10 15 20 25 30 Time since death (years)

| Fig. 3.3.3. A Degradation of dead wood after a fire in a Siberian pine forest. The mean residence time is only about 40 years, despite the cold climate. This is because of the repeated fires at ground level. As these fires only char the outside of the wood (see Fig. 3.3.8C), single dead trunks can be traced back 400 years (Wirth et al. 2002). B Dead-wood after wind falls in a natural forest reserve in European Russia. The mean residence time in the east European climate is about 15 years. (Knohl et al. 2002)

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