Aubinet M, Grelle A, Ibrom A, Rannik U, Moncrieff J, Foken T, Kowalski AS, Martin P, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Clement R, Elbers I, Cranier A, Gruenwald T, Morgenstern K, Pilegaard K, Rebmann C, Snijders W, Valentini R, Vesala T (2000) Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of European forests: The EUROFLUX methodology. Adv Ecol Res 30:113-175 Bewley JD, Krochko JE (1982) Desiccation tolerance. Encycl

Plant Physiol NS 12B:325-378 Böhm J (1893) Capillarität und Saftsteigen. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 11:203-212

Burgess SSO, Adams MA, Turner NC, White DA, Ong CK (2001) Tree roots: conduits for deep recharge of soil water. Oecologia 126:158-165 Canadell J, Jackson RB, Ehleringer JR, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Schulze E-D (1996) Maximum rooting depth of vegetation types at the global scale. Oecologia 108:583-595

Carlquist S (1991) Anatomy of vine and liana stems: a review and synthesis. In: Putz FE, Mooney HA (eds) The biology of vines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 53-71 Darcy H (1856) Las Fontains Publiques de La Villa Dijon. Dalmont, Paris

Dawson TE (1993) Water sources as determined from xy-lem-water isotopic corn position: perspectives on plant competition, distribution, and water relations. In: Ehleringer JR, Hall AE, Farquhar GD (eds) Stable isotopes and plant carbon-water relations. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 465-498 Ehleringer JR (1994 a) Variation in gas exchange characteristics among desert plants. In: Schulze E-D, Caldwell MM (eds) Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Ecological Studies 100. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 361-392

Ehleringer JR (1994b) Carbon and water relations in desert plants: an isotopic perspective. In: Ehleringer JR, Hall AE, Farquar GD (eds) Stable isotopes and plant carbon-water relations. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 155-172 Evenari M, Shanan L, Tadmor N (1982) The Negev; the challenge of a desert. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 437 pp

Ewers BE, Oren R, Spery JS (2000) Influence of nutrients versus water supply on hydraulic architecture and water balance in Pinus taeda. Plant Cell Environ 23:1055-1066 Fukuda H (1997) Tracheary element differentiation. Plant

Cell 9:1147-1156 Gartner BL (1995) Plant stems: physiology and functional morphology. Academic Press, San Diego, 439 pp Grace J (1993) Consequences of xylem cavitation for plant water deficits. In: Smith JAC, Griffiths H (eds) Water deficits. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford, pp 109-128 Greenwood EAN, Turner NC, Schulze E-D, Waton GD, Venn NR (1992) Groundwater management through increased water use by lupine crops. J Hydrol 134:1-11 Griesebach A (1872) Die Vegetation der Erde nach ihrer klimatischen Anordnung. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 709 pp

Hollinger DY, Kelliher FM, Schulze E-D, Kostner BM (1994) Coupling of tree transpiration to atmospheric turbulence. Nature 371:60-62 Horn R (1994) The effect of aggregation of soils on water, gas and heat transport. In: Schulze E-D (eds) Flux control in biological systems. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 335-361

Hubbard RM, Ryan MG, Stiller V, Sperry JS (2001) Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis vary linearly with plant hydraulic conductance in ponderosa pine. Plant Cell Environ 24:113-122 Jarvis PG, McNaughton KG (1986) Stomatal control of transpiration: scaling from leaf to region. Adv Ecol Res 15:115

Jones HG (1994) Plant and microclimate; a quantitative approach to environmental plant physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 428 pp Kappen L, Schulz G, Vanselow R (1994) Direct observations of stomatal movements. Ecological Studies 100. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 231-246 Kelliher FM, Leuning R, Schulze E-D (1993) Evaporation and canopy characteristics of coniferous forests and grasslands. Agric For Met 62:53-73 Kelliher FM, Lenning H, Raupach M, Schulze E-D (1995) Maximum conductance for evaporation of global vegetation types. Agric For Met 73:1-16

Kolb KL, Sperry JS (1999) Transport constraints on water use by the Great Basin shrub Artemisia tridentata. Plant Cell Environ 22:925-935 Koppen W (1923) Die Klimate der Erde. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 369 pp

Köstner BMM, Schulze E-D, Kelliher FM, Hollinger DY, Byers JN, Hunt JE, McSeveny TM, Meserth R, Weir PL (1992) Transpiration and canopy conductance in a pristine broad-leaf forest of Nothofagus: an analysis of xylem sap flow and eddy correlation measurements. Oecologia 92:236-241

Kramer PJ, Boyer JS (1995) Water relations of plants and soils. Academic Press, London, 495 pp Lange OL, Lösch R, Schulze E-D, Kappen L (1971) Responses of stomata to changes in humidity. Planta 100:76-86

Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (1982) Physiological plant ecology II: water relations and carbon assimilation. Encyclopaedia of plant physiology, vol 12B. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 747 pp Larcher W (1976) Ökophysiologie der Pflanzen. UTB 232,

Ulmer, Stuttgart, 399 pp Larcher W (1994) Ökophysiologie der Pflanzen. UTB, Ulmer, Stuttgart, 394 pp Lloyd J, Francey RJ, Sogachev A, Byers JN, Mollicone D, Raupach MR, Kelliher FM, Rebmann C, Arneth A, Valen-tini R, Wong SC, Schulze E-D (2001) Vertical profiles, boundary layer budgets and regional flux estimates for C02, its 13C/12C ratio, and for water vapour above a forest/bog mosaic in central Siberia. Global Biogeochem Cycles 15:267-284 Lo Gullo MA, Salleo S (1991) Three different methods for measuring xylem cavitation and embolism: a comparison. Ann Bot 67:417-424 Liittge U (1973) Stofftransport der Pflanzen. Heidelberger Taschenbücher 125. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 280 pp

Martre P, Cochart H, Durand JL (2001) Hydraulic architecture and water flow in growing grass tillers (Festuca ar-undinacea Schreb.). Plant Cell Environ 24:65-76 Meidner H, Mansfield TA (1968) Physiology of stomata.

McGraw-Hill, London, 179 pp Michael W, Schultz A, Meshcheryakov AB, Ehwald R (1997) Apoplasmatic and protoplasmatic water transport through the parenchyma of a potato storage organ. Plant Physiol 115:1089-1099 Michael W, Cholodova VP, Ehwald R (1999) Gas and liquids in intercellular spaces of maize roots. Ann Bot 84:665673

Monteith JL (1965) Evaporation and environment. Symp

Soc Exp Biol 19:205-234 Nobel PS (1991) Physicochemical and environmental plant physiology. Academic Press, San Diego, 635 pp Nonami H, Schulze E-D, Ziegler H (1990) Mechanisms of stomatal movement in response to air humidity, irradi-ance and xylem water potential. Planta 183:57-64 Pearcy RW, Ehleringer J, Mooney HA, Rundel PW (1991) Plant physiological ecology: field methods and instrumentation. Chapman and Hall, London, 457 pp Philip JR (1957) Evaporation, and moisture and heat fields in the soil. J Meteorol 14:354-366 Raschke K (1972) Saturation kinetics of the velocity of stomatal closing response to C02. Plant Physiol 49:229-234 Raschke K (1979) Movements of stomata. In: Haupt W, Feinleib RE (eds) Physiology of movements. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 383-440 Raupach MR, Finnigan JJ (1988) Single-layer models of evaporation from plant canopies are incorrect but useful, whereas multilayer models are correct but useless. Aust J Plant Physiol 15:705-716 Reich PB, Walters MB, Eidsworth DS (1997) From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 94:13730-13734 Richards JH, Caldwell MM (1987) Hydraulic lift: substantial nocturnal water transport between soil layers by Artemisia tridentata roots. Oecologia 73:486-489 Schröder JI, Kwak JM, Allen GJ (2001) Guard cell abscisic acid signalling and engineering drought hardiness in plants. Nature 410:327-330 Schulze E-D (1986) Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in response to drought in the atmosphere and in the soil. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 37:247-274 Schulze E-D (1993) Soil water deficits and atmospheric humidity as environmental signals. In: Smith JAC, Griffiths H (eds) Water deficits. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford, pp 129-145

Schulze E-D (1994) The regulation of plant transpiration: interactions of feedforeward, feedback, and futile cycles. In: Schulze E-D (eds) Flux control in biological systems. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 203-236 Schulze E-D, Chapin FS III (1987) Plant specialization to environments of different resource availability. Ecological Studies 61. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 120-148

Schulze E-D, Hall AE (1982) Stomatal response, water loss and CO, assimilation rates of plants in contrasting environments. Encycl Plant Physiol 12B:181-230 Schulze E-D, Heinmann M (1998) Carbon and water exchange of terrestrial systems. In: Galloway J, Mellilo J (eds) Asian change in the context of global climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. IGBP Publ Ser 3:145-161 Schulze E-D, Lange OL, Buschhorn U, Kappen L, Evenari M (1972) Stomatal responses to changes in humidity in plants growing in the desert. Planta 108:259-270 Schulze E-D, Cermak J, Matyssek R, Penka M, Zimmermann R, Vasicek, Gries W, Kucera J (1985) Canopy transpiration and water fluxes in the xylem of the trunk of Larix and Picea trees - a comparison of xylem flow, pyrometer and cuvette measurements. Oecologia 66:475-483 Schulze E-D, Kelliher FM, Körner C, Lloyd J, Leuning R (1994) Relationships among maximum stomatal conductance, carbon assimilation rate, and plant nitrogen nutrition: a global ecology scaling exercise. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 25:629-660 Schulze E-D, Leuning R, Kelliher FM (1995) Environmental regulation of surface conductance for evaporation from vegetation. Vegetatio 121:79-87 Schulze E-D, Ellis R, Schulze W, Trimborn P, Ziegler H (1996 a) Diversity, metabolic types and <513C carbon isotope ratios in the grass flora of Namibia in relation to growth form, precipitation and habitat conditions. Oecologia 106:352-36 Schulze E-D, Kelliher FM, Körner C, Lloyd J, Hollinger DY, Vygodskaya NN (1996b) The role of vegetation in controlling carbon dioxide and water exchange between land surface and the atmosphere. In: Walker B, Steffen W (eds) Global change and terrestrial ecosystems. IGBP Book Series 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 77-92

Schulze E-D, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Jobbagy E, Buchmann N, Bauer G, Canadell J, Jackson RB, Loreti J, Oesterheld M, Ehleringer JR (1996 c) Rooting depth, water availability, and vegetation cover along an aridity gradient in Patagonia. Oecologia 108:503-511

Schulze E-D, Caldwell MM, Canadell J, Mooney HA, Jackson RB, Parson D, Scholes R, Sala 0, Trimborn P (1998 a) Downward flux of water through roots (i.e. inverse hydraulic lift) in dry Kalahari sands. Oecologia 115:460462

Schulze E-D, Williams RJ, Farquhar GD, Schulze W, Lang-ridge J, Miller JM, Walker BK (1998 b) Carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination and nitrogen nutrition of trees along a rainfall gradient in northern Australia. Aust J Plant Physiol 25:413-425 Sestak Z, Catsky J, Jarvis PG (1971) Plant photosynthetic production. Manual of methods. Dr W Junk NV Publishers, Den Haag, 818 pp Slatyer RO (1967) Plant-water relationships. Academic Press,

London, 366 pp Sperry JS (1995) Limitations on stem water transport and their consequences. In: Gartner BL (eds) Plant stems: physiology and functional morphology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 105-124 Sperry JS, Holbrook NM, Zimmermann MH, Tyree MT (1987) Spring filling of xylem vessels in wild grapewine. Plant Physiol 83:414-417 Steudle E (1994) The regulation of plant water at the cell, tissue, and organ level: role of active processes and of compartmentation. In: Schulze E-D (eds) Flux control in biological systems. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 237302

Steudle E (2000) Water uptake by roots: effects of water deficits. J Exp Bot 1531-1542 Steudle E (2001) The cohesion-tension mechanism and the acquisition of water by plant roots. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 847-875 Steudle E, Peterson CA (1998) How does water get through roots? J Exp Bot 49:775-788 Tanner W, Beevers H (1990) Does transpiration have essential function in long-distance ion transport in plants? Plant Cell Environ 13:745-750 Troughton J, Donaldson LA (1972) Probing plant structures.

Chapman and Hall, London, 85 pp Tyerman SD, Bohnert HJ, Maurel C, Steudle E, Smith JA (1999) Plant aquaporins: their molecular biology, biophysics and significance for plant water relations. J Exp Bot 50:1055-1072

Tyree MT (1997) The cohesion-tension theory of sap ascent.

Current controversies. J Exp Bot 48:1753-1765 Tyree MT, Sperry JS (1989) Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:19-38

Walter H (1960) Grundlagen der Pflanzenverbreitung. Teil I:

Standortlehre. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, 566 pp Ward RC, Robinson M (1990) Principles of hydrology.

McGraw Hill, Berkshire, 365 pp WBGU (1998) World in transition: ways towards sustainable management of freshwater resources. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 392 pp Wei C, Steudle E, Tyree MT (1999) Water ascent in plants: do ongoing controversies have a sound basis? Plant Sei 4:372-373

West NE, Young JA (2000) Intermountain valleys and lower mountain slopes. In: Barbour MG, Billings WD (eds) North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 255-284 Wirth C, Schulze E-D, Schulze W, von Stiirzner-Karbe D, Ziegler W, Milukova I, Sogachev A, Varlagin A, Panfyor-ov M, Grigoriev S, Kusnetzova W, Siry M, Hardes G, Zimmermann R, Vygodskaya NN (1999) Aboveground biomass and structure of pristine Siberian Scots pine forests as controlled by competition and fire. Oecologia 121:66-80

Zeiger E, Lino M, Shimazaki KI, Ogawa T (1987) The blue light response of stomata: mechanisms and function. In: Zeiger E, Farquhar GD, Cowan IR (eds) Stomatal function. Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp 209-228 Ziegler H, Vieweg GH (1970) Poikilohydre Spermatophyta. In: Walter H, Kreeb K (eds) Die Hydratation und Hydra-tur des Protoplasmas der Pflanzen und ihre ökophysiologische Bedeutung. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 95-108

Zimmermann MH (1983) Xylem structure and the ascent of sap. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 325 pp Zimmermann R, Schulze E-D, Wirth C, Schulze EF, McDonald KC, Vygodskaya NN, Ziegler W (2000) Canopy transpiration in a chronosequence of central Siberian pine forests. Global Change Biol 6:25-37

0 0

Post a comment