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Indicators of Sulfur Deficiency and Excess

• Deficiency: symptoms are similar to S deficiency (chlorosis), accumulation of non-S-containing amino acids (arginine, aspartate), inhibition of protein synthesis.

• excess: high S02 stress leads to the well-known pollution (smog) damage. Lichens are particularly sensitive. The damage is caused by the formation of sulfite and accumulation in the chloroplast. The threshold for S02 damage is 5 (.ig m~3 as average concentration in the air.

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