Growth of organs is controlled by two processes: cell division and cell expansion. The timing of transition from proliferative growth to cell expansion largely determines the cell number in organs and thereby their growth rate potential. In this chapter we have discussed the central role of the RBR1-E2F pathway in this process. RBR1 can potentially affect all E2F functions, but the relative concentrations of two E2F factors, E2FB and E2FC, could determine whether cells maintain their proliferation potential or exit the mitotic cycle and begin the cell differentiation accompanied by cell enlargement and endoreduplication (Fig. 3).

Acknowledgements Thanks to Prof. Laszlo Bogre for critical reading of the manuscript and Dr. Rossana Henriques and Dr. Virginia Balbi for helping with the preparation of the manuscript. The work was supported by BBSRC.

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