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Abiotic and Biotic Environments Cause Stress The environment affects an organism in many ways, at any time. To understand the reactions of a particular organism in a certain situation, individual external influences, so-called environmental factors, are usually considered separately, if at all possible. Environmental factors can be of abiotic and biotic nature. Biotic environmental factors, resulting from interactions with other organisms, are, for example, infection or mechanical damage by...

Avoidance Of Threatened Water Lobelia

The avoidance of the formation of ice crystals at freezing temperatures leads to supercooling. The supercooled state of plant tissues can usually be maintained for only some hours, in which case it can, for example, help plants to cope with the nightly radiation frosts which occur regularly in high mountain regions of the tropics. Supercooling has been observed to persist at length only in tissues possessing very rigid cell walls. Leathery leaves, for example, can remain unfrozen at...

Decrease in Biodiversity

Managing C sinks brings a conflict between the Climate Convention and the Biodiversity Convention, as the Kyoto Protocol explicitly avoids the protection of existing C storage in primary forests and aims at the establishment of plantations with low biomass, but high productivity (NPP), on cleared areas. In Chapter 4 a detailed case is made that biodiversity means more than diversity of species. Despite this, diversity of species is the only parameter available for an assessment of the situation...

Plant Ecology Introduction

The term ecology was defined by Ernst Haeckel in 1906 in his book, Principles of General Morphology of Organisms, as follows Ecology is the science of relations of the organism to the surrounding environment which includes, in its broadest sense, all 'conditions for existence'. These conditions may be organic or inorganic both are of the greatest importance for the form of organisms, because they force the organism to adapt. Haeckel included in the science of ecology the areas physiology,...