Tonoplast protein (ABC like)

ALS1 constitutive; "vacuolar stroraae of chelated Al" (Larsen et al., 2005)

TaAIMTI malate transporter (Al resistance wheat (Sasaki et al., 2004)

TaAIMTI malate transporter (Al resistance wheat (Sasaki et al., 2004)

Fig. 4 Mechanisms for Al exclusion and compartmentation in root tips. Distribution of membrane transporter proteins involved in Al efflux, Al phloem transport and Al vacuolar transport are shown along with transporters for organic acid anions. Mucilage and border cells help to stop Al3+ from reaching the sensitive root tip (modified after Ma 2007)

in wheat), and model 2, which implies an Al-activated signal transduction cascade. This second model corresponds to Al-activated malate efflux in Arabidopsis and Brassica and to Al-activated citrate efflux in sorghum. In this pattern 2 response, Al induces the expression of the proteins either by binding to specific PM receptors or by activating a nonspecific stress response. Interaction of Al with these new proteins would then promote the organic acid efflux (Delhaize et al. 2007).

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