Genetic engineering is used to produce renewable resources for industry

Genetic engineering is a method with a great promise for the production of plants as renewable resources for industry. Transgenic plants which produce customized fats, with short chain fatty acids for the detergent and cosmetic industries, and with high erucic acid content for the production of synthetic materials, were discussed in section 15.5. Transgenic potatoes which contain only the branched starch amylopectine (section 9.1) (AMFLORA, BASF) are grown as raw material for industry, e.g.,...

Xenobiotics are detoxified by conjugation

Toxic compounds produced by the plant or which are taken up (xenobi-otics, including herbicides) are detoxified by reaction with glutathione. Catalyzed by glutathione- transferases, the reactive SH group of glutath-ione can form a thioether by reacting with electrophilic carbon double bonds, carbonyl groups, and other reactive groups. Glutathione conjugates (Fig. 12.6) synthesized in this way in the cytosol are transported into the vacuole by a specific glutathione translocator against a...

Mechanized agriculture usually necessitates the use of herbicides

About 50 of the money spent worldwide for plant protection is expended for herbicides. The high cost of labor is one of the main reasons for using herbicides in agriculture. It is cheaper and faster to keep a field free of weeds by using herbicides rather than manual labor. Weed control in agriculture is necessary not only to decrease harvest losses by weed competition, but also because weeds hinder the operation of harvesting machineries fields free of weeds are a prerequisite for a mechanized...

The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability

Nanocellulose Fiber

The difference between plant cells and animal cells is that plant cells have a cell wall. This wall limits the volume of the plant cell. The water taken up into the cell by osmosis presses the plasma membrane against the inside of the cell wall, thus giving the cell mechanical stability. The cell walls are very complex structures in Arabidopsis about 1,000 genes were found to be involved in its synthesis. Cell walls also protect against infections. The cell wall consists mainly of carbohydrates...