCH+SP

compact, continuous Microrrhinum minus Scrophulariaceae U+Pb compact, continuous

Odontites luteus

Scrophulariaceae

KMnO4

compact, continuous Pulmonaria officinalis Boraginaceae PA+TCH+SP compact, continuous

Ailanthus altissima

Simaroubaceae

TCH+SP

compact, continuous Microrrhinum minus Scrophulariaceae U+Pb compact, continuous

EM TEM jmo| gnaj fnc endexine: distinct exine layer between ektexine and intine; endexine (E) can be compact, spongy or lamellar as well as continuous, discontinuous, absent or in aperture only.

Mentha aquafica

Lamiaceae

KMnO4

spongy, continuous

Arophyton buchetii

Araceae

U+Pb spongy, continuous

Mentha aquafica

Lamiaceae

KMnO4

spongy, continuous

Pistia stratiotes Araceae PA+TCH+SP spongy, continuous

Arophyton buchetii

Araceae

U+Pb spongy, continuous

Spathiphyllum blandum

Araceae

TCH+SP

spongy, continuous

Orobanche hederae

Orobanchaceae

KMnO4

lamellar, continuous

Thalictrum flavum Ranunculaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) lamellar, continuous

LM SEM

ana endexine: distinct exine layer between ektexine and intine; endexine (E) can be compact, spongy or lamellar as well as continuous, discontinuous, absent or in aperture only

Glaucium flavum

Papaveraceae

U+Pb compact, discontinuous Ranunculus frichophyllos Ranunculaceae PA+TCH+SP

compact, discontinuous

Odontites vulgaris Scrophulariaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short) compact, discontinuous

Glaucium flavum

Papaveraceae

U+Pb compact, discontinuous Ranunculus frichophyllos Ranunculaceae PA+TCH+SP

compact, discontinuous

Odontites vulgaris Scrophulariaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short) compact, discontinuous

Delphinium elatum Ranunculaceae

PA+TCH+SP (short) compact, discontinuous

M TEM jmo| gnaj fnc endexine: distinct exine layer between ektexine and intine; endexine (E) can be compact, spongy or lamellar as well as continuous, discontinuous, absent or in aperture only.

Brassica napus Brassicaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) absent

Chenopodium album

Chenopodiaceae

PA+TCH+SP

absent

Brassica napus Brassicaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) absent

Trisefum flavescens Poaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) absent

Chenopodium album

Chenopodiaceae

PA+TCH+SP

absent

Cereus sp. Cactaceae PA+TCH+SP (short) absent

Corylus avellana Betulaceae

U+Pb in aperture only

Corylus avellana

Betulaceae

TCH+SP

in aperture only

POLLEN WALL

intine intine: part of the pollen wall next to the cytoplasm, mainly consisting of polysaccharides.

Apium nodiflorum

Apiaceae

U+Pb ektintine (electron dense) endintine (electron transparent)

Apium nodiflorum

Apiaceae

U+Pb ektintine (electron dense) endintine (electron transparent)

Apium nodiflorum

Apiaceae

PA+TCH+SP

Quercus robur ® Fagaceae TCH+SP

semitectum, semitectate

POLLEN WALL

ana fnc semitectum: discontinuous tectum, covering less than 50 % of pollen grain surface.

Salix fragilis Salicaceae reticulate

Salix fragilis Salicaceae reticulate

Quesnelia lateralis Bromeliaceae reticulate

Lomatogonium carinthiacum Gentianaceae striato-microreticulate, polar area

Salix fragilis Salicaceae

U+Pb

Alangium sp. Cornaceae, fossil reticulate, equatorial view

Pachysandra terminalis

Buxaceae reticulum cristatum

POLLEN WALL

atectate

LM SEM TEM jmo| ana| fnc atectate: pollen grain lacking a tectum.

Rhaphidophora africana

Araceae

U+Pb

Sauromatum venosum

Araceae

PA+TCH+SP

Orobanche hederae

Orobanchaceae

KMnO4

Globba schomburgkii Zingiberaceae

U+Pb primexine

EM TEM

MISCELLANEOUS

ana fnc primexine: polysaccharldic layer formed during early developmental stage wherein the later exine structures are preformed.

Smyrnium perfoliatum

Apiaceae

U+Pb pollen mother cell, primexine within callose wall

Smyrnium perfoliatum Apiaceae

U+Pb tetrad stage, first exine elements visible within primexine

Smyrnium perfoliatum Apiaceae

U+Pb pollen mother cell, primexine within callose wall

Smyrnium perfoliatum Apiaceae

U+Pb free microspore stage, ektexine developed

MISCELLANEOUS

vegetative nucleus

LM SEM TEM |moj

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