Uhs

<513C value 138, 353, 642

C/N balance 328

C3 plants 349p, 357, 364p, 426

- annuals 373

- distribution 371

- dominance 373

- evolution 354

- grasses 371

- metabolism 350

- water use efficiency 136, 367 C4 plants 349, 351, 357, 364p, 426

- annuals 373

- aspartate forming types 353pp

- dominance 373

- distribution 371

- evolution 354

- grasses 371

- malate forming types 353pp

- metabolic types 351

- NAD-ME-type 353p

- NADP type 353p

- PCK type 353p

- water use efficiency 136, 367 cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassi-

cae 236 Cadaba farinosa 478 Cadaba rotundifolia 510 cadmium 176, 190-193, 204 caffeic acid 177, 179, 250 caffeoylquinic acid 177, 195 calcineurin 150p calcium 40, 121, 125p, 129, 141, 147149, 153p, 197, 200, 205p, 320p, 339p, 408, 444, 456, 458

- carbonate 339

- deficiency 339, 343

- dependent-protein-kinase (CDPK) 151

- excess 339, 343

- function 339

- requirement 339, 343

- uptake 339, 343 Calendula arvensis 499p Calluna 387 Calmodulin 339 Caloplaca aurantiaca 223 Caltha 106

Calvin cycle 29, 33, 245, 352 Calycotome villosa 499 calyptra, root cap 320 CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) 135, 142, 351

- cycling 136

- idling 136

- PEP carboxylase 138p CAM plants 357, 360

- distribution 371

- evolution 354

- facultative 137p

- water use efficiency 136, 367

Cambrian 469

canary grass, Phalaris canarien-

sis 584 Candelaria concolor 223 canopy conductance 304p Capensis 471, 554p capercillie biotope 588 capillarity 282, 292 capillary water 282p Caraluma negevensis 367p carbohydrate 431

- deficiency 329

- flow 329

- parasites 342p carbon

- allocation 377

- and climate 641-677

- cycle 30

- ecosystem 347

- global 635p

- soluble organic 633

- sources 655

- turnover 427-438 carbonate-rich Molinia meadows

(Molinia association; Molinion) 489 carbonate-rich small sedge marsh

(Carex davalliana association) 489 carbon dioxide 109, 127, 257-259, 279

- and plant production 658

- and stomatal response 299

- and temperature rises 646p

- and vegetation 492

- as greenhouse gas 260-263

- atmospheric 642pp

- availability 355

- distribution in the atmosphere 635

- emission, land use 649p

- emissions 649p, 676

- emissions, global distribution 654

- fixation 136

- fixing, efficiency 350

- global atmosphere 627

- historical changes 260-263

- in the oceans 643

- stomatal opening 301

- uptake, apparent optimum 363 carbon dioxide assimilation 347-356,

358p, 657

- diffusion limitation 355p

- global distribution 360

- maximum 358-360

- rate, middle 361

- water use 367 carbonic anhydrase 184 Carboniferous 469pp carboxylase 361 carboxylation 354

- efficiency 349

cardinal points of temperature tolerance 45 Carduncellus 499 Carex 473

Carex physodes 511 carnivory 586 carob tree 499 carotenoid 132 carousel dynamics 525 Carpinus 476

- betulus, hornbeam 480,483,511, 552, 613

- orientalis 499

carrot antifreeze protein 83 carrot ozone sensitivity 227 Carya 474 caryophyllene 245 Casparian bands 287p Cassia senna 510 Castanea 471, 474

- sativa 496 catalase 129 catastrophies 418 catechin 224 Catha edulis 507 cation

- channel 150

- deficiency 329, 459

- exchange capacity (CEC) 318, 457

- leaching 456

- loess 444

- transport 445

- turnover 444

- uptake 444p Caucalis platycarpos 487 cavitation 292p, 297 Cecropia 23

cedar 472, 502

Cedrus atlantica 485, 499

Cedrus libani 499

cell death, programmed (PCD), apoptosis 106, 115 cell elongation, salt stress 149 cell lysis 111 cell wall 190 cellulase 112 cellulose microfibrils 105 cellulose degradation 431p cenochorology 600pp cenodynamics 600 cenoecology 600pp cenoevolution 600 cenophilic 599 cenophylogeny 600 cenosystematics 600 cenotaxonomy 600 Centaurea 474

- cyanus 482

- nigra 415

- stele 287p Centaurium erythraea 415 Central Europe 552p

- in the Pliocene 471 Centranthus ruber 496 Century model 437 Cephalotus 331 Ceratonia siliqua 293p cereal crops 266, 481 chalcone

- flavanone isomerase 42

- isomerase 224

- structure 42

- synthase 42, 224, 230 chamaechory 543 chamaephy te 515 chaos theory 533 chaotropic compounds 165 chaperone 127

- chemical 60, 94

- molecular 53, 58

- reversible 131 charcoal 433p chasmoendolith 583 chelate reductase 177, 193 chelate-mediated pollution extraction 192

chelator 179, 193p chemical potential 283 chemolithotrophs 439, 444 chemoorganoheterotrophs 439 Chenopodiaceae 18, 163 Chenopodium 474

- botrys 490

- murale 500 chilling 61pp, 95

- damage 12 chitin 442

chitinase 169, 171, 215, 230 chitosan 241 chloracetamide 208 chlorenchyma 122p chloride 127, 141, 145-160, 456 chlorinated phenol 213 chlorine 320

2-chlor-N-acetamide, structure 208 chlorofluorocarbons 260 chlorogenic acid 195 4-chloro-N-methyl alanine

213 chlorophyll

- chlorophyll a, b 27

- deficient leaves 342p

- excited states 32

- first singlet state 32

- fluorescence 16, 32

- non-photochemical quenching 29

- quenching 33

- stress 18

- sulfur dioxide 221 Chlorophytum comosum, spider plant 230, 233 chloroplast 66

- and light climate 27pp

- movement 25

- non-appressed region 28 chlorosis 176, 183, 193, 217, 322 choline 163

- sulfotransferase 163

- monooxygenase 163p

- O-sulfate 133, 163 Chondrilla juncea 610 choriocenoses 599 choriotope 599 chromium 176, 193 chronoelement 551 Chrysanthemum leucanthemum 511 Chrysanthemum, ozone sensitivity 227

Chrysomelidae, leaf beetles 235 Cicer arietinum 669

cinnamic acid 213, 248 cinnamoyl alcohol dehydrogenase 224 cinnamoyl-4-hydrolase 248 cinnamoylalcohol dehydrogenase 230 cinnamoyl-CoA 224, 248 cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 224 cinnamoyl-glucose 248 circadian rhythm 67 Cirsium arvense 488, 499 ds-9-dodecene-dicarboxylic acid 242 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase

(NCE) 124 Cissus quadrangularis 510 Cistanche violacea 606 CITES 666 Citopsis 302 citric acid 179, 197, 201 Citrullus colocynthis 273 Citrus Union 77, 93, 302, 499 Cladonia 223, 295, 405 clay content 437 clay minerals 315, 317, 432 Clean Development Mechanism

(CDM) 655 clear felling 480, 500 Clements, EE. 514pp climate

- and carbon balance 641-677

- at ground 263-265

- change 263, 626

- change convention (FCCC) 651p, 666

- change, Europe 659p

- gases influences 260

- ground conditions 269

- history 260-263

- of the stand 580

- regions 281

- variations 472

- vegetation canopy 269 climatic change, trend of 263 climatic optimum 476 climax 514

- communities 514

- stage 524 closed cycles 426 cloud formation 636 clover 273

clover canker fungus 618

club mosses 470

Clusia 138, 371

clusianose 86

CoA-ligase 248

coarse sand 285

coarse wood debris 411

Coastal convention (CCD) 666

coastal deserts, cool nights 371

coastal succulent 371

cobalt 176, 191, 193

Cocos nucifera 253, 481

codon usage 85

coevolution 470, 592, 597

coexistence 579, 603, 615, 617

Coffea arabica, coffee plant 63p, 507

cohesion theory 292

cohort dynamics 525

cohort, death of 525

cold

- acclimation proteins 62

- adaptation proteins (CAPs) 87

- as stress 60pp

- death 45

- periods 472

- related proteins (COR) 72

- rigidity 45

- shock protein 62

- stress 95

- syndrome 94

coldest place on earth 270 Colletotrichum lagenarium 249 colline 552 colonisation 546, 557 Colorado 635 commensalism 586, 604p Commiphora 510

- africana 504 communities

- and environment 585

- biogeocenoses 466

- different forms 600

- dominated by herbs and grasses 484

- meadow 413

- of organisms 585

- permanent 520

compatible solute 10, 13, 16, 20, 60, 129, 133, 140, 156, 162, 172

- see also osmolytes 171 compensation 593p

- point 348, 351, 355, 357, 361 compensatory growth 595, 603 competition 579, 603p, 607pp

- asymmetric 406

- interspecific 608, 616

- intraspecific 608, 616 competitive

- exclusion 617

- strength 608pp, 617 competitor 614

- strategist 528 complexity 534, 535

- non-linear behaviour 409pp compound membrane 288 conductance

- boundary layer 303p

- cuticular 220

- specific 292

- stomatal 297

- surface 303 conductivity

- hydraulic 287pp, 293

- saturated 286

- stomatal 293

Conference of the Parties (COP) 630 conifer wood 293 coniferous forest 266, 436

- carbon balance 459p

- ecosystem 460

- humus formation 46 lp

- hydrological balance 461p

- light conditions 459p

- nutrient balance 46lp

- SO, sensitivity 218

- temperate 428

conifers 292, 487 coniferyl alcohol 213, 224, 431 coniferyl aldehyde 224 Conizaeodion 223 connectance 535 constancy 534 constituent water 281 consumption 350 continentality 280 continuum concept 533 contracted vegetation 593 convective boundary layer 306 convention

- on biodiversity 651

- of climate change (FCCC) 651pp

- to combat formation of deserts 651

convergence 533 conveyor belt 644p Convolvulaceae 163 Convolvulus 499

- arvensis 488 Conyza 499

- in plant metabolism 182

- resistance 183

- stress 186

coppice with standards 480, 483 coppiced forests 482p COR gene 128 Cordiates 470 Cordyline nubra 362 core antenna 27 Coreopsis biglowii 382 cormophyte temperature resistance 47 cormophyte water flow 279 Cornus 39lp

- stolonifera 87 coronatine 243

COR-proteins, "cold related" proteins 87 Corydalis 269

- cava 341, 544 Corylus 474, 476

- avellana, hazel 302, 375, 380 cosmopolitan 490, 550 cost-benefit analysis 676, 358 co-suppression 19 co-transport 320

cotton grass, Eriophorum angustifo-

lium 99 cotton, decoupling factor 307 couch grass, Agropyron junceum 386, 583

coumaric acid 41p, 248, 292 coumarin, structure 42 p-coumaroylastragalin 40 coumaryl alcohol 431 coupling element 128p cow pea, Vigna unguiculata 271, 294, 302

Cowles, H.C. 514 Crassulaceae 137 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism see CAM

Crataegus 372

- macrocarpa 391p Craterostigma plantaginea 123 Cretaceous 468p

Cromer warm period 474 crop plants 380p

- characteristics 384p

- oil seed 481

- potatoes, beet 481

- rotation 481, 487p

- SO? sensitivity 218 cropping, multiple species 481 cross protection 9, 96, 132, 188, 229,

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