Introduction

Pineapple, a crop native to the tropical Americas, is currently grown commercially over a wide range of latitudes from approximately 30°N in the northern hemisphere (30°45'N in India (Hayes, 1960) and 28°30' in the Canary Islands (Galan Sauco et al., 1988b)) to 33°58'S in South Africa (Bartholomew and Kadzimin, 1977; Table 5.1). Pineapple seldom requires less than 12 months from planting to harvest and more commonly 18-24 months, or even as much as 36 months in cool subtropical environments. The induction of flowering of pineapple is almost universally initiated with a growth regulator (see Hepton, Chapter 6, and Bartholomew et al., Chapter 8, this volume), which has made large-scale production of pineapple possible in areas where flowering would otherwise be too erratic for commercial production. Further, in many areas where the crop is grown, fruiting may be forced in most or all months of the year, so it is common for both vegetative and reproductive growth to occur during both warm and cool seasons.

Production at the more extreme latitudes is mainly restricted to areas where the climate is moderated by the ocean, as the crop will not tolerate freezing temperatures. One of the main features of pineapple is its adaptation to areas of low rainfall, although pro ductivity is reduced in drought conditions. This is partly due to the fact that pineapple, as with most Bromeliaceae, has the crassu-lacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosyn-thetic pathway. This specificity of pineapples is unique among plants widely cultivated for commercial purposes.

Pineapple-based cropping systems throughout the world vary from gathering fruit from wild plants under tree cover, as in some areas of Brazil, and intercropping systems that include pineapple and a wide variety of tree and herbaceous crops (Lee, 1972; Nair, 1977; Bavappa et al, 1986; Darwis, 1990; Oladokun, 1990; Cai and Zheng, 1991) to highly intensive monoculture cropping systems on thousands of hectares, as is the case in Hawaii, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. As a result, yields are extremely variable and can range from 30 to more than 100 Mt ha-1, depending on the length of the crop cycle, environmental conditions, cultural practices and the pineapple variety being grown (Py et al., 1987). High productivity of pineapple depends on successfully managing controllable factors, such as water and nutrient supply and pests and diseases (see Hepton, Chapter 6, and Rohrbach and Johnson, Chapter 9, this volume). Environmental factors, such as temperature, irradiance and rainfall, interacting with the plant's CAM and the unique morphological and anatomical

© CAB International 2003. The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses (eds D.P. Bartholomew, R.E. Paull and K.G. Rohrbach)

Table 5.1. Temperature and length of crop cycle at various pineapple-growing areas in the world.

Elevation

Temperature (

:°c)

Months to plant crop

F to H

Location

Latitude

(m)

Average

Max.

Min.

Force (F)

Harvest (H)

(days)

Reference

Nyombe, Cameroon

4.5°N

70

6

11

Gaillard, 1970

Mt Cameroun, Cameroon

0

26.2

30.2

22.3

10

150

Aubert etai., 1973

550

22.6

27.6

17.7

10

180

1000

19.9

25.0

14.9

10

210

Johore, Malaysia

1 °22'N

5

26.9

35.0

18.9

Wee, 1969

Pekan Nenas, Malaysia

10

15-17*

Wee, 1969

Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

5°N

25

26.6

30.9

22.3

8-11*

13-15*

156-166*

Lacoeuilhe, 1978

Bangkok, Thailand

32.2

23.3

Neild and Boshell, 1976

Ivoloina, Madagascar

18°03'S

20

23.8

28.0

19.6

8-10*

144-221*

Moreau and Moreuil, 1976

Buenos Aires, Costa Rica

9°10'N

23.0

32.0

19.9

13

20

Romero etai, 1973

Cali, Colombia

31.1

18.1

16

Neild and Boshell, 1976

Fort de France, Martinique

14°30'N

20

10

Lacoeuilhe and Gicquiaux, '

60

10

350

11

Foulaya, Guinée

10°N

400

24.7

30.7

18.7

13

19

180

Py etai, 1957

Sape, Brazil

7°5'S

124

25.9

31.2

20.6

Giacomelli and Py, 1982

Coracao de Maria, Brazil

12°14'S

267

23.6

30.0

17.3

Serra, Brazil

21°S

76

24.1

27.6

20.6

Lagoa Santa, Brazil

19°38'S

778

21.4

26.5

16.3

Monte Alegre, Brazil

18°52'S

756

22.3

29.1

15.6

Osorio, Brazil

29°55'S

38

19.6

23.8

15.4

Rio Pedras, Puerto Rico

18°23'N

23

24.8

Pico, 1974

Rock Hampton, Australia

23°26'S

11.3

22.7

27.2

16.7

Bartholomew and Kadzimin,

Brisbane, Australia

27°28'S

42

20.5

25.5

9.5

Tkatchenko, 1947

Nambour, Australia

26°38'S

29-

-20.5+

19-6.0+

203-301*

Wassman, 1990

Yeppoon, Australia

23°6'S

30-

-23.0+

21-11.0+

Wahiawa, Hawaii

21°20'N

200

22.6

30.1

14.3

Kunia, Hawaii

216

25-19.5+

Maui, Hawaii

91

23.5

27.9

19.1

300

21.8

25.7

17.9

792

19.5

24.3

14.7

Touliu, Taiwan

23°44'N

48

Karenko, Taiwan

23°58'N

19

22.2

27.1

17.3

Thika, Kenya

1°01'S

1463

20.5

> 35

5.5

Kiamba, Kenya

1°12'S

1731

19.0

Tenerife, Canary Islands

28°N

50

19.5

150

21.1

475

15.8

Zululand, South Africa

28°S

East London, South Africa

33°02'S

125

18.6

22.8

14.4

Port Elizabeth, South Africa

33°58'S

55

17.2

21.2

13.3

Malkerns, Swaziland

26°30'S

16.8

28.0

4.0

'Range for two or more plantings in different seasons.

tRange of the maximum and minimum mean monthly air temperature.

♦Clone of the Queen group.

14 23

9 175-223*

12 181-207*

12 195-213*

12 230-255* 16 23

22 32

Bartholomew and Kadzimin, 1977 Fleisch, 1988

Bartholomew and Malezieux, 1994

Su, 1969

Tkatchenko, 1947 Lebedev, 1970

Galan Sauco etal, 1988a, b

Lacoeuilhe and Sarah, 1990 Strauss, 1960; Bouffin, 1991 Tkatchenko, 1947 Dodson, 1968

features of pineapple ultimately determine productivity within a given environment.

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