Sophora Fabaceae

Luteolin Derivatives

Sophora, a leguminous genus of perhaps 45 species (Mabberley, 1997, p. 671), offers a number of very interesting distributional problems. Members of sect. Edwardsia Table 6.4 Flavonoid profiles of Peperomia berteroana from the Juan Fernandez Islands and Inaccessible Island (from Valdebenito et al., 1992b) Table 6.4 Flavonoid profiles of Peperomia berteroana from the Juan Fernandez Islands and Inaccessible Island (from Valdebenito et al., 1992b) a Compounds 1-7 acacetin, acacetin sulfate,...

Bidens Asteraceae

As we have seen often in this review, the study of secondary metabolites does not usually allow definitive statements to be made about the origin of an island endemic such information can nonetheless be useful in suggesting possible relationships, as well as helping to establish the uniformity, or otherwise, of the taxa in question. Much the same situation exists for the examples in this section. Two studies of secondary metabolites in the Hawaiian species of Bidens have been described, one...

Pinus uncinata Pinaceae

Pinus uncinata Ram. occurs discontinuously from the north of Spain to western Switzerland, including populations in the Jura, the Vosges, and the Massif Central. Although the taxonomy of this species is evidently open to some discussion, Lauranson and Lebreton (1991) chose to set differences of opinion aside in their study of the flavonoid profiles of this pine. (References to the taxonomic literature can be found in their paper.) For their flavonoid analysis, twigs were collected from at least...

The Galapagos Islands

From an evolutionary perspective, the Galap gos Islands are likely the most historically famous archipelago on the face of the Earth. As every student of biology knows, it was on the Galapagos that Darwin is thought to have perceived the full force of evolution at work. Some think that this may be an oversimplification of the history of the subject, as has been masterfully discussed by Quammen (1996) in his The Song of the Dodo. Nonetheless, examples of divergence on these islands have...

Western Pacific Eastern Asia Japan and the Philippines 451 Euchresta Fabaceae

Euchresta is a genus of legumes consisting of five species native to the Southeastern Asian mainland, Japan, the Philippine Islands, and parts of Indonesia. It has been the subject of morphological and pollen studies as well as an examination of its flavonoid chemistry, which is what concerns us here (Matsuura et al., 1994). These workers undertook the chemical study in an effort to resolve the issue of relationships in the face of differing views based on the published studies of Ohashi and...

Portieria hornemanii Rhodophyllidaceae

Widely distributed in the Pacific, Portieria hornemanii (Lyngbye) Silva (synonyms Chondrococcus hornemannii, Desmia hornemanii) has provided natural-product chemists with another interesting assortment of secondary metabolites, including more additions to the list of halogenated terpenes. Studies by Gunatilaka et al. (1999) revealed structures of two compounds from plants collected from a variety of reef sites on Guam and the Mariana Islands. Characteristic of the chemistry of this species are...

Rhodiola crenulata Crassulaceae

F. et Thomas) S. H. Fu occurs in southwestern China (Yunnan and Sichuan provinces) and in the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Y. Li et al. (2004) examined rhizomes of plants from these areas for their essential oils. Material from the two areas (Yunnan and Sichuan taken as one source area) shared a suite of ten compounds but differed in the relative amounts of certain individual components. The most striking differences were recorded for n-octanol (eight-carbon straight...

Adelanthus decipiens Adelanthaceae

Adelanthus decipiens (Hook.) Mitt. is another liverwort that exists in widely separated locales, in this instance, northern Europe and the Southern Hemisphere (Asakawa and Inoue, 1987). It reaches its northern limit in western Great Britain. Rycroft et al. (1998) studied the chloroform-soluble components of three specimens collected from different sites in Scotland and herbarium specimens representing sites in Wales, Ireland, Colombia, and Ecuador. The procedure employed by these workers...

Thalictrum minus Ranunculaceae

This example demonstrates how widely chemical profiles can differ between two populations separated by only a matter of kilometers in this case, populations of halictrum minus L. in the Vojvodina area of Serbia (Popovic et al., 1992) (Fig. 2.20). Plants collected at 500 m in the Fruska Gora Mountains (Novi Sad) afforded a comparatively complex mixture of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids that consisted of Fig. 2.20 Map of the area around Vojvodina, Serbia Fig. 2.20 Map of the area around Vojvodina,...

Leptospermum scoparium Myrtaceae

Forst, known by the Maori name manuka, occurs widely throughout New Zealand. Owing to the potential of manuka as an oil-producing species, Perry et al. (1997a) investigated the steam-volatile components of specimens representing much of its range in New Zealand as well as specimens grown in a common garden. Gas chromatographic analysis of the distillates from 15 sites showed some 50 or so peaks that represented three groups of compounds, monoterpenes,...

Humulus lupulus Cannabaceae

The resins derived from female flowers of Humulus lupulus L., known commonly as hops, provide the bitter and aromatic components so essential for the brewing of beer. According to Mabberley (1997), the genus consists of two species, H. lupulus of northern temperate regions and H. japonicus Sieb. & Zucc. of temperate eastern Asia. Owing to intense selection for flavor and yield characteristics, many cultivated varieties of H. lupulus have been developed. Although there is opinion to the...

Pteridium aquilinum sens lat Pteridaceae

The toxic properties of Pteridium aquilinum L., the common bracken fern, have been known to humankind for a very long time. Two principal causes of trouble are its carcinogenic properties (M. Saito et al., 1975 I. A. Evans, 1976 Hirono, 1986) and, unrelated, the presence of a potent thiaminase I, which is the causative agent in neuropathies observed in stock animals that have eaten bracken (W. C. Evans, 1986 Fenwick, 1988). A large literature has accumulated on the subject of the carcinogenic...

Aloe Asphodelaceae

Aloe is a genus of respectable size, with some 365 species distributed widely in Africa, Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Canary Islands (Mabberley, 1997, p. 26). The taxa of special interest here are the shrubby species native to East Africa. Cutler et al. (1980) undertook a multidisciplinary study of the group with an interest in, among other things, the nature of the cuticular patterns on the epidermis of mature leaves. This feature offers a useful means of identifying most...

Conocephalum conicum Conocephalaceae

The first indication that Conocephalum conicum L. Dum., a thallous liverwort widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, consisted of geographically separated chemical races came from study of two widely separated collections by Markham et al. 1976 . Plant material from Germany Saarland and the United States Washington State exhibited not only several flavonoid derivatives in common but also compounds unique to each site. The arrays of compounds held in common were identified as O-glycosides...

Across the Indian Ocean Primarily 421 Hymenaea verrucosa Fabaceae

Oliv. occurs along the coast of eastern Africa Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique and on the Islands of Madagascar, Mauritius, the Seychelles, and Zanzibar Fig. 4.6 . S. S. Martin et al. 1973 examined populations from Kenya and Madagascar for their leaf-pocket resins and identified the following sesquiterpenes a-cubebene, a-copaene, copacamphene, caryophyllene, P-humulene, y-muurolene, a- and P-selinenes, and 8-cadinene. Profiles from the two areas were qualitatively...

Gunnera Gunneraceae

Gunnera L., the sole genus of Gunneraceae at one time considered part of Haloragidaceae , consists of perhaps 40 species Mabberley, 1997, p. 319 . Members of Gunnera occur mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, with representatives known from the Hawaiian Islands and as far north as southern Mexico. Perhaps the most well-known member of the genus is G. chilensis Lam., which is often found as a decorative plant owing to its spectacularly large leaves. We are concerned in this chapter with three...

Pinus Pinaceae

Pinus is well represented in the North American flora with several species having been thoroughly studied with respect to terpenoid composition. A few selected examples will demonstrate the usefulness of these compounds in studying relationships and migrational history of members of this moderately large genus. Examples to be discussed range from commercially important species such as P. contorta, lodgepole pine , P. monticola western white pine , and P. ponderosa ponderosa pine to the...

Cyanogenesis in Clover Trifolium Fabaceae

The study of cyanogenesis in European clover involves both latitudinal and eleva-tional transects and represents one of the most frequently cited examples of pattern variation in the production of a secondary metabolite by a flowering plant. We can introduce this example with an interesting tale, related by Briggs and Walters 1997 , involving the discovery of cyanogenic glycosides in species of Lotus that were toxic to transport animals used by British forces in the Sudan campaign at the end of...

North Pacific

Few disjunctions have attracted more attention than those involving taxa whose ranges are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America or between eastern Asia, western North America, and eastern North America. A substantial literature has accumulated on this subject, including the historically important work of Asa Gray 1846, 1859, 1878 , a large number of descriptive works e.g., Hu, 1935 Li, 1952, 1972 Wolfe and Leopold, 1967 Graham, 1972a, b Hara, 1972 Wolfe, 1975 Hsu, 1983 Hong,...

Lasthenia Asteraceae

Lasthenia Cass. is mostly a Californian genus of about 17 species the single species that occurs in Chile will be dealt with in the section on north-south disjuncts below. An examination of flavonoid pigments of all members of the genus Bohm et al., 1974 had shown that sections, defined on the basis of morphology, cytology, and breeding behavior Ornduff, 1966 , could also be distinguished on the basis of the presence or absence of a variety of flavonoids Bohm et al., 1974 . For example,...

Silene latifolia alba pratensis Caryophyllaceae

This discussion features an analysis of the flavonoid genetics of Silene latifolia and how those data, among others, provide insights into the development of agriculture in Europe. Before looking at the flavonoid chemistry of the group, it is necessary to deal with some nomenclatural matters. In the earlier literature, this taxon was referred to as Melandrium album. Referral to Silene required the taxon to be named S. pratensis Rafn. Godron and Gren., since S. alba Miller E. H. L. Krause had...

Todaroa aurea Apiaceae

Methyleugenol

Todaroa is a small genus endemic to the Canary Islands. According to Gonz lez et al. 1988 , who were interested in secondary metabolites of the genus, T. aurea Parl. was regarded tentatively as a single species endemic to the four westernmost islands of the archipelago. Chemical analysis of specimens collected on two islands, Fig. 6.16 Compounds 566-573, phenolic compounds from Todaroa aurea Fig. 6.16 Compounds 566-573, phenolic compounds from Todaroa aurea Tenerife and La Palma, revealed the...