Volume

Preface v

Geologic Timescale xii

List of Contributors viii

Acid Rain 1

Agricultural Ecosystems 3

Agriculture, History of 5

Agriculture, Modern 10

Agriculture, Organic 12

Agronomist 16

Alcoholic Beverage Industry 18

Alcoholic Beverages 22

Algae 26

Alkaloids 32

Allelopathy 35

Alliaceae 35

Anatomy of Plants 36

Angiosperms 43

Anthocyanins 48

Aquatic Ecosystems 49

Aquatic Plants 52

Arborist 54

Archaea 56

Asteraceae 57

Atmosphere and Plants 59

Bamboo 62

Bark 64

Bessey, Charles 65

Biodiversity 66

Biogeochemical Cycles 73

Biogeography 75

Biomass Fuels 79

Biome 80

Bioremediation 84

Bonsai 86

Borlaug, Norman E 88

Botanical and Scientific Illustrator 89

Botanical Gardens and Arboreta 91

Botany 93

Breeder 93

Breeding 95

Breeding Systems 99

Britton, Nathaniel 102

Brongniart, Adolphe 103

Bryophytes 104

Burbank, Luther 109

Cacao 111

Cacti 113

Calvin, Melvin 116

Candolle, Augustin de 117

Cannabis 119

Carbohydrates 120

Carbon Cycle 122

Carnivorous Plants 126

Carotenoids 129

Carver, George Washington 131

Cell Cycle 132

Cells 135

Cells, Specialized Types 140

Cellulose 144

Cell Walls 145

Chaparral 147

Chestnut Blight 151

Chlorophyll 151

Chloroplasts 153

Chromosomes 157

Clements, Frederic 160

Clines and Ecotypes 161

VOLUME 2:_

Coastal Ecosystems 1

Coevolution 6

Coffee 10

College Professor 14

Compost 15

Coniferous Forests 17

Conifers 21

Cordus, Valerius 24

Cork 25

Corn 28

Cotton 31

Creighton, Harriet 33

Cultivar 34

Curator of a Botanical Garden 35

Curator of an Herbarium 36

Cyanobacteria 38

Darwin, Charles 40

Deciduous Forests 46

Deciduous Plants 51

Decomposers 53

Defenses, Chemical 54

Defenses, Physical 60

Deforestation 63

Dendrochronology 65

de Saussure, Nicolas-Théodore 68

Desertification 70

Deserts 73

Dicots 78

Differentiation and Development 80

Dioscorea 83

Dutch Elm Disease 83

Ecology 84

Ecology, Energy Flow 90

Ecology, Fire 92

Ecology, History of 96

Economic Importance of Plants 99

Ecosystems 102

Embryogenesis 104

Endangered Species 106

Endosymbiosis 111

Epiphytes 113

Ethnobotany 115

Eubacteria 119

Evolution of Plants 121

Evolution of Plants, History of 127

Fabaceae 130

Family 132

Ferns 133

Fertilizer 135

Fiber and Fiber Products 137

Flavonoids 140

Flavor and Fragrance Chemist 141

Flora 142

Flowers 144

Food Scientist 149

Forensic Botany 150

Forester 152

Forestry 153

Fruits 156

Fruits, Seedless 160

Fungi 162

Gametophyte 165

Genetic Engineer 166

Genetic Engineering 168

Genetic Mechanisms and Development . 173

Germination 174

Germination and Growth 176

Ginkgo 179

Global Warming 181

Grains 184

Grasses 185

Grasslands 189

Gray, Asa 194

Green Revolution 196

Gymnosperms 197

VOLUME 3:_

Hales, Stephen 1

Halophytes 2

Herbals and Herbalists 3

Herbaria 5

Herbicides 9

Herbs and Spices 11

Hooker, Joseph Dalton 12

Hormonal Control and Development . . . 13

Hormones 17

Horticulture 21

Horticulturist 23

Human Impacts 25

Humboldt, Alexander von 30

Hybrids and Hybridization 32

Hydroponics 35

Identification of Plants 36

Inflorescence 37

Ingenhousz, Jan 39

Interactions, Plant-Fungal 40

Interactions, Plant-Insect 41

Interactions, Plant-Plant 43

Interactions, Plant-Vertebrate 45

Invasive Species 47

Kudzu 50

Landscape Architect 52

Leaves 53

Lichens 58

Linnaeus, Carolus 61

Lipids 65

McClintock, Barbara 66

Medicinal Plants 69

Mendel, Gregor 73

Meristems 76

Molecular Plant Genetics 80

Monocots 86

Mycorrhizae 88

Native Food Crops 91

Nitrogen Fixation 91

Nutrients 95

Odum, Eugene 99

Oils, Plant-Derived 100

Opium Poppy 102

Orchidaceae 103

Ornamental Plants 105

Palms 106

Palynology 107

Paper 109

Parasitic Plants 110

Pathogens 113

Pathologist 120

Peat Bogs 121

Pharmaceutical Scientist 123

Photoperiodism 125

Photosynthesis, Carbon Fixation and . . . 128

Photosynthesis, Light Reactions and . . . 133

Phyllotaxis 140

Phylogeny 143

Physiologist 146

Physiology 148

Physiology, History of 153

Phytochrome 155

Pigments 156

Plant Community Processes 157

Plant Prospecting 164

Plants 165

Plastids 166

Poison Ivy 169

Poisonous Plants 170

Pollination Biology 175

Polyploidy 180

Potato 184

Potato Blight 185

Propagation 186

Psychoactive Plants 192

Quantitative Trait Loci 195

VOLUME 4:_

Rain Forest Canopy 1

Rain Forests 4

Record-Holding Plants 13

Reproduction, Alternation of

Generations and 16

Reproduction, Asexual 18

Reproduction, Fertilization and 20

Reproduction, Sexual 21

Rhythms in Plant Life 24

Rice 26

Roots 29

Rosaceae 35

Sachs, Julius von 36

Savanna 38

Seed Dispersal 41

Seedless Vascular Plants 45

Seed Preservation 48

Seeds 50

Senescence 56

Sequoia 57

Shape and Form of Plants 58

Soil, Chemistry of 62

Soil, Physical Characteristics of 65

Solanaceae 68

Soybean 69

Speciation 71

Species 75

Sporophyte 76

Stems 78

Succulents 80

Sugar 81

Symbiosis 84

Systematics, Molecular 87

Systematics, Plant 90

Taxonomic Keys 96

Taxonomist 96

Taxonomy 98

Taxonomy, History of 103

Tea 105

Terpenes 108

Tissue Culture 109

Tissues 110

Tobacco 115

Torrey, John 116

Transgenic Plants 117

Translocation 118

Tree Architecture 123

Trees 126

Trichomes 129

Tropisms and Nastic Movements 130

Tundra 138

Turf Management 140

Vacuoles 142

van Helmont, Jan 143

Variety 146

Vascular Tissues 146

Vavilov, N. 1 152

Vegetables 155

Warming, Johannes 156

Water Movement 158

Weeds 165

Wetlands 166

Wheat 169

Wood Anatomy 171

Wood Products 174

Photo and Illustration Credits . . . . 197

Glossary 199

Topic Outline 215

Index 225

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