Introduction

Pollen Terminology. An illustrated Handbook is a collection of useful terms in palynology, well illustrated with light (LM) and electron microscope (EM) micrographs. The reader will not And an encyclopedic compilation of terms; in that respect see KREMP (1968). The focus is on the pollen of seed plants, predominantly angiosperms, while spores are considered only exceptionally. Therefore the terminology rarely includes spore or gymnosperm characteristics (e.g., leptoma, trilete mark).

Since 1994, the Glossary of Pollen and Spore Terminology, co-authored by Wim PUNT, Stephen BLACKMORE, Siwert NILSSON and Annick LE THOMAS, was the standard reference publication in paly-nological terminology. Then, in 1999 the online version by Peter HOEN (http://www. bio.uu.nl/~palaeo/glossary/glos-int.htm) appeared, with several additions. The online version was published by W. PUNT, P.P. HOEN, S. BLACKMORE, S. NILSSON and A. LE THOMAS in 2007 and provides informative schematic drawings containing the essentials of each term and colored to indicate the wall and aperture components, mostly using LM findings.

Although extremely useful for overview purposes, drawings cannot show the full range of features. This can be achieved only with micrographs, which demonstrate - a picture is telling more than thousand words - the often stunning diversity of features. For that reason, the explanatory power of micrographs produced with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used in the present volume. The numerous SEM micrographs illustrating the astonishing diversity of pollen ornamentation. Where important terms have appeared ambiguous or have been hitherto underrated, the term has been reviewed and brought into focus (e.g. harmomegathy, or pollen class versus pollen type).

It is self-evident that such a book cannot renounce the basics of palynology. In this context please consult standard textbooks in palynology, e.g., ERDTMAN (1952), F^GRI and IVERSEN (1989) or BEUG (2004). The principles of pollen development and morphology are incorporated as separate chapters for purposes of clarity and in order to correctly interpret the detailed structures of the pollen wall and the full range of ornamentation.

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