Enhancing biomass growth

Forest stand growth is determined by (a) site quality (the main factors are climate, microclimate, soil and relief) and (b) how well trees capture resources. The latter is influenced by genetic pool, stand development and degree of stocking. The genetic stock and other silvicultural factors, most of which can be altered by managers, may prevent the potential site productivity from being attained (Mead, 2005). On sites where nutrients and water are limiting factors to plant growth, the potential...

Plantation carbon management and climate policy

Under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized countries are committed to reducing their 1990 greenhouse gas emissions from 2008 to 2012 by roughly 5 per cent (UNFCCC, 1997) through their activities in land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), which they nominate. The land-use change from other land uses to new forests (afforestation) or from forests to other land uses (deforestation), the subject of Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, and their carbon emissions and removals must be reported...

Plantation requirements

Generally, plantations and agroforestry systems promoted by enterprises and development organizations implicitly require significant investment. The specific costs depend on a wide variety of parameters such as plantation size, planting density, management intensity and transport distances. Table 6.2 shows cost examples for smallholder plantations in China and Australia and provides comparative data about smallholder-driven tree-growing initiatives from a case study at the Amazonian highway....

Synergies and tradeoffs between ecosystem goods and services

To enable implementation of plantations according to the FAO principles (Box 8.1), in particular in relation to effective, transparent and integrated land-use planning, the costs and benefits and synergies and trade-offs of the many different options that may be available must be known or assessable. Therefore agreed valuation systems for ecosystem goods and services are required (see Chapter 2). Financial valuations often disregard the importance of social and cultural values, although the...