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Global Aspects of Plant Ecology

Ope ng page of chapter top left Vapour trails from aeroplanes in the sky above Bayreuth, Upper Franconia, Germany. The vapour trails have an impact on the radiation balance of the earth and on the atmospheric chemical processes. Bottom left: Agricultural uses in the American mid-west, an area that was originally an open oak "woodland" and grassland. Top gh Thunderstorms caused by convection from forest fires which are used to clear land in Malaysia. Bottom righ Fish farms, used to rear crabs, on the north coast of Java, were originally mangrove swamps; due to the spread of diseases only a small proportion of this area is still useable. Photos E.-D. Schulze

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