Main cultivars

'Smooth Cayenne' (Plate 7), or 'Cayenne Lisse', is still common in the Guianas under the name 'Maipuri', meaning 'tapir'. It has been renamed 'Kew', 'Sarawak', 'Esmeralda', 'Claire', 'Typhoon' and 'Saint Michel'. The ovoid medium-sized fruit (1.5-2.5 kg) of 'Smooth Cayenne' is held on a short and strong peduncle (Fig. 3.1). It ripens progressively, turning yellow from the base to the top, which is reflected in a strong internal maturity gradient too. The flesh is pale yellow, soft and juicy, with considerable variation in sugar (from 13 to 19°Brix) and acidity, depending on environmental conditions - mainly rain and temperature - and low ascorbic acid content. Despite the high sugar content of 'Smooth Cayenne', its acidity is often considered excessive among tropical consumers and this has largely contributed to the image of pineapple as an acidic fruit. 'Smooth Cayenne' juice is not of good quality, because of poor colour, high sugar and turbidity. The plant is medium-sized (80-100 cm), with 60-80 dark green leaves (c. 100 cm long and 6 cm wide), which bear small spines at their base and tip. Vegetative propagation is normally by shoots and slips, which are quite limited in production. The production cycle of 'Smooth Cayenne' is longer than that of most other cultivars and this is exacerbated in cool climates. 'Smooth Cayenne' is sensitive to many known pests (fruit borers, mites, sym-phillids, nematodes) and diseases (mealybug wilt, fusariosis, fruitlet core rot, butt rot) and to internal browning (Rohrbach and Schmitt, 1994; Bello et al., 1997a,b). However, it is con-

Fig. 3.1. 'Smooth Cayenne'.

sidered to be tolerant to Phytophthora sp. (Py et al., 1987) and resistant to fruit collapse caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkbolder (Lim and Lowings, 1979).

The cultivar 'Cayenne Baronne de Rothschild', cultivated in West Africa, is the spiny form of 'Smooth Cayenne'. 'Hilo', a Hawaiian variant, might merit cultivar status as it produces many more slips than the standard 'Smooth Cayenne' (Collins, 1960). Collins and Kerns (1938) and Collins (1960) have described more than 30 'Smooth Cayenne' mutants in Hawaii, the most common being spiny leaves, multiple crowns and fasciated crowns or fruits and collar of slips. The most interesting are 'seedy fruit', a series of mutations that breaks down self-incompatibility in pollen, and resistance to mealybug wilt, which was also observed in Mexico (Torres Navarro et al., 1989).

'Singapore Spanish' (Plate 8) is second in importance for canning. Other names and particular strains are 'Singapore Canning', 'Ruby', 'Red Pine', 'Nanas Merah', 'Nangka', 'Gandul', 'Betek' and 'Masmerah' (Wee, 1972). 'Singapore Spanish' is cultivated in South Asia, particularly in Malaysia, because of its good adaptation to peat soils and its golden-yellow flesh colour. Fruits are small (around 1 kg - heavier in 'Masmerah'), cylindrical and dark purple, turning copper-orange when ripening (Fig. 3.2). Sugar and acidity are low (10-12°Brix) and the taste is poor; however, the juice is of good colour and quality. The plant is medium-sized (80-100 cm), with 35-70 dark green leaves, about 150 cm long and 5 cm wide. Leaf spininess is highly variable from clone to clone, from complete spininess to very few spines. The bracts of the peduncle and inflorescence are bright red. The plant is vigorous and produces many slips (about two to six) and shoots. Multiple crowns are frequent. 'Singapore Spanish' is adapted to high soil pH, which is probably related to its tolerance to Phytophthora, a fungus that develops better in such conditions. It shows severe chlorosis when exposed to high manganese concentration in the soil. It is also sensitive to fruit collapse, the most serious disease in Malaysia (Lim and Lowings, 1979), and to nematodes (Collins and Hagan, 1932).

Fig. 3.2. 'Gandul' (cv. 'Singapore Spanish').

The cultivar 'Selangor Green', also named 'Green Pine', 'Green Spanish', 'Nanas Hijau' and 'Selassie', is derived from a mutation suppressing anthocyanins in all the organs of 'Singapore Spanish'. Thus the leaves and inflorescence are uniformly green, the petals pale yellow and the fruit yellow at maturity. Other traits have not been altered. Another mutation produced a variegated red-fruited cultivar used as an ornamental.

The cultivar 'Queen' (Plate 9) is widely distributed, but it is more particularly cultivated in the southern hemisphere, in South Africa and Australia, for the fresh-fruit market. It has been called 'Mauritius', 'Malacca', 'Red Ceylon', 'Buitenzorg', 'Victoria', 'Ripley Queen' and 'Alexandra' (Mendiola et al., 1951; Leal, 1990). In Malaysia, it is called 'Moris' and Chan and Lee (1995) have described several variants. 'McGregor' is a vigorous Australian selection. The tetraploid 'Z' or 'James Queen' was found in South Africa (Nyenhuis, 1974). The plant is small (60-80 cm), with short and very spiny silvery leaves, and gives a small fruit (0.5-1 kg), with a full yellow shell and small prominent eyes (Fig. 3.3). The golden-yellow pulp is crispy and sweet (14-18°Brix), with an excellent flavour and long shelf-life. The production of slips and shoots varies widely between clones. 'Queen' is a robust cultivar, showing more general tolerance to stress, pests and diseases than 'Smooth Cayenne'. On the other hand, it is susceptible to Phytophthora and fruit collapse and highly susceptible to chilling and internal browning, particularly if harvested before maturity, and to fruitlet core rot and butt rot (Lim, 1971; Winks et al., 1985; Swarts, 1990; Lutchmeah, 1992).

'Española Roja' or 'Red Spanish' (Plate 10) is widely cultivated in Venezuela and the Caribbean basin, under names such as 'Black Spanish', 'Key Largo', Havannah' or 'Habana', 'Cubana', 'Cowboy', 'Bull Head', 'Cumanesa' and 'Native Philippine Red' (Leal, 1990). The fruit is medium-sized (1.2-2 kg) and orange, with a barrel shape. The flesh is firm, pale, aromatic and sweet, with moderate sugar content (around 12°Brix) but low acidity. The plant is medium-sized, with spiny or half-spiny dark green leaves. Smooth clones have been selected. Floral bracts are an intense bright red colour. The plant regularly produces some slips (about one to three) and suckers. 'Española Roja' is vigorous and tolerant to high temperature, drought, internal browning, butt rot, wilt and Phytophthora (Py et al., 1987; Rohrbach and Schmitt, 1994), but not to high

Fig. 3.3. 'Mauritius' (cv. 'Queen').

manganese in the soil and nematodes (Ayala et al., 1969). It is highly susceptible to the South American lepidopter Strymon basilides (Geyer).

'Perola' (Plate 11), 'Pernambuco' or 'Branco de Pernambuco' is the main cultivar in the Brazilian fresh market. 'Jupi' is a particular strain. In Florida, it has also been named 'Abacaxi', 'Abakka' and 'Eleuthera'. The fruit is small to medium (0.9-1.6 kg), ovoid (when small) to conical and green, with a little yellow in the centre of the mature eyes (Fig. 3.4). The flesh is soft, white and juicy with an exquisite aroma. Its sugar (13-16°Brix) and ascorbic acid contents are high. As with most conical fruits, it shows a strong gradient of maturation from base to top. The plant is medium-sized and vigorous, with dark green, erect and spiny leaves. In some strains, long and erect basal slips surround the fruit. 'Perola' is a very robust cultivar, showing resistance to Phytophthora (Collins, 1960), probably related to its erect habit, and tolerance to drought, mealybug wilt and nematodes (Collins and Hagan, 1932; Sipes and Schmitt, 1994; Sarah et al, 1997). However, it is threatened because of its high susceptibility to fusariosis, which affects Brazilian production severely.

'Perolera', also named 'Lebrija', 'Motilona', 'Capachera' or Tachirense', is an

Fig. 3.4. 'Perola'.

important cultivar of the north-eastern Andes of Colombia and Venezuela. The fruit is large (1.5-3 kg), yellow to orange, with an irregular cylindrical shape. It is borne on a long peduncle, which makes it susceptible to fruit lodging and sunburn, particularly in hot lowlands. The flesh is pale yellow to yellow, firm and sweet (although only around 12°Brix). Numerous crownlets protrude from the base of the crown and the upper eyes. Slips are also numerous (from four to 11). The plant is medium to high. The leaves are completely smooth because the lower epidermis is folded over the leaf edge, a trait that was named 'piping' by Collins and Kerns (1946). 'Perolera' is susceptible to fruitlet core rot and to the fly Melanoloma canopilosum Hendel. It has been used in the Brazilian breeding programme because of its resistance to fusariosis.

The cultivar 'Manzana' (Plate 12), also called 'Bumanguesa', is cultivated in the same zone as 'Perolera', as well as in the western

Andes of Colombia. It is said to be a sport from 'Perolera', from which it differs in the regular globular to cylindrical shape and large flat eyes of its fruit, which is of an attractive dark to bright red colour when produced in tropical highlands (Fig. 3.5). It is susceptible to the nematode Pratylenchus neglectus but tolerant to Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid & White (Redondo-Echeverri and Varón, 1992).

Other traditional cultivars of lesser regional importance are sometimes described. 'Cabezona' is a vigorous spiny triploid producing yellow to orange fruits of more than 3 kg with white pulp. 'Monte Lirio', also called 'Cambray' or 'Milagreña', is a smooth ('piping') cultivar with a midsize fruit and sweet white pulp, found from Mexico to Ecuador. 'Black Antigua' is an old spiny cultivar producing a small to medium fruit with a dark green shell turning yellow to orange at maturity. Its golden-yellow pulp is firm and delicious. The Peruvian 'Samba' and 'Roja Trujillana' produce red fruits and show resistance to S. basilides (Bello et al., 1997a). Certain Amazonian cultivars, such as 'Gigante de Tarauaca' or 'Cabeqa de Onqa', yield enormous fruits up to 15 kg (Ritzinger, 1987). Others are distinguished by an original red or purple colour of their fruit, such as the Amazonian 'Cabeqa de Arara' (meaning 'Macaw Head') and 'Roxo de Tefe', the Trinidadian 'Mundo Nuevo Red' and the Venezuelan 'Morada'. These colours are very probably determined by a single dominant gene, as observed in the case of 'Roxo de Tefe' (Cabral et al., 1997). Further evaluation of the germplasm recently collected in the basins of the Amazon and the Orinoco will provide many new traits of interest for varietal diversification.

The hybrid 'MD-2', 'Golden Ripe' or 'Extra Sweet' and its sibling 'CO-2' (US Patent PP8863) (Plate 13) were developed by Del Monte Fresh Produce Hawaii Inc. from a cross made between the PRI hybrids 58-1184 and 59-443 for the fresh-fruit market. 'MD-2' gives a medium to large (1.3-2.5 kg) cylindrical, square-shouldered fruit, with large flat eyes and an intense orange-yellow colour. The clear yellow pulp is sweet, compact and fibrous. It is high in sugar (15-17°Brix) and ascorbic acid but lower in total acid than 'Smooth Cayenne'. The core is tender, edible and thinner than in 'Smooth Cayenne'. However, the crown is larger and must be broken at harvest. The leaves are yellow-green with a reddish tip and are mostly spineless. 'MD-2' is said to be more productive than 'Smooth Cayenne'. It is resistant to internal browning, but susceptible to fruitlet core rot and more sensitive to Phytophthora than 'Smooth Cayenne' (Anon., 1996). 'CO-2' is said to resemble the parents, but is distinguished from them in being sweeter and higher in ascorbic acid and in having a 'distinct tropical flavour', greater pigmentation and fibre content of the flesh, greater resistance to internal browning and a good overall appearance after refrigerated storage.

'Josapine' (Plate 14) is a hybrid between 'Johor' ('Spanish') and 'Sarawak' ('Smooth Cayenne') released by MARDI in 1996 (Chan and Lee, 1996). It is recommended as a table

variety. It fruits very early and is cultivated on an annual cycle in Malaysia. The plant is vigorous and produces two to three shoots. Leaves are lightly purple-tinged, usually with spineless margins except for the leaf tip. Crowns are medium, occasionally with multiple proliferation. Fruits weigh between 1.1 and 1.3 kg and are cylindrical-shaped with dark purple peel ripening to an attractive orange-red (Fig. 3.6). The flesh is deep golden-yellow and has a strong aroma and a sugar content between 17°Brix on peat soil and 22°Brix on mineral soils. 'Josapine' fruits have a good storage life and are resistant to black-heart disorder or internal browning caused by low temperatures.

'Scarlett' is a hybrid between 'Smooth Cayenne' and 'Manzana' developed by CIRAD-FLHOR. Fruits are 1.4-2 kg and orange to red in colour, with a regular cylindrical shape. The eyes are medium to large

Fig. 3.6. 'Josapine'.

and flat. The flesh is firm and golden-yellow with a high sugar content (15-18°Brix). Acidity is similar to that of 'Smooth Cayenne' but it is higher in ascorbic acid content. The core is thinner, the flesh less fibrous and the crown is lighter and erect. The plant is compact, with erect, smooth ('piping') leaves. The peduncle is long but resistant to lodging. 'Scarlett' has a short production cycle and responds well to floral induction. It is susceptible to fruitlet core rot (Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge and Marie, 2000).

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