Latitude Elevation Techniques (houses, mulches) Climate, geography
Commercial requirements Grower's decisions
Quantity of C02 assimilated wuai liny ui ouj i
Proportion of C02 fixed by CAM
Stomatal opening pattern
Plant morphology Specific leaf area Leaf weight ratio Dry-matter content
Susceptibility to forcing Natural floral induction
Fruit development rate ■
Stem starch accumulation
Sucker growth -
Plant growth rate
Transpiration Consumptive use of water
Forcing to harvest interval
Possibility of one or more ratoon crops ^ Planting to first ratoon harvest interval
Planting to forcing interval
Plant mass at forcing
^ Cycle duration
Total soluble solids Skin colour Multiple crowns
Titratable acidity Flesh colour Collar of slips Aroma Internal browning Fungal diseases
Green ripe fruit Storage life
^ Fruit quality
Fig. 5.17. Flow diagram summarizing the effects of environmental factors, but mainly temperature, on pineapple growth and development.
the complex interactions between weather and CAM in carbon assimilation, water economy and growth processes. The effect of temperature on leaf photosynthesis is reasonably well understood, but it is still hazardous to extrapolate this knowledge to the effect of temperature on crop growth. Leaf photosynthesis is apparently saturated at low irradiance, but crop productivity nevertheless seems to respond to total irradiance, as well as to the fraction intercepted by the canopy. This is due in part to the high LAIs sustained at high planting densities. Also, although pineapple has one of the highest WUEs among cultivated crops and can survive severe drought, the reduction in crop growth due to water stress makes irrigation profitable in many areas.
We show here that, despite a significant amount of research on pineapple, it is still difficult to understand and simulate the effects of weather on yield by linking weather variables to physiological processes.
There is much opportunity for basic research on pineapple to characterize the effects of irradiance and temperature on carbon assimilation, dry-matter partitioning, reproductive physiology, yield and fruit quality. Only when some of these important issues are resolved will it be possible to understand the complex interactions between weather and physiology. Although prediction of pineapple growth and development as a response to the main environmental factors is now possible in some conditions (Zhang et al., 1997), many factors affect the accuracy of such predictions. A comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental variables on pineapple growth and yield is essential if the accuracy of growth models is to reach the point where it will be possible to satisfactorily predict harvest date and yield. When sufficient data are collected, it may be possible to use growth models to make crop-loss assessments for the several important pest and disease problems that reduce crop productivity.
Was this article helpful?