The central theme of TOR signaling is that there are two TOR activities: (1) a nutrient- and rapamycin-sensitive regulation of protein synthesis located in TORC1, and (2) a nutrient- and rapamycin-insensitive regulation of the cytoskeleton located in TORC2. Although the TORC protein complexes are well known and their global effects on cell growth are quite similar, there is much variation in their effectors and upstream regulators. It should also be pointed out that many effectors of each of these TORCs remain to be identified.

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