Acknowledgements

Many people were involved in various aspects of this book project and the authors would like to acknowledge and thank them for their time, suggestions and encouragement during the various developmental phases of this book and/or for providing plant material.

Among the many other colleagues, who contributed substantially, the authors want to thank (in alphabetical order):

Wolfram ADLASSNIG Elisabeth ANGER Josef BOGNER Paula BOMBOSI Perica BRODARIC Thomas CROAT Bernadette DIETHART David Kay FERGUSON

Manfred A. FISCHER Alfred GLASER Lynn HANNON Barbara HERMANOWSKI Anton IGERSHEIM Irmgard JÄGER-ZÜRN Christel KASSELMANN Nadja KAVCIK Alexander KOCYAN Wolfgang KOLLER Thomas LENDL Claudia LOOS Bozena MITIC

Wolfgang OBERSCHNEIDER Marianne PEROUTKA Paul RADIVO Saskia SAM-RICHTARZ Johannes SCHACHNER Ursula SCHACHNER Barbara SIMON Susanne SONTAG Robert STANGL Rupert STINGL Matthias SVOJTKA Angelika SYROVATKA Enikö TWERASER Walter TILL Stefan VOGEL Bruno WALLNÖFER Arabella WURZINGER Klaudia ZETTER

The staff members of the Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna (HBV) The staff members of the Bundesgärten Wien_Innsbruck

A special note of thanks is due to Mag. Franziska BRUGGER and to Mrs. Silvia SCHILGERIUS of the team at Springer Vienna for their great support and patience during the preparation of this book.

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CONTENT

Introduction_5

Guidelines_7

Rules for Using Prefixes_8

Palynology_11

The Science of Pollen and Spores_ 11

A Brief History of Palynology_ 12

A Tentative Outlook_ 13

Pollen Morphology_15

Polarity and Symmetry_ 15

Apertures_ 17

Structure and Function_20

Pollen Wall_20

Structure and Sculpture_23

Harmomegathy_23

Why Do We Need Categories?_27

Pollen Development_35

Microsporogenesis and Microgametogenesis_35

Inherence of Misinterpretation_39

Tripartite Features_39

Apertures as Pitfalls_42

Pollen Features can be Ambiguous_44

Controversial or Fuzzy Terms_47

Acalymmate/Calymmate_47

Areolae/Areolate _47

Pseudocolpus_48

Retipilate_48

Methods_51

Scanning Electron Microscopy_51

Acetolysis and Light Microscopy_51

Transmission Electron Microscopy_52

Acetocarmine Staining for Light Microscopy_52

How to Describe a Pollen Grain_55

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