Tim Flowers

2.1 Solutes: inorganic and organic 15

2.2 Analysis of inorganic elements 15

2.2.1 Obtaining material for analysis 15

2.2.2 Optical methods 16

2.2.3 Mass spectrometry 16

2.2.4 X-ray fluorescence 17

2.2.5 Ion-specific electrodes 17

2.2.6 Ion chromatography 17

2.3 Solute concentrations 17

2.4 Organic compounds 18

2.5 Range of solutes found in plants 19

2.6 Localisation 19

2.6.1 Stereological analysis 19

2.6.2 Inorganic elements and electron microscopy 20

2.6.3 Ion-specific microelectrodes 21

2.6.4 Direct sampling 22

2.6.5 Use of fluorescent dyes 22

2.6.6 Flux analysis 23

2.6.7 Organic compounds 25

2.7.1 Vacuoles 25

2.7.2 Organelles and the cytoplasm 26

2.7.3 Cell walls 26

2.7.4 Conclusions 26 References 27

3 The driving forces for water and solute movement 29

TIM FLOWERS and ANTHONY YEO

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 Water 29

3.3 Free energy and the properties of solutions 31

3.3.1 Free energy and chemical potential 31

3.3.2 Water potential and water potential gradients 32

3.3.3 Osmosis and colligative properties 33

3.4 Cell water relations 34

3.5 Water movement 35

3.5.1 Water movement through the soil 38

3.5.2 Water in cell walls 39

3.5.3 Water movement across a root (or leaf) 39

3.5.4 Water movement through the xylem and phloem 40

3.6 Solute movement 40

3.6.1 Chemical, electrical and electrochemical potentials and gradients 41

3.6.2 Diffusion - Fick's first law 41

3.6.3 Diffusion potential 42

3.6.4 Nernst potential 43

3.6.5 Donnan systems 43

3.6.6 Goldmann equation 44

3.7 Coupling of water and solute fluxes 44 References 45

4 Membrane structure and the study of solute transport across plant membranes 47

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