Genetic Engineering of Oilseed for Industrial Uses

Plant oil TAGs are known to accumulate more than 300 unusual fatty acids (UFAs) in addition to the five fatty acids common in almost plant tissues and the main components of most commodity oils (van de Loo et al., 1993). However, in most cases sources of these UFAs cannot be produced economically on a commercial scale. Hydroxy, epoxy, conjugated, acetylenic, very long chain and branched chain fatty acids and liquid waxes are among the industrial targets of greatest interest. Oils high in...

Palavlali Navaree

1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 Year Figure 2.5 Global production (supply) of major oilseeds 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 Year Figure 2.5 Global production (supply) of major oilseeds increases with higher expression of TAG biosynthetic genes (Lardizabal et al., 2008 Rao and Hildebrand, 2009 Taylor et al., 2009 Vyacheslav et al., 2009). Increased expression of regulatory genes that up-regulate multiple enzymes for fatty acid biosynthesis can also result in higher oil levels, as...

Production of Novel Carbohydrates in Transgenic Plants

In addition to attempts aiming at manipulating the contents and properties of endogenous carbohydrates, there have been several successful approaches for the production of novel carbohydrates in transgenic plants. By expressing enzymes that act on sucrose or sucrose biosynthetic intermediates, novel compounds can theoretically accumulate to high levels. Fructans, or polyfructosylsucroses, are alternative storage carbohydrates that are highly soluble and are stored within the vacuole as opposed...

Metabolic Engineering of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Photosynthetic primary metabolism is a classical field of plant biochemical research, and many fundamental insights into plant function have been obtained in this field over the past decades. Due to the fact that photosynthesis and post-photosynthetic processes are supposed to be the main drivers of crop yield, there is continued interest in further unravelling the underlying regulatory mechanisms and networks. It is hoped that this will lead to novel knowledge-based strategies to engineer...

Fatty Acid Desaturases

In most plant tissues, over 75 of the fatty acids are unsaturated. Two types of desaturases have been identified, one soluble and the other membrane bound, that have different consensus motifs. Database searching for these motifs reveals that these enzymes belong to two distinct multifunctional classes, each of which includes desaturases, acetylenases, hydrolases and epoxygenases that act on fatty acids or other substrates (Lee et al., 1998 Shanklin and Cahoon, 1998). Free fatty acids are not...

Sucrose Biosynthesis in Source Leaves

As outlined in the previous section, triose-P leaving the Calvin-Benson cycle can be exported from the plastid into the cytosol via the TPT and is then distributed between glycolysis and amino acid, lipid and sucrose synthesis (Figure 1.1). Sucrose is the major transport form of photoassimilates in higher plants, and as such forms the interface between pho-tosynthetically active source tissue and heterotrophic sink tissue, where it serves as an energy source for growth and provides building...

List of Contributors

Yutaka Abe, Division of Food Additives, The National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-8501 Japan. Hiroshi Ashihara, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-8610 Japan. Frederik Bornke, Department Biologie, Lehrstuhl f r Biochemie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat Erlangen-N rnberg, Staudtstra e 5, 91058 Erlangen, Germany. Alan Crozier, Plant Products and Human Nutrition Group,...

Sulfur Metabolism

Glutathione Sulfate

Sulfur is an essential element and classified as one of the six macroelements that significantly affect plant growth Marschner, 1995 . Sulfur is found in both inorganic and organic compounds in nature. The sulfur cycle is globally balanced between assimilatory and dissimilatory functions of plants and microorganisms Crawford etal., 2000 Leustek etal., 2000 Saito 2000, 2004 Kopriva, 2006 . Plants and microorganisms assimilate inorganic sulfur to produce organic sulfur, and animals will utilise...