Natural induction of flowering

'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple must attain some minimum plant weight before natural induction of inflorescence development can occur (Py et al., 1987). The minimum weight has not been well characterized but probably exceeds 1.0 kg in most environments and is greater in warm than in cool environments. Collins (1960) considered 'Smooth Cayenne' to be a perennial that would continue to grow as long as environmental conditions were adequate. There are, however, few regions where environmental...

Processing Operations Harvesting

The quality of any processed food begins with the ingredients used. In the case of processed pineapple, the fruit should be harvested at the optimum stage of maturity to obtain high quality products. Since the pineapple does not ripen once it is harvested from the field, the fruit should be sufficiently ripened in the field to endow the flesh with high pigmentation and full pineapple flavour, but not so ripe that the fruit cannot be successfully transported and handled through the processing...

Sucker pruning

The development of suckers appears to be a function of variety and plant vigour. Some varieties, e.g. 'Queen', produce numerous suckers, which arise from leaf axils at or above ground level. High numbers of suckers make ratooning very difficult, because ideally the plant should have one high-quality sucker to replace the mother plant, thereby retaining the original planting density. 'Smooth Cayenne' sucker numbers are influenced by planting density, plant weight at the time of forcing and...

Volatiles

A wide range of volatiles (157 compounds) have been identified, including esters, lac- tones, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and a group of miscellaneous compounds (Dupaigne, 1970 Flath and Forrey, 1970 Flath, 1986 Takeoka et al, 1989 Umano et al, 1992). Esters constitute over 80 of total volatiles (Umano et al., 1992). Free and glyco-sidically bound constituents have been found, including 2-pentanol, 2-butoxyethanol, hexa-noic acid, phenol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde, as...

Origin and Evolution

After inventorying and describing the variability found in Paraguay, Bertoni (1919) stated that the pineapple was domesticated by the Tupi-Guarani Indians from A. guaraniticus (A. comosus var. ananassoides) and then accompanied them in their northward migrations to the Antilles, northern Andes and Central America. This hypothesis has been retained in many reviews on crop origins (e.g. Collins, 1948, 1949, 1960, Purseglove, 1972 Pickersgill, 1976 Sauer, 1993). In his discussion of Vavilov's...

Forced induction of flowering

Late in the 19th century it was discovered that pineapple inflorescence development could be forced with smoke (Collins, 1960) and later research showed that the active ingredient in smoke was ethylene (Rodriquez, 1932). Work in Hawaii (Collins, 1960) showed that acetylene gas could also force inflorescence development of pineapple and that water-saturated solutions of acetylene or ethylene sprayed over plants could deliver the required quantity of either gas. Green leaf tissue is required for...

Fruit Development

Bract, calyx and ovary tissues have become fused within and between fruitlets during development to form the collective fruit CAB International 2003. The Pineapple Botany, Production and Uses (eds D.P. Bartholomew, R.E. Paull and K.G. Rohrbach) (Okimoto, 1948). Due to the fused nature of the tissue within a single fruitlet, the flesh of the fruit is not sterile but contains fungi, yeasts and bacteria (Rohrbach and Apt, 1986) though the population of microorganisms declines with fruit...

Nematodes

Four species of nematodes have been associated most frequently with, and caused the most damage to, pineapple the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica ((Treub) Chitwood) and Meloidogyne incognita ((Kofoid & White) Chitwood), the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford & Oliveira) and the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven) (Caswell et al, 1990). The most obvious symptom of root-knot nematodes, M. javanica and M....

Introduction

The reproductive phase of the pineapple begins in response to natural or plant-growth-regulator-forced induction of reproductive development (natural induction and forcing). Because the inflorescence of pineapple is terminal, when reproductive development begins, formation of new leaves ceases. Expansion of previously initiated leaves continues, but not all of these expand fully. Some are found on the fruit peduncle and their size is much reduced relative to older fully expanded leaves. Once...

Early roothealth management

With the discovery of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene, 1,2-dichloro-propane, (DD mixture) pineapple nematodes were easily and economically controlled during the early stages of pineapple plant growth (Carter, 1943 Keetch, 1979 Johnson and Feldmesser, 1987 Caswell and Apt, 1989). Today, early nematode control is accomplished by clean fallow, preplant soil fumigation with dichloropropene at 224-336 l ha-1 (Fig. 9.17 ) and postplant application of an approved nematocide (e.g. fenamiphos and...

Wateruse efficiency related to CAM in pineapple

Transpiration rhythm and transpiration rate in pineapple In pineapple, the diel rhythms of stomatal conductance and transpiration are closely linked to the net CO2-uptake rhythm (Neales et al, 1968 Nose et al, 1981 Bartholomew, 1982 C te et al, 1993 Fig. 5.3). The lowest rates of transpiration occurred during phases I, II and III and the highest during phase IV. WUE is two times greater during phase I than during phase IV and reaches a minimum during phase III (Fig. 5.3). The transpiration...

Pinkdisease fruitcollapse and marblingdisease bacteria

Pink disease is of little importance in fresh fruit, but can be a very serious sporadic problem in processed fruit because of the lack of Fig. 9.23. Pineapple inflorescence at mid- to late flower. Fig. 9.23. Pineapple inflorescence at mid- to late flower. detection prior to canning. It was first reported in Hawaii by Lyon (1915) and is now known in Australia, the Philippines, South Africa and Taiwan (Rohrbach, 1983). Cultivars vary in their susceptibility (Rohrbach and Pfeiffer, 1975). At least...

Banded preplant fertilizers

The precision placement of preplant fertilizers can ensure both vigorous rooting and the early uptake of N, P and K prior to the development of the leaf canopy. Banded fertilizer should be applied in sufficient amounts to enhance rooting and carry the young plants for 3-4 months, until the canopy is sufficiently developed to make foliar fertilizer applications efficient and effective. Placement is usually just below or adjacent to the plant line to allow the earliest interception by the...

Evolution of pineapple classification

From the first observations of the pineapple by European explorers to the present time, pineapple taxonomy has varied considerably. The first botanical description of cultivated pineapples was by Charles Plumier at the end of the 17th century (but only published in 1755), when he collected plants called karatas and ananas on the island of Hispaniola. Following the native classification, he created the genus Bromelia for the karatas, in honour of the Swedish physician Olaf Bromel, and described...

Vegetative propagules

Vegetative propagules are classified according to their position on the plant. Suckers appear on the earthed part of the stem. Stem shoots, which appear on the aerial part, are more frequent. Slips appear on the peduncle. They are often grouped near the base of the fruit. Sometimes, they are produced from the basal eyes of the fruit (collar of slips). Slips are curved at their base. As they are numerous in most cultivars, they are useful for rapid propagation. The crown can also be used for...

Distribution of nutrients within the plant

The nutrient content of any tissue depends upon its physiological age. However, because approximately 80 of a typical vegetative pineapple-plant fresh or dry mass is leaves (see Malezieux et al., Chapter 5, this volume), leaves are the focus of most of the discussion that follows. Young, actively growing leaves (leaves younger than the 'D' leaf) generally have higher nutrient levels than do older leaves that are fully grown (Sideris et al., 1943 Sideris and Young, 1945, 1946). The nutrient...

Weed Control

The requirements for effective weed control in pineapples vary considerably in various parts of the world. Weed-control practices are not reviewed here, but weeds should be controlled so that they do not seriously impede crop growth or compromise harvesting and other key operations. Special attention should be paid to the reduction and elimination of clump grasses and vines, as these can become extremely problematic. The pineapple plant is quite tolerant of many good herbicides, particularly in...

World Production and Trade

Pineapple Fruit Longitudinal Section

Pineapple is now the third most important tropical fruit in world production after banana and citrus. The processing of pineapple has made the fruit well known throughout the temperate developed world. Major pineapple products of international trade are canned slices, chunks, crush (solid pack) and juice and fresh fruit (Fig. 1.2). International trade is dominated by a few multinational companies that have developed the infrastructure to process and market pineapple. Thailand and Indonesia are,...

References

Abdullah, H. and Rohaya, M.A. (1983) The development of black heart disease in Mauritius pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Mauritius) during storage at lower temperatures. MARDI Research Bulletin 11, 309-319. Abdullah, H., Rohaya, M.A. and Zaipun, M.Z. (1985) Effect of modified atmosphere on black heart development and ascorbic acid contents in 'Mauritius' pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. 'Mauritius') during storage at low temperature. ASEAN Food Journal 1, 15-18. Abdullah, H., Rohaya, M.A. and...

Land clearing field layout and bed design

If the site has not been cropped previously, the first operation will probably be to remove brush and trees. After the fields have been surveyed to establish the slope, need for and frequency and position of drainage channels, these channels should be installed so as to effectively capture and remove excess rainfall in a manner that minimizes erosion. If drainage channels discharge into adjacent waterways, the need for permanent drop structures should be evaluated. Where rock removal is...

Plantlets

Plantlets are usually produced where rapid propagation is the objective. Plantlets may be grown from the sectioning of plant material, by decapitation (Heenkenda, 1993), also called gouging, or from tissue culture. Any vegetative shoot of the pineapple plant can be sectioned for propagation if the pieces have two or more axillary buds and some leaf material (Fig. 6.7). For large stems, the leaves are cut off, the stems are quartered lengthwise and each piece is then cut into sections 3-5 cm in...

Drip irrigation

While the high initial investment associated with drip irrigation may appear prohibitive for pineapple culture, in areas where water is limited or expensive and the need for irrigation may extend for many months, the investment will pay good dividends. Drip irrigation allows precise placement of water in the root zone in volumes that match the crop's consumptive demand. Drip irrigation is especially effective during the first few months after planting, when a consistent but low-volume supply of...

Effect of nutrition on fruit quality

Assuming that no other factors limit growth, the adequacy of the nutrient supply determines the plant growth rate, the plant mass at induction and ultimately the fruit mass at harvest. However, the plant-mass-fruit-mass relationship is by no means direct, as environment and the quality of forced induction are also important (see Bartholomew et al., Chapter 8, this volume). The literature seems to indicate that plants well supplied with nutrients at the time of induction are likely to have...

Postplant sidedressings and foliar fertilizers

Side-dressings or foliar fertilizers are used where nutrients in the soil are not sufficient to meet the plant's nutrient requirements. Fertilizer may be applied as a dry side-dressing to the soil, often close to the base of the plant or, in some cases, in the lower leaf axils of mature plants. Care must always be taken to avoid plant damage due to exposure to high osmotic concentrations from dissolving nutrients. The basal white tissue of young and expanding leaves is particularly sensitive to...

Fruit Physiology

The half-yellow stage is regarded as ripe and is near the maximum fruit weight if still on the plant (Wardlaw, 1937). Fruit development (Fig. 10.1A) and composition changes (Fig. 10.1B) during growth have been reviewed (Gortner et al, 1967 Bartholomew and Paull, 1986 Py et al, 1987 Paull, 1993). The most marked changes in flesh composition occur in the 3-7 weeks prior to the half-yellow shell-colour stage (Dull et al, 1967 Dull, 1971 Tay, 1977 Teisson and Pineau, 1982 Chen and Paull, 1995)....

Main characteristics of vegetative plant growth

Leaf Pineapple

Pineapple is grown from a variety of propag-ules (see Hepton, Chapter 6, this volume) but all develop in a similar manner. If conditions for growth are favourable after planting, root initiation begins, followed by the appearance of new leaves. Between planting and inflorescence initiation, growth occurs in the root, stem and leaf meristems. Pineapple varieties that have strong apical dominance, such as 'Smooth Cayenne', generally do not produce shoots from stem axillary buds prior to flower...

Planting density

Many factors are involved in the determination of planting density and, as a result, densities may vary from as low as 29,000 plants ha-1 (12,000 plants acre-1) to as high as 86,000 plants ha-1 (35,000 plants acre-1). Both environment, especially solar radiation, and nutrition influence plant growth and the competition between plants for available resources. Marketing is an important consideration for the grower, because plant growth rates and plant size at the time of forcing influence fruit...

Plant indices of major mineral deficiencies

Nitrogen is required by pineapple in greater amounts than any other nutrient except potassium. Providing adequate supplies of N to rapidly growing plants is essential to maintain high rates of growth and produce good yields. Both leaf size and number may decrease when nitrogen is deficient and fruit and crown mass are consequently reduced. Slips may be absent on plants that normally produce them. Plant indices for nitrogen include leaf colour and nitrate-nitrogen in leaf basal white tissue,...

Treatment of previous crop residues

Because of its leaf morphology and succulence, pineapple plants are slow to desiccate, Fig. 6.4. Rock picker used in northern Queensland, Australia, to remove large rocks from pineapple fields prior to planting (photo of Duane Bartholomew). Fig. 6.4. Rock picker used in northern Queensland, Australia, to remove large rocks from pineapple fields prior to planting (photo of Duane Bartholomew). Fig. 6.5. A, Large mouldboard plough used in Hawaii to incorporate dried plant trash B, four-wheel-drive...

Nutrient absorption and growth

Pineapple plant nitrogen and potassium requirements are low until about 4 months after planting (Lacoeuilhe, 1978 Ingamells, 1981), after which requirements increase with growth until flower induction. In an experiment where 8 g of N and 20 g of K2O were provided for each plant prior to forcing, at the time of forcing at 10 months after planting plants of 375 g dry mass contained 5 g N and 11 g K (Lacoeuilhe, 1978). Plant nitrogen content remained constant during the period from forcing until...

Effects of environment on vegetative growth

Pineapple Leaves Microscope

The plant growth rate of pineapple is strongly influenced by temperature but few studies have been made in controlled environments and the results from field studies can be difficult to interpret. Leaf and root elongation rates measured in controlled environments over a range of temperatures (Sanford, 1962) generally show good correspondence with the results of later studies. The optimum temperature for leaf growth was 29 C and that for roots was 32 C (Sanford, 1962). Growth of...

Determination of water requirements and plant moisture status

While the pineapple plant is a xerophyte and is capable of good crop production under relatively low water regimes, the plant responds well to as much as 5 cm (2 in.) of water per month from rain or irrigation (Fig. 6.16). Maintaining readily available soil moisture in the immediate root zone requires less water for pineapple than for other crops that have much higher transpiration rates. The entire pineapple plant adapts to drought and thereby maintains a productive potential in dry soil....

Fungal and bacterial heart rots

The Vegetation Heart Causes

Fungal heart rots 'top rot' in Australia , as well as root rot of pineapple, are diseases associated with wet environmental conditions. P. cinnamomi Rands requires cool conditions and heavy, wet, high-pH soils. Heart-rot mortality can range from 0 to 100 , depending on the soil type, pH and rainfall. The economic impact of heart rot results from a reduction in plant densities due to plant mortality. However, adjacent plant mortality is partially compensated for by increased exposure of the...

In vitro germplasm conservation

Advancements in breeding and genetic engineering require that the genetic diversity of pineapples and their close relatives not only be preserved but be put to use for pineapple improvement. While tissue culture techniques offer the opportunity for rapid propagation, they also offer the convenience of medium-and long-term storage of germplasm and facilitate its safe distribution. Lower temperatures 16-20 C, as opposed to 25-28 C for normal micropropagation have been used successfully to extend...

Morphological anatomical and physiological features and adaptations to environmental conditions

Bartholomew And Malezieux

Leaves are arranged spirally around the stem in a dense rosette pattern see Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge and Leal, Chapter 2, this volume . This shape and orientation channel light rains and dew to the base of the plant, making a significant contribution to the water economy of the plant Ekern, 1965, 1968 . Large trichomes completely cover both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces Fig. 5.7 , and a highly cutinized upper epidermis and a multicelled hypodermis are two significant morphological and...

Conclusions

Comprehensive information on the nutrient requirements of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple exists, but the same quality and quantity of information are not available for most other varieties of pineapple. The ideal soil and tissue nutrient levels have been developed for this variety and in many areas they are used to guide the application of fertilizers, especially where intensive farming practices are used. Such practices represent the ideal situation, as they allow for the maintenance of optimum...

References Of Pineapple Growing

Aldrich, W.W. and Nakasone, H.Y. 1975 Day versus night application of calcium carbide for flower induction in pineapple. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 100, 410-413. Aziz, T., Yuen, J.E. and Habte, M. 1990 Response of pineapple to mycorrhizal inoculation and fosetyl-Al treatment. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 21, 19-20. Balakrishnan, S., Aravindakshan, M. and Nair, N.K. 1978 Efficacy of certain growth regulators in inducing flowering in pineapple...

Crop residue

Significant vegetative residue remains at the end of the pineapple cycle and the amount Table 7.5. Amounts of nutrients removed by crowns, fruits and suckers data from Martin-Prevel, 1961a,b,c,d Martin-Prevel et al., 1961 Py et al, 1987 . Table 7.5. Amounts of nutrients removed by crowns, fruits and suckers data from Martin-Prevel, 1961a,b,c,d Martin-Prevel et al., 1961 Py et al, 1987 . C te d'Ivoire, 5.5 plants m-2. Martinique, 5.5 plants m-2. 3.8 plants m-2. C te d'Ivoire, 5.5 plants m-2....

Magnesium Mg zinc Zn boron B and other micronutrients

Deficiencies of Mg, Zn and B may occur, but are not commonly encountered. Broadcast magnesite, dolomite or sulpomag also called K-Mag at 100-500 kg ha-1 100-500 lb acre-1 of Mg provide an excellent long-term correction for soils deficient in Mg. For the immediate correction of Mg deficiency in pineapple, a series of foliar applications of magnesium sulphate Epsom salts are applied in combination with other sulphates, such as Fe or Zn. Cumulative amounts from repeated foliar sprays may range...

Transportation of Harvested Fruit

Movement of pineapple from the field to its ultimate destination requires an understanding of the physiology of the fruit after harvest. If the travel time is short, as in the case Fig. 6.20. Hand-harvested pineapples being loaded on a truck for transport to the processing plant in Johor Baru, Malaysia. Fig. 6.20. Hand-harvested pineapples being loaded on a truck for transport to the processing plant in Johor Baru, Malaysia. Fig. 6.21. Bin-mounted 'parasitic' harvester that moves with the truck...

Management of heart rots

Prior to the development of modern fungicides, any method of improving soil drainage was used to reduce disease. Raised beds, ranging from a few centimetres to 25 cm or more, have been used. Improvements in surface drainage, whereby depressions are drained by cutting of ditches or filling to eliminate standing water, have reduced disease levels Pegg, 1969 . Cultural practices such as pineapple-trash mulch have generally, but not always, increased disease incidence. The addition of elemental...

Assessment of nutritional requirements

Pineapple responses to nutrient management are dramatically affected by the condition of the soil and the health of the developing root system. Pathogens, nematodes, waterlogging and impermeable soil easily inhibit the crop from assimilating nutrients and responding to fertilizers. Indeed, several symptoms due to stress in pineapple are easily misinterpreted as nutritional deficiencies. When optimum growing conditions prevail, particularly for the roots, significant economical responses can be...

Soil amendments and fertilizers

Soil amendments, such as lime and organic matter, influence plant growth indirectly by improving the physical or chemical condition of the soil, though amendments gener ally also provide plant nutrients. Composted animal manures provide organic matter and improve soil structure, while supplying plant nutrients. Lime adjusts soil pH, as well as supplying calcium, and, if from dolomite, it also supplies magnesium. Pineapple root development can vary dramatically among locations, so a...

Management of pests and diseases on seed material

Pineapple Pests

Pest- and disease-free seed materials are critical to preventing the establishment of insects and pathogens in newly planted pineapple fields. The presence of mealybugs, scales and mites, as well as Fusarium-infected seed materials, must be monitored at the seed source before transport for planting, in order to implement effective controls. The pineapple red mite D. floridanus will only become a problem on stored seed under dry conditions. Mealybugs, scales and the red mite can be controlled by...

Diagnostic monitoring of plant health and nutrient status

Cameco Boom Spraying

The crop log, which involved an assessment of plant growth combined with tissue analysis, was a major component of managing plant nutrition on major pineapple plantations. This information, described in more detail by Malezieux and Bartholomew Chapter 7, this volume can still be of value in managing the finer details of plant Fig. 6.17. A, Tractor-mounted sprayer with tank trailer on a farm in South Africa photo courtesy Graham Petty B, self-propelled boom sprayer with rear-mounted tank photo...

Predicting Fruit Development and Yield

It is possible to predict the rate of plant growth, fruit development and yield in relation to environmental factors and cultural practices by simulating plant development leaf appearance and fruit phenology , carbon assimilation and allocation to various plant parts using integrated modelling techniques. ALOHA-Pineapple Zhang and Bartholomew, 1993 Zhang et al., 1997 is a pineapple crop model that simulates pineapple growth, development and yield on a daily time-step basis in different...

Chemically induced flowering

In the early 1700s, fumes from fires used to heat pineapple houses were observed to force the induction of flowering and this finding led to the commercial use of smoke for this purpose. The active ingredient in smoke was shown to be ethylene Rodriquez, 1932 and later work Kerns, 1936 showed that acetylene also forced flower induction. This finding prompted the use of carbide as a source of acetylene, a method still widely used on small farms. A pea-sized amount of calcium carbide is dropped...

Quality criteria

A definition of pineapple fruit quality often refers to the sum of those characteristics of a fruit that make it most palatable and therefore desirable to consumers Singleton, 1955 Paull, 1993 . However, this definition does not allow us to measure such a quality standard the standard varies with consumer tastes and with ethnicity and may be related to price paid. If multiple fruit-quality criteria Table 10.2 were measured, the difficulty is how to sum the criteria and what normal range of...

Integrated Pest Management

Environmental and food-safety concerns have focused attention on IPM. The concept of IPM is to employ several techniques simultaneously to solve specific pest and disease problems for the long term rather than in the short term. Success relies on an in-depth understanding of the pineapple production system and the ecology and biology of each pest or disease and associated organisms e.g. vectors, natural enemies . Emphasis must be placed on the importance of each pest or disease from an...

Fruit size and quality

Fruit size can be controlled by a number of agronomic methods see Hepton, Chapter 6, this volume . Fruit size is set by plant size at forcing, as plant size influences the number Fig. 10.2. Variation in sugar and acid percentage of mature fruit harvested at different times of the year from Sideris and Krauss, 1934 . Fig. 10.2. Variation in sugar and acid percentage of mature fruit harvested at different times of the year from Sideris and Krauss, 1934 . Fig. 10.3. The percentage of tasters who...

Plant population density and plant size

Effect of plant population density on average fruit size and yield The effects of planting density, and thus of competition for light, on average fruit weight and yield have been demonstrated many times Bartholomew and Paull, 1986 Py et al., 1987 and have been reconfirmed by recent studies E. Malezieux, 1992, unpublished results Scott, 1992 Zhang, 1992 Christensen, 1994 . Virtually all studies show that average fruit weight decreases approximately linearly with increasing planting density...

Inflorescence and fruit

Inflorescence Pineapple Fruit

The peduncle and inflorescence develop from the apical meristem, the diameter of which is suddenly increased until the initiation of the peduncle Kerns et al., 1936 . The stage of inflorescence emergence is called 'red heart' because of the five to seven reddish peduncle bracts at its base. These bracts Fig. 2.3. 1. Diagram of a transverse section of a 'Smooth Cayenne' leaf showing a.c., aerating canal f.s., fibre strand e, epidermis v.b., vascular bundle m, mesophyll ws.t., water-storage...

Carbon fixation via the CAM photosynthetic pathway

Photosynthesis Pineapple

Three main types of photosynthetic pathway exist in higher plants. In the C3 type, the most widely distributed, CO2 fixation catalysed by the enzyme ribulosebisphos-phate carboxylase oxygenase Rubisco results in the synthesis of a three-carbon acid. In C4 plants - for crops, mainly Graminaceae of tropical origin - CO2 is initially fixed by the enzyme phospho-enolpyruvate carboxylase PEP-Case into a four-carbon acid in leaf mesophyll cells. The four-carbon acid is then transported to adjacent...

Plant Nutritional Status

Nutrient Deficiency Pineapple

The nutritional status of the pineapple plant has a large influence on plant growth and, consequently, on yield and fruit quality. For pineapple, plant indicators that reflect plant nutritional status have been identified and, in conjunction with soil analysis, can be used to manage fertilization of the pineapple crop. The alternative to the use of plant indicators and soil analysis is the use of calibrated fertilizer trials in each area where the crop is grown. This practice is more common...

Plant nutrient sources and method of application by element

Broadcast applications of organic compost or manure may preclude the need for additional preplant N, but usually not for postplant N. Where preplant responses are certain, N can be banded in the soil as ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate, potassium nitrate, urea or urea-ammonium nitrate at 25-100 kg ha-1 25-100 lb acre-1 of N as the element. Side-dressings of ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate are effective, but prohibitively expensive in large operations. Repeated foliar applications...

What Pest And Weeds Interfere With Pineapples Growth

Weed management in pineapple is especially important during early growth, because weeds compete for water, nutrients and light, are hosts for pineapple pests and viruses and interfere with production operations. Weed management includes soil tillage, mulches, and the use of pre-emergence applied prior to weed-seed germination and post-emergence herbicides Fig. 9.14 Kasasian, 1971 Glennie, 1991 . The efficiency of the pineapple weed-management system is affected by plant density, the degree of...

Lepidopterous stem and fruit pests

The bud moth also known as pineapple borer, pineapple caterpillar , Thecla basilides Geyer , is found throughout Central and South America wherever pineapples are grown Py et al, 1987 Sanches, 1999 . While Thecla is a tropical species, it could cause Fig. 9.24. Fruit showing multiple Thecla basilides infestations and resulting gummosis. inflorescence without the bud-moth larva, but the bud moth makes it easier to do so. Adult bud moths may help disperse the pathogen when visiting healthy plants...