Goh

| Fig. 2.4.18. A View of a tropical grassland in Namibia at about 200 mm rainfall of summer rains, i.e. water is available at high temperatures. Thus perennial C4 grasses and single succulents of the order Euphorbia are typical. B View of a continental steppe in Khazacstan. Note: Water is available after snowmelt at low temperature followed by summer drought. The vegetation is characterised by annual and perennial C3 grasses and shrubs (e.g. Altaea), a higher proportion of annuals and Leguminosae (e.g. Astragalus) and single shrubs (Crataegus). C View of succulent desert in Baja-California, Mexico, with Pachycereus pringlei as dominating cactus species. In the undergrowth are shrubs of Larrea tridentata, Encella and Ambrosia, amongst others. (Photo E.-D. Schulze)

C4 dominant

C3 dominant

500-1 Sahel

3n Sahel

500-1 Sahel

Perennial grasses

Perennial grasses

C3 annuals

200 400 600 800 Available water (mm)

C3 annuals

200 400 600 800 Available water (mm)

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