Invertebrate rhodopsins

Joachim Bentrop and Reinhard Paulsen

Table of contents

Abstract 41

2.1 Introduction 41

2.2 Molecular evolution of invertebrate rhodopsins 43

2.3 Key motifs of invertebrate rhodopsins 47

2.3.1 Positionally conserved domains 47

2.3.2 The chromophore binding site 49

2.3.3 Three-dimensional structure 50

2.3.4 Post-translational modification: palmitoylation, glycosylation and phosphorylation 51

2.4 Spectral characteristics of invertebrate rhodopsins 54

2.4.1 Spectral absorption of rhodopsins, and formation of photointermediates 54

2.4.2 Spectral tuning of rhodopsin and metarhodopsin 56

2.5 Signalling pathways coupling to activated invertebrate rhodopsins . . 59

2.5.1 Activation of phototransduction 59

2.5.2 Termination of phototransduction 63

Acknowledgements 65

References 65

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