Mutually Beneficial Coevolution

Perhaps the most striking examples of coevolution involve mutualisms, in which the participants have exerted selection that makes their relationship increasingly beneficial to each of them. In mutualisms natural selection has favored traits in each participant that strengthen or improve the relationship and its benefits. These interactions contrast with those described above, in which each organism participates at the other's expense. For example, insects and other animals that transfer pollen...

Compost

Compost refers to a biological process that uses any one of several methods to speed up the decomposition of raw organic matter, usually by piling, aerating, and moistening. It is also the crumbly, nutrient-rich product of this process. Composting is an important means of recycling organic wastes to return their nutrients to the soil, where they become available to plants. Composting reduces or eliminates problems with odors and water pollution from raw waste products such as livestock manure...

Fertilizer

Adding nutrients to agricultural systems is essential to enhance crop yield, crop quality, and economic returns. Commercial fertilizers are typically used to supply needed nutrients to crops. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and An Amish farmer uses a horse team to spread fertilizer on a field in An Amish farmer uses a horse team to spread fertilizer on a field in potassium (K) fertilizers are used extensively. Other secondary and mi-cronutrient fertilizers are generally required in small...