How To Start A Pest Control Business
With the push for producers to achieve organic status, the use of predators and parasites to control pests is an attractive management option. However, despite the existence of many beneficial insects attacking all stages of the pests in tea tree they are a relatively ineffective form of pest control and cannot be relied upon. The main problem is the lag in the development of the pests and the beneficial species. Beneficial insects usually become effective towards the end of a cycle of pest activity. They are at their greatest abundance after most of the damage has occurred. Current management practises on plantations do not allow for refugia in which beneficial insects can shelter or over-winter. The development of beneficial insect populations recommences each season within the plantation and depends on migration. The parasites and predators found are generalists and attack most pests found within tea tree. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CHEMICAL USAGE FOR PEST CONTROL
The responsibility of those who manage biological risk in these systems is to devise economically- and ecologically-viable means of dealing with these features. All of these can at least be partly managed through the deployment of a diversity of genetically-based resistance mechanisms. A key factor is to not deploy a single, strong, uni-directional selective pressure ( resistance mechanism) that can through selection move pest populations towards biotype evolution. This will hold equally true for resistance mechanisms derived through breeding and selection for natural traits (Carson and Carson 1991 Gould 199la van Emdem 1991), as well as for resistance traits acquired through genetic engineering (Gould 1998 Robison et al. 1994), as has been found for pesticide use (Mallet 1989 Metcalf 1994). These needs must be managed within the context of multiple pests (Gadoury 1994 Mattson et al. 1988 Robison and Raffa 1998), and tree productivity, for practical purposes, cannot be sacrificed....
Substances toxic for animals are, in many cases, also toxic for humans. In crop plants, toxic or inedible secondary metabolites have been eliminated or at least decreased by breeding. This is why cultivated plants usually are more sensitive to pests than wild plants, thus necessitating the use of external pest control, which is predominantly achieved by the use of chemicals. Attempts to breed more resistant crop plants by crossing them with wild plants, however, may lead to problems, e.g., a newly introduced variety of insect-resistant potato had to be taken off the market because the highly toxic solanine content (an alkaloid, see following section) made these potatoes unsuitable for human consumption. In a new variety of insect-resistant celery cultivated in the United States, the 10-fold increase in the content of psoralines (section 18.2) caused severe skin damage to people harvesting the plants. This illustrates that natural pest control is not without risk.
Past experience with pest control has shown that there is not likely to be one simple, permanent cure for these persistent pests. Combining or pyramiding different resistance types is likely to be of value. Importantly, continued studies on the biology of PPNs and their complex interactions will be necessary, but these are fascinating creatures and in many ways it is an exciting adventure.
Production of high-quality seedlings requires close attention to all phases of nursery management. These include preparation of nursery beds, soil management, planting procedures, control of seedling density, use of fertilizers, irrigation, and pest control. Sometimes they also may include root pruning and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi (Chapter 7). For discussion of nursery practices, see Chapter 7 and books by Duryea and Brown (1984), Duryea and Landis (1984), Duryea and Dougherty (1991), and van den Driessche (1991a,b).
Studies on nematode control in natural ecosystems, and particularly top-down control, still depend more than would be desirable on the tentative interpretation of available ecological theory, namely that of insect control. Much data is still being gathered through population dynamics studies done through intensive sampling and conventional identification and enumeration of individual groups, and through mesocosm or pot experiments with the addition or subtraction of soil biota through physical techniques. Where molecular studies have been applied, the results have surprised us. Some aspects of soil ecology can only be understood through the investigation of genotypes, phenotypes and of their plasticity in response to biotic and abiotic factors.
In these demonstrations, scientists helped the farmers in imposing the nutrient management options at the time of soybean sowing and then stepped back to allow the farmers to take up other pest and weed management practices as per their schedule. Very interesting results were obtained across the 100 fields. About 50 of the farmers managed their fields well and obtained 2.5-3.7 t ha-1 soybean yield with BF and INM and about 1.02.5 t ha-1 with farmers' practice. The rest of the farmers could not conduct timely weed and pest control measures and achieved only 1.0-2.0 t ha-1
Organic farming is an approach to sustainable agriculture aiming to create an integrated, ecofriendly and economically sustainable production system. This integrated system includes the protection of soil fertility through the application of organic matter and fostering the soil biological activity. Nutrients are applied through relatively insoluble nutrient sources (organics), maintenance of the nitrogen source through the raising of leguminous crops, recycling organic residues, and disease and insect pest control through crop rotation, use of natural predators, biopesticides, and resistant varieties as well as by maintaining diversity in crop plants.
Carroll G (1995) Forest endophytes pattern and process. Can J Bot 73 S1316-S1324 Carvajal JA, Rodriguez-Kabana R (1998) Alginate films for assessment of parasitism of Meloidogyne incognita eggs in soils treated with organic amendments. Nematropica 28 41-48 Charnley AK (1997) Entomopathogenic fungi and their role in pest control. In Esser K, Lemke
If the use of host genetics in forest pest management was easily achieved it would probably be more widely used. Research in the use of host genetics to disrupt pest populations has traditionally proceeded through selection and breeding programs. More recently, biotechnology has begun to play an increasingly important role combining the two approaches into a single program (Hart et al. 1992). Genetically modified (GM) trees have the potential to substantially increase wood production in the U.S. (Pullman et al. 1998). From a pest management perspective, genetically engineering toxic genes into trees seems to be an excellent means of pest control. However, changes created by genetic engineering are very different than those brought on by natural evolution or traditional tree breeding and selection. This tactic introduces organisms into the environment that would not otherwise exist there, providing a potential risk to native flora and fauna. Yet, if properly managed, GM trees have the...
Modern agricultural systems have been developed with two related goals in mind to obtain the highest yields possible and to get the highest economic profit possible. In pursuit of these goals, six basic practices have come to form the backbone of production intensive tillage, monoculture, application of inorganic fertilizer, irrigation, chemical pest control, and genetic manipulation of crop plants. Each practice is used for its individual contribution to productivity, but when they are all combined in a farming system each depends on the others and reinforces the need for using the others. The work of agronomists, specialists in agricultural production, has been key to the development of these practices. Chemical Pest Control. In the large monoculture fields of much of modern agriculture, pests include such organisms as insects that eat plants, weeds that interfere with crop growth, and diseases that slow plant and animal development or even cause death. When used properly, synthetic...
Several plant species respond to herbivory by producing leaves with increased density and number of trichomes. The apparent benefit of this response is to reduce further damage by making it more difficult for insects to feed on the leaves. However, the magnitude of induced trichome production may vary with habitat conditions, and increased trichome density may affect predators and parasitoids negatively, which could reduce the effect on leaf damage. Moreover, trichome production may also affect tolerance to drought and other forms of abiotic stress. Taken together, this suggests that an analysis of the adaptive significance of induced trichome production requires a multidimensional view of the realized fitness (see also chapter by Steppuhn and Baldwin this volume). The effects of induced trichome production on interactions with herbivores should not be examined in isolation, but has to be considered in the context of effects on tritrophic interactions, and the extent to which fitness...
Growth and survival of outplanted seedlings are affected by nursery practices. Production of high-quality seedlings requires close attention to all phases of nursery management, including preparation of nursery beds, soil management, planting procedures, use of fertilizers, irrigation, root pruning, inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi, and pest control. Seedling quality also is influenced by time of lifting, duration of cold storage of seedlings, storage temperature and humidity, as well as handling of seedlings during lifting and planting.
Ionizing radiation with a dosage of lOkGy has been shown to destroy both microorganisms and insects. A dosage of 7.5 kGy has been shown to be sufficient for eliminating fungal populations, and oleoresin yields have increased from 24.45 to 31.61 by irradiation due to the enhanced extractibility (Onyenkwe and Ogbade, 1995).
A number of studies have been undertaken into the bioactive properties of the volatile oil from A. dracunculus (Tan et al., 1998). In two studies into insect responses to the volatile oil and its constituents, Papilio spp. evoked different reactions to the oil (Baur and Feeny, 1995 Thompson et al., 1990). Using GC coupled electroantennograms, they were able to demonstrate which components from the oil were active in determining oviposition preference and larval performance, areas where plant extracts could be used in insect control. In a further study, the attractiveness or repulsiveness of A. dracunculus volatile oil towards insects infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus allowed not only those infected to be distinguished from those uninfected, but to identify individuals with varying degrees of virus replication (Alekseev et al., 1991).
In the mid 1980s the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (RBG Kew), changed their pest control strategy from one that was based on the use of broad-spectrum pesticides to a more Integrated Pest Management strategy that included beneficial organisms such as parasitoids, predators and nematodes. As part of this strategy a survey was undertaken of the different types of pests in the high diversity glasshouses at RBG Kew. This survey included monitoring the pests feeding on the aloe collections in the dry zones of one of the main glasshouses at RBG Kew, the Princess of Wales Conservatory, and in some of the research glasshouses.
As for cultural practices, the sowing method and field management have changed towards more intensive farming. Levels of mechanized farming increase year by year machines are extensively used in sowing and harvesting and the yield of soybean has been improved. Model cultural techniques are studied and practised in various soybean-cultivating regions. For instance, the 'ridge three' cultural technique is practised in the northeast region, in which, under the conditions of mechanized farming, the three basic measures - deep loosening, layer by layer fertilizing and precision sowing - are adopted in combination with chemical weeding and disease and insect pest control. This has increased the soybean yield by 15-20 . Dwarf varieties and close planting have also resulted in yield increases of 15 .
The ecosystem goods and services associated with forests have been reviewed by, amongst others, Landell-Mills and Porras (2002), Scherr et al, (2004), the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005), Wunder (2005) and earlier chapters in this book. A comprehensive list (e.g. Daisy, 1997, in Scherr et al, 2004 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005) would include the role of forests in carbon, hydrological and nutrient cycles in local climate regimes in sustaining soil and catchment values in sustaining biodiversity and related functions such as pollination services and pest control and in the beauty of landscapes or other cultural values (Chapter 2).
Moving to a plantation based industry has focused attention on the monitoring and control of insects damaging foliage. With further investigation and collecting under differing seasonal conditions, the number of pest species associated with tea tree will increase. Some currently recognised pests (e.g. Paropsisterna tigrina (Chapuis) commonly called Pyrgo beetle) may become less significant with improved pest control measures and monitoring strategies. Other invertebrate groups (e.g. mites and psyllids) may increase in significance, once their true impacts on oil yield are known. This chapter contains basic information on the pests of tea tree in Australia based on the limited available knowledge. The pests vary seasonally, annually, and from plantation to plantation. The response of the NSW growers to a survey on pests and industry issues is summarised. Some producers have a poor knowledge of the pests and their control options. This poor knowledge base when combined with the...
A very different view of insect-plant interaction focuses on the use of insects as biological control agents for weeds and takes advantage of the fact that insects can feed destructively on plants. A well-known example of insect control of weeds occurred in Australia when prickly pear cacti were controlled by the cactus moth from Argentina, Cactobldstis cactorum (Berg), an insect herbivore imported for that purpose.
The word antagonism is often used instead of antibiosis to describe the situation where one organism inhibits another through antibiotic production. However, the term is used in a more general sense in this chapter to cover all situations where one organism (the pest) is detrimentally affected by the actions of other organisms. Such a definition is commonly used in the literature on biological pest control, as it is useful for describing the general suppressive effects of an organism on a pest, regardless of whether the antagonist is acting through parasitism, predation, antibiosis, competition or some other process.
Some plants are naturally prone to diseases others are like sparkling beacons to hungry insects. You can eliminate many problems in your garden by avoiding pest- or disease-prone plants. Instead, fill your property with dependable plants that can fend for themselves. In any climate, there are hundreds to choose from. With a solid collection of easy-to-grow plants in place, you can limit your pest-control activities to plants you consider indispensable. Tomatoes are prone to pest problems, but most gardeners agree that vine-ripened tomatoes are well worth the time and trouble they must take to select the best-adapted cultivars, create ideal soil conditions, and patrol the tomato plot regularly to stay on top of insect and disease activity.
IPM programs emphasize prevention, encouraging growers to choose sites, rootstocks, cultivars, and planting systems that will lead to ecological stability and economic viability. Soil conservation is also emphasized. A multiple tactic approach for pest control is one of the key components of IPM programs. For example, herbicide applications are not the sole basis for weed control. Instead, mechanical control methods such as mowing and tillage and cultural methods such as mulching are supplemented by herbicides. Monitoring is another key element of any IPM program, allowing growers to determine if and when pesticide applications are required for control of a particular pest. This approach is different from conventional systems that traditionally relied on residual activity as a guide to determine when subsequent applications were necessary. However, there is variability among IPM production systems as to the acceptability of particular management practices, as highlighted by the...
Another extremely important aspect is the increasing risk of invasions by exotic pests and microorganisms, which constitute key threats to the health of trees in Europe. Nowadays the world is more and more connected and trade fluxes are increasing rapidly. This results in the appearance and escape of exotic pests and diseases known to be destructive to native trees. It has already happened in North America, where in just a few years these exotics have become a major focus of pest control in the United States and Canada. Recent uncontrolled spread of the horse chestnut leaf miner, C. ohridella throughout Europe has shown that accidental introductions of
The most attractive option for insect control is to choose species or seed sources of trees that are relatively resistant to insect attack. Some species such as E. grandis and juvenile E. globulus are known to be very susceptible to insect attack while other species, such as E. occidentalism are resistant in eastern Australia. 'Silverton' or 'inland' forms of E. camaldulensis are relatively resistant to lerp but many of the northern Victorian provenances are quite susceptible. If local seed is being collected, it is important to avoid collecting from trees that show the signs of heavy insect attack.
Detached leaf assays are critical for establishing 'real world' activity prior to the field testing that agrochemical companies require before investing millions of dollars needed to develop a agrochemical. Subsequent efficacy testing in the greenhouse ultimately helps determine the potential usefulness of compounds as pest control agents. To maximize the detection of natural products, high-throughput bioassay techniques must target significant agricultural pests, include relevant commercial pesticide standards, and adhere to sound statistical principles.
Organic farming is a production system that sustains agricultural productivity while avoiding or largely excluding synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Whenever possible, external resources, such as commercially purchased chemicals and fuels, are replaced by resources found on or near the farm. These internal resources include solar or wind energy, biological pest controls, and biologically fixed nitrogen and other nutrients released from organic matter or from soil reserves. Thus organic farmers rely heavily on the use of crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, compost, legumes, green manures, off-farm organic wastes, mechanical cultivation, mineral-bearing rocks, and aspects of biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and tilth, to supply plant nutrients, and to control insect pests, weeds, and diseases. In essence, organic farming aims to promote soil health as the key to sustaining productivity, and most organic practices are designed to improve the ability of...
One of the major aspects of plant pathology is to enhance crop production by introducing genetically improved (high-yielding, less susceptible to pathogens) cultivars, enhanced soil fertility via chemical fertilisation, pest control via synthetic pesticides, and irrigation. Besides physical control methods e.g. mowing, slashing, burning, flooding, hand removal, physical barriers (i.e. netting, fences), use of pesticides is very common method for controlling various phytopathogens. The use of synthetic pesticides in the US began in the 1930s and became widespread after World War II. By 1950, pesticide was found to increase farm yield far beyond pre-World War II levels. Farmers depend heavily on synthetic pesticides to control insects in their crops. There are many classes of synthetic pesticides. The main classes consist of organochlorines (e.g., Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT, toxaphene, dieldrin, aldrin), organophosphates (e.g., diazinon, glyphosate, malathion), carbamates...
Lawn care managers often work as supervisors, consultants, or technicians for professional lawn care franchises. Many start their own company. Responsibilities can include mowing, fertilization, pest control, renovation, sales, and evaluation of home lawns. College graduates normally start as technicians or managers. Lawn care is the largest sector of the turf industry. Homeowners in the United States spend about 15 billion on their lawns and landscape each year.
Although some risk is involved, the advantages of irrigation are significant. Operational cost is lower because water is much cheaper than oil or gas, and the system is convenient to operate because it is controlled at a central pump house. In addition, there are multiple uses for the same system, e.g., drought prevention, evaporative cooling, fertilizer application, and possibly pest control.
In order to maintain a prominent place in the market, a country must supply the oil at lower cost or higher quality, or provide unique products containing the oil. To compete solely on cost is almost impossible, but it might not be necessary to meet the lowest price if other factors are in that country's favour, although the price cannot afford to be much above the lowest priced good quality oil. Therefore the industry must concentrate on supplying a fairly competitive product, giving excellent service, and ultimately supplying unique specific purpose oils not easily matched by other countries. The market trend not only in degree, but also in direction, will depend on the ability of the industry to achieve these objects. Current R & D in areas of tea tree breeding, agronomy, weed and insect control, quality control, factors effecting oil yield and quality, bioactivity, clinical trials, toxicity, sensitization and product formulation and development will play a big part in meeting...
Protection of crop and ornamental plants from noxious insects, nematodes, mites, microbial pathogens and weeds is indispensable to modern agriculture. Despite intensive control efforts, about 50 of the worlds crops are lost to these organisms, at an estimated cost of about 400 billion dollars (Ausher 1996). Ever since the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1940s, modern crop protection has been largely based on chemical control. Mounting environmental concerns and pest control failures have made it increasingly clear that the use of toxic pesticides in agriculture should be drastically reduced all over the world.
As with control of pests, recognition and control of diseases will play a key role if forest plantations are to realize high yields and large investment costs. To date there are no reports of any serious disease outbreaks in A. mangium plantations. The diseases of A. mangium seedlings are common seedling diseases of many tree species, with the possible exception of bacterial stem galls. Such diseases and an occasional disease outbreak in any seedling nursery is not uncommon and can usually be controlled using conventional nursery management techniques and prophylactic fungicidal sprays. Like pest control, economic and environmental costs of chemical disease control should be carefully weighed against the potential and expected benefits.
Biological control is the intentional manipulation of predators, parasitoids and pathogens to suppress the population of a specific pest, resulting in reduced abundance or damage. The trio of predators, parasitoids and pathogens is commonly referred to as 'natural enemies'. There are three approaches to employing natural enemies in a biological control programme importation, augmentation and conservation. As an annual crop, a soybean field is an ephemeral habitat that is often difficult for natural enemies to colonize and establish with enough time to limit herbivore populations from building to economically damaging levels. Therefore, it is not appropriate to expect a similar level of pest control from biological control programmes as compared to insecticide-based programmes. Rather, biological control programmes can
Within grasses, nematode control is achieved despite the fact that roots are never colonized by the endophytes as they colonize the plant exclusively aboveground. Therefore, the fungus must either change plant physiology or produce toxic or repellent metabolites which are translocated basipedal into the root. So far, the mode of action by which grass endophytes control plant-parasitic nematodes is still not fully understood. At least, direct antagonism can be ruled out due to the spatial separation between endophyte and plant-parasitic nematode. For insect control it has been shown that specific alkaloids, such as peramine, or the ergot alkaloid ergovaline, are responsible for the insecticidal activity observed, although environmental factors and presence of mycorrhizae and nutrients can influence the outcome (Kuldau and Bacon 2008 Vega et al. 2008). Some of those alkaloids have anti-feeding or repellent attributes but they are only rarely detectable in roots, if at all (Panaccione et...
Ratooning is the production of one or more crops on the same plant without replanting. Ratoon-crop production eliminates several steps in the production process, including land preparation, preplanting fertilization, pest control practices and planting. Cost savings can be considerable and the ratoon crop, if well grown, may be the primary source of profit for a large plantation. It is an axiom that the quality of the ratoon crop is
Phytochelatines, various pest-control effects, and poisoning. Complex biological-biochemical interactions among roots, rhizosphere organisms, and the rhizosphere solution determine the overall biogeochemical processes in the wetland rhizosphere and in the vegetated wetlands. in order to comprehend how wetlands really function and to understand these interactions it is necessary to implement long-term collaborative research (Neori et al., 2000). We can find promising allelochemicals and useful interactions in the rich biodiversity of these particular ecoystems, but without doubt, in all type of ecosystems.
Induced plant defenses can aid pest control in agricultural systems. Attracting natural enemies of herbivores to crops can help control pests in agriculture in the field as well as in greenhouses (Dicke et al. 1990a Turlings and Ton 2006). Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in plant defenses and the consequences for the community associated with the plant can aid crop protection. Manipulation may increase the effectiveness of plant defenses, by attracting natural enemies before considerable damage is done by herbivores and by deterring oviposition by herbivores. This can be achieved by inducing the plant with phytohormones like cis-jasmone or jasmonic acid (Thaler 1999 Birkett et al. 2000 Heil 2004). Another possibility is the use of genetically modified crops that produce volatile blends that are more attractive to predators than genotypes currently used. The technology is being developed (Kappers et al. 2005 Schnee et al. 2006). However, the consequences for the...
Tives are also occasionally used on a limited scale, mainly against sapsuckers. In the control of aphids, scales and mites infesting urban trees, mineral oils have also proved to be effective. Phytotoxicity was, however, observed in certain species so tree response testing should be performed prior to actual pest control treatments.
It is desirable, whenever possible, to allow the natural enemies (predators, parasitoids and pathogens) of the insect pests to control their numbers. Therefore, chemical insecticides should only be used when significant economic loss is going to occur. Biological insecticides such as those containing Bacillus thuringiensis are very specific and could be used against the early stages of moth larvae and some beetle larvae. The use of a number of control options in an integrated pest management strategy is the ultimate goal in sustainable insect control.
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