In general the pollen wall sporoderm of

seed plants consists of two main layers: the outer exine and the inner intine. The exine consists mainly of sporopollenins, which are acetolysis- and decay-resistant biopolymers. The intine is mainly composed of cellulose and pectin. Commonly, the pollen wall in apertural regions is characterized by the reduction of exinous structures or by a deviant exine, and a thick, often bilayered intine.

Two layers within the exine are distinguished: an inner endexine and an outer ektexine. The ektexine consists of a basal

Pollen wall stratification pk: pollenkitt

Pollen wall stratification pk: pollenkitt

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