Many animal Arm-repeat proteins perform structural functions in the cell. For example, P-catenin was originally discovered in actin-containing cell-cell (adherens) junctions (Ozawa et al. 1989). P-Catenin also interacts indirectly with microtubules (Ligon et al. 2001). Other Arm-repeat proteins regulate actin, microtubule and intermediate filament organisation (e.g. Hatzfeld 2005). Arabidopsis Arm family proteins also regulate the cytoskeleton both during cell elongation and cell division.
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