Landscape approach principles

12 Management of landscapes for social, economic and environmental benefits Source: FAO, 2007

should be characterized by closed cycles of nutrients and energy conservation. These requirements lead inevitably to knowledge-intensive systems, which is captured in the institutional principles of the FAO Voluntary Guidelines (Box 8.1). The plantations must also be economically profitable from the perspective of investors or owners, and they should also provide economic benefits to local and regional economies.

Where plantation planning and management is following the above principles, plantations can make substantial contributions to the delivery of ecosystems services, many of which are becoming more rather than less important (Kanowski and Murray, 2008).

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