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1800 -|—I 111 inij—I I iniii|—I I iniii|—I I inn—rn 1 10 100 1000 Age of substrate (in thousand years)

1800 -|—I 111 inij—I I iniii|—I I iniii|—I I inn—rn 1 10 100 1000 Age of substrate (in thousand years)

:"ig. 3.5.1. Changes in concentrations of Ca, Mg, N and P in lava, the soil derived from the weathered lava and in leaves following weathering of lava over the past 400,000 years on Hawaii. The associated changes in soil acidification and biomass production are also shown. (Chadwick et al. 1999)

From some of these observations and experiments at different scales, conclusions may be drawn about the causes and effects. From the many available case studies, three examples will be used to show how very complex the links are.

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