Over the last couple of years we have witnessed considerable progress in our understanding of how cells endoreduplicate in plants and how this process is influenced by various internal and external factors. It is now evident that increasing ploidy has a positive consequence on cell size, the next big question is how this process is mediated in plants. More systematic analyses of already existing ploidy/cell size mutants and transgenic plants by combinations of transcriptome, metabolome and computer-assisted imaging techniques should help our further understanding of this very intriguing connection. Future research should also uncover what contributes to the ploidy-independent plant cell growth and how these size controls at the cellular level are linked to overall plant growth and development.

Acknowledgements This work is supported by a BBSRC David Phillips Fellowship to K.S-S. C.B is a recipient of an EU Marie-Curie Early Stage Training studentship.

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