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abiotic nonliving abrade to wear away through contact abrasive tending to wear away through contact abscission dropping off or separating accession a plant that has been acquired and catalogued achene a small, dry, thin-walled type of fruit actinomycetes common name for a group of Gram-positive bacteria that are filamentous and superficially similar to fungi addictive capable of causing addiction or chemical dependence adhesion sticking to the surface of adventitious arising from secondary buds, or arising in an unusual position aeration the introduction of air albuminous gelatinous, or composed of the protein albumin alkali chemically basic; the opposite of acidic alkalinization increase in basicity or reduction in acidity alkaloid bitter secondary plant compound, often used for defense allele one form of a gene allelopathy harmful action by one plant against another allopolyploidy a polyploid organism formed by hybridization between two different species or varieties (alio = other)

alluvial plain broad area formed by the deposit of river sediment at its outlet amended soils soils to which fertilizers or other growth aids have been added amendment additive anaerobic without oxygen

analgesic pain-relieving analog a structure or thing, especially a chemical, similar to something else angiosperm a flowering plant anomalous unusual or out of place anoxic without oxygen antenna system a collection of protein complexes that harvests light energy and converts it to excitation energy that can migrate to a reaction center; the light is absorbed by pigment molecules (e.g., chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycobilin) that are attached to the protein anthropogenic human-made; related to or produced by the influence of humans on nature antibodies proteins produced to fight infection antioxidant a substance that prevents damage from oxygen or other reactive substances apical meristem region of dividing cells at the tips of growing plants apical at the tip apomixis asexual reproduction that may mimic sexual reproduction appendages parts that are attached to a central stalk or axis arable able to be cultivated for crops

Arcto-Tertiary geoflora the fossil flora discovered in Arctic areas dating back to the Tertiary period; this group contains magnolias (Magnolia), tulip trees (Liriodendron), maples (Acer), beech (Fagus), black gum (Nyssa), sweet gum (Liquidambar), dawn redwood (Metasequoia), cypress (Taxodium), and many other species artifacts pots, tools, or other cultural objects assayer one who performs chemical tests to determine the composition of a substance

ATP adenosine triphosphate, a small, water-soluble molecule that acts as an energy currency in cells attractant something that attracts autotroph "self-feeder"; any organism that uses sunlight or chemical energy auxin a plant hormone avian related to birds axil the angle or crotch where a leaf stalk meets the stem axillary bud the bud that forms in the angle between the stem and leaf basipetal toward the base belladonna the source of atropine; means "beautiful woman," and is so named because dilated pupils were thought to enhance a woman's beauty binomial two-part biodirected assays tests that examine some biological property biodiversity degree of variety of life biogeography the study of the reasons for the geographic distribution of organisms biomass the total dry weight of an organism or group of organisms biosphere the region of the Earth in which life exists biosynthesis creation through biological pathways biota the sum total of living organisms in a region of a given size biotic involving or related to life bryologist someone who studies bryophytes, a division of nonflowering plants campanulate bell-shaped capitulum the head of a compound flower, such as a dandelion cardiotonic changing the contraction properties of the heart carotenoid a yellow-colored molecule made by plants carpels the innermost whorl of flower parts, including the egg-bearing ovules, plus the style and stigma attached to the ovules catastrophism the geologic doctrine that sudden, violent changes mark the geologic history of Earth cation positively charged particle catkin a flowering structure used for wind pollination centrifugation spinning at high speed in a centrifuge to separate components chitin a cellulose-like molecule found in the cell wall of many fungi and arthropods chloroplast the photosynthetic organelle of plants and algae circadian "about a day"; related to a day circumscription the definition of the boundaries surrounding an object or an idea cisterna a fluid-containing sac or space clade a group of organisms composed of an ancestor and all of its descendants cladode a modified stem having the appearance and function of a leaf coalescing roots roots that grow together coleoptile the growing tip of a monocot seedling collenchyma one of three cell types in ground tissue

colonize to inhabit a new area colony a group of organisms inhabiting a particular area, especially organisms descended from a common ancestor commensalism a symbiotic association in which one organism benefits while the other is unaffected commodities goods that are traded, especially agricultural goods community a group of organisms of different species living in a region compaction compacting of soil, leading to the loss of air spaces complex hybrid hybridized plant having more than two parent plants compound a substance formed from two or more elements concentration gradient a difference in concentration between two areas continental drift the movement of continental land masses due to plate tectonics contractile capable of contracting convective uplift the movement of air upwards due to heating from the sun coppice growth the growth of many stems from a single trunk or root, following the removal of the main stem cortical relating to the cortex of a plant covalent held together by electron-sharing bonds crassulacean acid metabolism water-conserving strategy used by several types of plants crop rotation alternating crops from year to year in a particular field cultivation growth of plants, or turning the soil for growth of crop plants crystallography the use of x-rays on crystals to determine molecular structure cuticle the waxy outer coating of a leaf or other structure, which provides protection against predators, infection, and water loss cyanide heap leach gold mining a technique used to extract gold by treating ore with cyanide cyanobacteria photosynthetic prokaryotic bacteria formerly known as blue-green algae cyanogenic giving rise to cyanide cytologist a scientist who studies cells cytology the microscopic study of cells and cell structure cytosol the fluid portion of a cell cytostatic inhibiting cell division deductive reasoning from facts to conclusion dendrochronologist a scientist who uses tree rings to determine climate or other features of the past dermatophytes fungi that cause skin diseases desertification degradation of dry lands, reducing productivity desiccation drying out detritus material from decaying organisms diatoms hard-shelled, single-celled marine organisms; a type of algae dictyosome any one of the membranous or vesicular structures making up the Golgi apparatus dioicous having male and female sexual parts on different plants diploid having two sets of chromosomes, versus having one set (haploid) dissipate to reduce by spreading out or scattering distal further away from diurnal daily, or by day domestication the taming of an organism to live with and be of use to humans dormant inactive, not growing drupe a fruit with a leathery or stone-like seed dynamical system theory the mathematical theory of change within a system ecophysiological related to how an organism's physiology affects its function in an ecosystem ecosystem an ecological community and its environment elater an elongated, thickened filament empirical formula the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound emulsifier a chemical used to suspend oils in water encroachment moving in on endemic belonging or native to a particular area or country endophyte a fungus that lives within a plant endoplasmic reticulum the membrane network inside a cell endosperm the nutritive tissue in a seed, formed by the fertilization of a diploid egg tissue by a sperm from pollen endosporic the formation of a gametophyte inside the spore wall endosymbiosis a symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other

Enlightenment eighteenth-century philosophical movement stressing rational critique of previously accepted doctrines in all areas of thought entomologist a scientist who studies insects enzyme a protein that controls a reaction in a cell ephemeral short-lived epicuticle the waxy outer covering of a plant, produced by the epidermis epidermis outer layer of cells epiphytes plants that grow on other plants escarpment a steep slope or cliff resulting from erosion ethnobotanist a scientist who interacts with native peoples to learn more about the plants of a region ethnobotany the study of traditional uses of plants within a culture euglossine bees a group of bees that pollinate orchids and other rainforest plants eukaryotic a cell with a nucleus (eu means "true" and karyo means "nucleus"); includes protists, plants, animals, and fungi extrafloral outside the flower exudation the release of a liquid substance; oozing facultative capable of but not obligated to fertigation application of small amounts of fertilizer while irrigating filament a threadlike extension filamentous thin and long flagella threadlike extension of the cell membrane, used for movement flavonoids aromatic compounds occurring in both seeds and young roots and involved in host-pathogen and host-symbiont interactions florigen a substance that promotes flowering floristic related to plants follicle sac or pouch forbs broad-leaved, herbaceous plants free radicals toxic molecular fragments frugivous feeding on fruits gametangia structure where gametes are formed gametophyte the haploid organism in the life cycle gel electrophoresis a technique for separating molecules based on size and electrical charge genera plural of genus; a taxonomic level above species genome the genetic material of an organism genotype the genetic makeup of an organism germplasm hereditary material, especially stored seed or other embryonic forms globose rounded and swollen; globe-shaped gradient difference in concentration between two places green manure crop planted to be plowed under to nourish the soil, especially with nitrogen gymnosperm a major group of plants that includes the conifers gynoecium the female reproductive organs as a whole gypsipherous containing the mineral gypsum hallucinogenic capable of inducing hallucinations haploid having one set of chromosomes, versus having two (diploid)

haustorial related to a haustorium, or food-absorbing organ hemiterpene a half terpene herbivore an organism that feeds on plant parts heterocyclic a chemical ring structure composed of more than one type of atom, for instance carbon and nitrogen heterosporous bearing spores of two types, large megaspores and small microspores heterostylous having styles (female flower parts) of different lengths, to aid cross-pollination heterotroph an organism that derives its energy from consuming other organisms or their body parts holistic including all the parts or factors that relate to an object or idea homeotic relating to or being a gene that produces a shift in structural development homology a similarity in structure between anatomical parts due to descent from a common ancestor humus the organic material in soil formed from decaying organisms hybrid a mix of two varieties or species hybridization formation of a new individual from parents of different species or varieties hydrological cycle the movement of water through the biosphere hydrophobic water repellent hydroponic growing without soil, in a watery medium hydroxyl the chemical group -OH

hyphae the threadlike body mass of a fungus illicit illegal impede to slow down or inhibit inert incapable of reaction inflorescence a group of flowers or arrangement of flowers in a flower head infrastructure roads, phone lines, and other utilities that allow commerce insectivorous insect-eating intercalary inserted; between interspecific hybridization hybridization between two species intertidal between the lines of high and low tide intracellular bacteria bacteria that live inside other cells intraspecific taxa levels of classification below the species level intuiting using intuition ionic present as a charged particle ions charged particles irreversible unable to be reversed juxtaposition contrast brought on by close positioning lacerate cut

Lamarckian inheritance the hypothesis that acquired characteristics can be inherited lamellae thin layers or plate-like structure land-grant university a state university given land by the federal government on the condition that it offer courses in agriculture landrace a variety of a cultivated plant, occurring in a particular region lateral to the side of legume beans and other members of the Fabaceae family lignified composed of lignin, a tough and resistant plant compound lineage ancestry; the line of evolutionary descent of an organism loci (singular: locus) sites or locations lodging falling over while still growing lytic breaking apart by the action of enzymes macromolecule a large molecule such as a protein, fat, nucleic acid, or carbohydrate macroscopic large, visible medulla middle part megaphylls large leaves having many veins or a highly branched vein system meiosis the division of chromosomes in which the resulting cells have half the original number of chromosomes meristem the growing tip of a plant mesic of medium wetness microfibrils microscopic fibers in a cell micron one millionth of a meter; also called micrometer microphylls small leaves having a single unbranched vein mitigation reduction of amount or effect mitochondria cell organelles that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to power cell reactions mitosis the part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes are separated to give each daughter cell an identical chromosome set molecular systematics the analysis of DNA and other molecules to determine evolutionary relationships monoculture a large stand of a single crop species monomer a single unit of a multi-unit structure monophyletic a group that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants montane growing in a mountainous region morphology shape and form motile capable of movement mucilaginous sticky or gummy murein a peptidoglycan, a molecule made up of sugar derivatives and amino acids mutualism a symbiosis between two organisms in which both benefit mycelium the vegetative body of a fungus, made up of threadlike hyphae

NADP+ oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NADPH reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, a small, water-soluble molecule that acts as a hydrogen carrier in biochemical reactions nanometer one billionth of a meter nectaries organs in flowers that secrete nectar negative feedback a process by which an increase in some variable causes a response that leads to a decrease in that variable

neuromuscular junction the place on the muscle surface where the muscle receives stimulus from the nervous system neurotransmitter a chemical that passes messages between nerve cells node branching site on a stem nomenclature a naming system nonmotile not moving nonpolar not directed along the root-shoot axis, or not marked by separation of charge (unlike water and other polar substances)

nonsecretory not involved in secretion, or the release of materials

Northern Blot a technique for separating RNA molecules by electrophoresis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe nucleolar related to the nucleolus, a distinct region in the nucleus nurseryman a worker in a plant nursery obligate required, without another option obligate parasite a parasite without a free-living stage in the life cycle odorant a molecule with an odor organelle a membrane-bound structure within a cell osmosis the movement of water across a membrane to a region of high solute concentration oviposition egg-laying oxidation reaction with oxygen, or loss of electrons in a chemical reaction paleobotany the study of ancient plants and plant communities pangenesis the belief that acquired traits can be inherited by bodily influences on the reproductive cells panicle a type of inflorescence (flower cluster) that is loosely packed and irregularly branched paraphyletic group a taxonomic group that excludes one or more descendants of a common ancestor parenchyma one of three types of cells found in ground tissue pastoralists farming people who keep animal flocks pathogen disease-causing organism pedicel a plant stalk that supports a fruiting or spore-bearing organ pentamerous composed of five parts percolate to move through, as a fluid through a solid peribacteroid a membrane surrounding individual or groups of rhizobia bacteria within the root cells of their host; in such situations the bacteria have frequently undergone some change in surface chemistry and are referred to as bacteroids pericycle cell layer between the conducting tissue and the endodermis permeability the property of being permeable, or open to the passage of other substances petiole the stalk of a leaf, by which it attaches to the stem pH a measure of acidity or alkalinity; the pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. Low pH numbers indicate high acidity while high numbers indicate alkalinity pharmacognosy the study of drugs derived from natural products pharmacopeia a group of medicines phenology seasonal or other time-related aspects of an organism's life pheromone a chemical released by one organism to influence the behavior of another photooxidize to react with oxygen under the influence of sunlight photoperiod the period in which an organism is exposed to light or is sensitive to light exposure, causing flowering or other light-sensitive changes photoprotectant molecules that protect against damage by sunlight phylogenetic related to phylogeny, the evolutionary development of a species physiology the biochemical processes carried out by an organism phytogeographer a scientist who studies the distribution of plants pigments colored molecules pistil the female reproductive organ of a flower plasmodesmata cell-cell junctions that allow passage of small molecules between cells polyculture mixed species polyhedral in the form of a polyhedron, a solid whose sides are polygons polymer a large molecule made from many similar parts polynomial "many-named"; a name composed of several individual parts polyploidy having multiple sets of chromosomes polysaccharide a linked chain of many sugar molecules population a group of organisms of a single species that exist in the same region and interbreed porosity openness positive feedback a process by which an increase in some variable causes a response that leads to a further increase in that variable

precipitation rainfall; or the process of a substance separating from a solution pre-Columbian before Columbus precursor a substance from which another is made predation the act of preying upon; consuming for food primordial primitive or early progenitor parent or ancestor prokaryotes single-celled organisms without nuclei, including Eubacteria and Archaea propagate to create more of through sexual or asexual reproduction protist a usually single-celled organism with a cell nucleus, of the kingdom Protista protoplasmic related to the protoplasm, cell material within the cell wall protoplast the portion of a cell within the cell wall psychoactive causing an effect on the brain pubescence covered with short hairs pyruvic acid a three-carbon compound that forms an important intermediate in many cellular processes quadruple hybrid hybridized plant with four parents quantitative numerical, especially as derived from measurement quid a wad for chewing quinone chemical compound found in plants, often used in making dyes radii distance across, especially across a circle (singular = radius)

radioisotopes radioactive forms of an element rambling habit growing without obvious intended direction reaction center a protein complex that uses light energy to create a stable charge separation by transferring a single electron energetically uphill from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, both of which are located in the reaction center redox oxidation and reduction regurgitant material brought up from the stomach

Renaissance a period of artistic and intellectual expansion in Europe from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century salinization increase in salt content samara a winged seed saprophytes plants that feed on decaying parts of other plants saturated containing as much dissolved substance as possible sclerenchyma one of three cell types in ground tissue sedimentation deposit of mud, sand, shell, or other material semidwarf a variety that is intermediate in size between dwarf and full-size varieties senescent aging or dying sepals the outermost whorl of flower parts; usually green and leaf-like, they protect the inner parts of the flower sequester to remove from circulation; lock up serology the study of serum, the liquid, noncellular portion of blood seta a stiff hair or bristle silage livestock food produced by fermentation in a silo siliceous composed of silica, a mineral silicified composed of silicate minerals soil horizon distinct layers of soil solute a substance dissolved in a solution

Southern blot a technique for separating DNA fragments by electrophoresis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe spasticity abnormal muscle activity caused by damage to the nerve pathways controlling movement speciation the creation of new species specimen an object or organism under consideration speciose marked by many species sporophyte the diploid, spore-producing individual in the plant life cycle sporulate to produce or release spores sterile not capable or involved in reproduction, or unable to support life sterols chemicals related to steroid hormones stolons underground stems that may sprout and form new individuals stomata openings between guard cells on the underside of leaves that allow gas exchange stratification layering, or separation in space stratigraphic geology the study of rock layers stratigraphy the analysis of strata (layered rock) strobili cone-like reproductive structures subalpine a region less cold or elevated than alpine (mountaintop)

substrate the physical structure to which an organism attaches, or a molecule acted on by enzymes succession the pattern of changes in plant species that occurs after a soil disturbance succulent fleshy, moist suckers naturally occuring adventitious shoots suffrutescent a shrub-like plant with a woody base sulfate a negatively charged particle combining sulfur and oxygen surfaced smoothed for examination susceptibility vulnerability suture line of attachment swidden agriculture the practice of farming an area until the soil has been depleted and then moving on symbiont one member of a symbiotic association symbiosis a relationship between organisms of two different species in which at least one benefits systematists scientists who study systematics, the classification of species to reflect evolutionary relationships systemic spread throughout the plant tannins compounds produced by plants that usually serve protective functions, often colored and used for "tanning" and dyeing taxa a type of organism, or a level of classification of organisms tensile forces forces causing tension, or pulling apart; the opposite of compression tepal an undifferentiated sepal or petal

Tertiary period geologic period from sixty-five to five million years ago tetraploid having four sets of chromosomes; a form of polyploidy thallus simple, flattened, nonleafy plant body tilth soil structure characterized by open air spaces and high water storage capacity due to high levels of organic matter tonoplast the membrane of the vacuole topographic related to the shape or contours of the land totipotent capable of forming entire plants from individual cells toxin a poisonous substance tracheid a type of xylem cell that conducts water from root to shoot transcription factors proteins that bind to a specific DNA sequence called the promoter to regulate the expression of a nearby gene translocate to move materials from one region to another translucent allowing the passage of light transmutation to change from one form to another transpiration movement of water from soil to atmosphere through a plant transverse across, or side to side tribe a group of closely related genera trophic related to feeding turgor pressure the outward pressure exerted on the cell wall by the fluid within twining twisting around while climbing ultrastructural the level of structure visible with the electron microscope; very small details of structure uniformitarian the geologic doctrine that formative processes on earth have proceeded at the same rate through time since earth's beginning uplift raising up of rock layers, a geologic process caused by plate tectonics urbanization increase in size or number of cities vacuole the large fluid-filled sac that occupies most of the space in a plant cell. Used for storage and maintaining internal pressure vascular plants plants with specialized transport cells; plants other than bryophytes vascular related to the transport of nutrients, or related to blood vessels vector a carrier, usually one that is not affected by the thing carried vernal related to the spring season vesicle a membrane-bound cell structure with specialized contents viable able to live or to function volatile easily released as a gas volatilization the release of a gaseous substance water table the level of water in the soil

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