World Production and Trade

Pineapple is now the third most important tropical fruit in world production after banana and citrus. The processing of pineapple has made the fruit well known throughout the temperate developed world. Major pineapple products of international trade are canned slices, chunks, crush (solid pack) and juice and fresh fruit (Fig. 1.2). International trade is dominated by a few multinational companies that have developed the infrastructure to process and market pineapple. Thailand and Indonesia are, to a degree, exceptions, with small local processing operations. Despite the significance of canned pineapple in international trade, approximately 70% of the pineapple produced in the world is consumed as fresh fruit in the country of origin (Loeillet, 1997). Important producing countries, such as Brazil, India, China, Nigeria, Mexico and Colombia, produce fruit primarily for their own fresh-fruit markets and canning is a minor industry.

Statistics on world pineapple production are collected by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). According to FAO statistics (Baker, 1990; Anon., 2002), total pineapple production was approximately constant in the 1999-2001 period, with a mean world production for these 3 years of 13,527,149 metric tonnes (t). World production has more than tripled during the past 30 years (3,833,137 t in 1961 to 13,738,735 t in 2001). The leading pineapple-producing countries are Thailand with 2,311,332 t, the Philippines with 1,520,715 t and Brazil with 1,504,493 t (means 1999-2001). China (1,181,169 t), India (1.1 million t), and, Nigeria (800,000 t) follow. Nigerian statistics announced year after year are a surprisingly constant 800,000 t. Other producers exceeding 250,000 t are Mexico (535,000 t), Costa Rica (475,000 t), Colombia (360,000 t), Indonesia (300,000 t), Venezuela (300,000 t), USA

(293,000 t) and Kenya (280,000 t). The value of these statistics is relative to their accuracy. Thus, the joint use of statistics for production and planted areas allows yield estimations ranging from a high (and unlikely) of 48 t ha-1 for Cuba to a low of 7 t ha-1 for Indonesia (Table 1.1). Indeed, several countries are thought to give rough estimates, which may explain the surprising official production of countries such as Nigeria and the low correlation between yields and the probable level of technology and inputs used in the production system. In addition, FAO statistics do not separate fresh fruit from processed pineapple or export from local consumption.

Pineapple produced in Thailand and the Philippines dominates world trade. The former country processes approximately 1.6 million t of its total production of 2 million t. Thailand's pineapple is produced on almost 100,000 ha of small farms of 1-5 ha (Anupunt et al., 2000). In contrast to Thailand, production and marketing in the Philippines is almost exclusively run by multinational corporations using large plantation production systems. Export and marketing from the

Pineapple fruit and crown

CRUSH

Pineapple Fruit Longitudinal Section

CRUSH

SPEARS

TITBITS

CHUNKS FRUIT SLICE

JUICE

Pineapple fruit and crown

FRESH FRUIT

Fig. 1.2. Pineapple products.

SPEARS

TITBITS

CHUNKS FRUIT SLICE

FRESH FRUIT

JUICE

JUICE CONCENTRATE

Fig. 1.2. Pineapple products.

Table 1.1. Pineapple production (t), ha harvested and yields (t ha-1) for 2001 by country (Anon., 2002).

Country

Production (t)

Harvested (ha)

Yield (t h

Thailand

2,300,000

97,300

24

Philippines

1,571,904

45,000

35

Brazil

1,442,300

59,238

24

China

1,284,000

57,700

22

India

1,100,000

80,000

14

Nigeria

881,000

115,000

8

Mexico

535,000

12,500

43

Costa Rica

475,000

12,000

40

Colombia

360,000

9,000

40

Indonesia

300,000

42,000

7

Venezuela

300,000

15,000

20

USA

293,000

8,130

36

Kenya

280,000

8,500

33

Côte d'Ivoire

225,675

5,200

43

South Africa

145,441

6,200

23

Australia

140,000

3,000

47

Dominican Republic

136,862

5,500

25

Malaysia

130,000

7,000

19

Guatemala

101,287

3,710

27

Honduras

70,000

3,900

18

Cameroon

42,000

4,000

11

Martinique

20,800

484

43

Swaziland

19,680

600

33

Cuba

19,000

400

48

Cambodia

16,500

1,600

10

Puerto Rico

15,000

500

30

Philippines of both processed and fresh fruit are frequently handled with other products, such as bananas. The large scale of production, high level of technology and low labour costs make competition with production, processing and marketing of both canned and fresh fruit from Thailand and the Philippines very difficult for the smaller producing countries. Australia and South Africa market canned and fresh fruit almost exclusively within the country and remain competitive because of efficient production and processing (Sanewski and Scott, 2000) and international trade barriers. While Hawaii was the centre of world processing and technology in the first half of the 20th century, its proportion of production has declined steadily as production and competition from Thailand and the Philippines have risen (Fig. 1.3). However, the value of the Hawaiian pineapple industry (US$) unadjusted for inflation has increased as production was gradually shifted from processed to fresh fruit for the domestic market (Rohrbach, 2000). Taiwan (Lin and Chang, 2000), like Hawaii, has shifted from a dominant processing industry to a domestic and export fresh-fruit market.

World trade in pineapple mainly consists of processed products. World exports of canned pineapple doubled between 1983 and 1992, passing 1 million t and representing a value of more than US$600 million. Asian countries have been the primary suppliers, increasing their share from 69 to 85%, while Africa's share has decreased from 25 to 10%. Leading countries are now Thailand (315,000 t), the Philippines (209,000 t), Indonesia (95,000 t), Kenya (84,000 t) and Malaysia (44,000 t). The European Union imports 450,000 t, a 2.4-fold increase between 1983 and 1993. The USA and Canada import o o o ro

"O

2500

2000

1500

1000

1961

» Philippines

» Philippines

2000

1500

1000

World Pineapple Production

1971

1981 Years

1991

Fig. 1.3. Shifts in Hawaiian and multinational foreign production and processing industries (Anon., 1998a; Baker, 1990).

380,000 t, representing a replacement for decreasing Hawaiian production (Loeillet, 1995; Anon., 1998a).

The market for concentrated pineapple juice, especially frozen concentrate, has also increased. Estimated at 40,000 t in 1983, it increased to 167,000 t in 1993 (representing then up to US$400 million), to reach 215,000 t in 1993. Supply is dominated by Thailand and the Philippines. The Philippines is also largely dominant for the smaller market for single-strength juice (70,000 t). The USA and Canada (90,000 t) are the major importers of concentrated juice, with Europe (118,000 t) second (Loeillet, 1994).

Per capita consumption of pineapple juice in the USA is essentially static at between 1 and 1.3 l year-1 which contrasts with increases of both orange- and apple-juice consumption (Fig. 1.4).

The international fresh-pineapple market (about 670,000 t) is dominated by Costa Rica, the Philippines and the Côte d'Ivoire. The North American market is primarily supplied by Costa Rica and Hawaii (Fig. 1.5). In the USA, annual per capita consumption of fresh pineapple fruit has gone from 0.3 to 0.9 kg. This is still very low when compared with the approximately 5 kg consumption of processed pineapple over the past 25 years (Fig. 1.6) and with the consumption of other fruits such as bananas, apples and oranges (Fig. 1.7). The European market is mainly supplied by Côte d'Ivoire, with significant amounts transshipped through France to several other European countries (Fig. 1.8; Aldrich, 1984; Anon., 1998b). European countries such as the Netherlands and Belgium obtain fresh pineapple from several different countries, including Costa Rica, as well as the Côte d'Ivoire through France. In Europe, per capita consumption of fresh pineapple is highest in France and in 1984 was approximately equal to the current US fresh-pineapple consumption (Aldrich, 1984). The principal South-East Asian fresh-fruit export market is Japan, which is dominated by the Philippines. Taiwan also supplies significant amounts. China, Indonesia and Hawaii occasionally supply

Apple Consumption Indonesia
Fig. 1.4. Per capita consumption of orange, apple and pineapple juice in the USA (Putnam and Allshouse, 1999).

small amounts. Imports of fresh pineapple into Japan have declined somewhat in recent years (Fig. 1.9) (Anon., 1997). In contrast to Europe and the USA, Brazil's consumption of fresh pineapple is approximately 11 kg per capita year-1 (Reinhardt and Souza, 2000).

Chilled fresh-cut fruit pineapple packed as spears or chunks in sealed plastic bags for retail sale is a relatively new product. Fruit may be processed at the production site and transported chilled at 0-1°C or shipped whole without the crown to large metropolitan centres and processed just before retail sales. The shelf-life of this product is limited to 1-3 weeks unless the product is actually frozen. The chilled fresh-cut product addresses consumer demand for ready-to-eat foods that do not require any preparation time. Industry sources estimate that the market for vacuum-packed fresh-cut pineapple in Japan will soon

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  • tesmi
    Who produces 1/3 world.pineapple?
    2 years ago

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