Maryse A Block Eric Marchal and Jacques Joyard

Summary 195

I. Introduction 196

II. Lipid Composition of Chloroplast Membranes 197

III. Biosynthesis of Chloroplast Glycerolipids 200

IV. Chlorophyll Biosynthesis 208

V. Plastid Prenylquinone Biosynthesis 209

VI. Transport of Lipids From ER to Chloroplasts and Between Chloroplast Membranes 210

VII. Lipid Modifications of Proteins in Chloroplasts 211

VIII. Conclusion 213 Acknowledgment 214 References 214

12 Pigment Assembly—Transport and Ligation 219-233

Harald Paulsen

Summary 219

I. Introduction 220

II. Assembly of Chlorophyll a/b-Protein Complexes 220

III. Assembly of Chlorophyll a-Protein Complexes 222

IV. How are Pigments Synthesized and Transported? 223

V. How Do Pigments Find Their Correct Binding Site? 225

VI. Are Pigments Involved in the Assembly of Multi-protein Complexes of the Photosynthetic Apparatus? 228

Acknowledgments 230

References 230

13 Chlorophyll Biosynthesis—Metabolism and Strategies of

Higher Plants to Avoid Photooxidative Stress 235-252

Klaus Apel

Summary 235

I. Introduction 236

II. Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis and Photooxidative Stress 236

III. Regulatory Steps in Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis 239

IV. Tetrapyrrole Derivatives as Plastid Signals 247

V. Outlook 249 Acknowledgments 249 References 249

14 Transport of Metals: A Key Process in Oxygenic Photosynthesis 253-264

Himadri Pakrasi, Teruo Ogawa and Maitrayee Bhattacharrya-Pakrasi

Summary 253

I. Introduction 254

II. Different Classes of Transporters 254

III. Iron 257

IV. Copper 258

V. Manganese 259

VI. Zinc 260

VII. Magnesium 261

VIII. Concluding Remarks 262 Acknowledgments 262 References 262

15 Chloroplast Proteases and Their Role in Photosynthesis

Regulation 265-276

Zach Adam

Summary 265

I. Introduction 266

II. Substrates for Proteolysis 266

III. Proteolytic Enzymes 268

IV. Conclusions and Future Prospects 271 Acknowledgments 273 References 273

16 Senescence and Cell Death in Plant Development: Chloroplast Senescence and its Regulation 277-296

Philippe Matile

Summary 277

I. Introduction 278

II. Leaf Senescence 278

III. Biochemistry of Breakdown in Senescing Chloroplasts 281

IV. Programmed Cell Death 287

V. Outlook 290 References 291

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