What is Parkinsons Disease

The Parkinson's-Reversing Breakthrough

The Parkinson's Breakthrough Program entails the most effective and natural strategies people can use to heal the root cause of Parkinson's Disease. It is a digital manual aimed at showing the users the most effective method for overcoming Parkinson's without high-priced prescription drugs riddled with harmful side effects.The program was not created to be a quick fix. In fact, like different programs, it is tasking. Yet, you will not have to spend a lot of time dealing with it. The system requires your full attention, perseverance, and discipline. For the period of its usage, you will have the opportunity to use to eat some food ingredients that will detoxify you.The methods employed in this book are natural ones that have been proven by many specialists. The users will be privy to what to do and what not to do to treat the underlying root cause of their Parkinson's and the way they can reverse the symptoms naturally and effectively. The system comes with bonus E-books- Lessons from The Miracle Doctors, Mind Control in the USA', and 10 Deadly Health Myths of The 21st Century. The book is in a digital format (PDF) and has been created at a very affordable price. More here...

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All About Parkinson's Disease

All About Parkinsons developed by Lianna Marie is a Parkinson s disease treatment that guides you on how to cure parkinsons quickly. This guide came out of Liannas 16 years of research and experiences when caring for her mother a Parkinson s sufferer. It is a gold mine of knowledge she wants to share with everyone who has Parkinsons or know other sufferesrs. You'll learn exactly what Parkinson's Disease is, what causes it and its symptoms. You'll also learn how to deal with these symptoms and associated conditions. In addition, you'll get vital information on medications and treatments you should and shouldn't take as well as what alternative treatments can help alleviate symptoms. Even better, there's valuable advice on how to handle the stress and frustration the disease can cause. Part of the money from every purchase goes to Parkinson's Disease research, to help make a complete cure for this disease possible. Not only will you be getting all the information you need, but your purchase will help prevent others from having to go through the same thing.

All About Parkinsons Disease Summary

Contents: Ebook 109 Pages
Author: Lianna Marie
Price: $27.00

Putative Roles of Plasma Membrane Raft in Plant Biology

Finally, it was recently reported that rafts are functional components of the PM within plasmodesmata (PD) (Raffaele et al. 2009). To overcome the cell wall barrier, plants have developed these unique channel-like structures that connect neighboring cells together allowing exchange of informational molecules. Despite 40 years of extensive research, the molecular composition of these membranous channels has remained rather elusive. The role of lipids in PD function has been so far largely under considered if considered at all. Strikingly though, recent data suggest that the PM lining PD has properties similar to membrane rafts. Experimental arguments are the following (1) proteomic analyses have revealed the presence of GPI proteins (callose binding protein p-1-3 glucanase) in the PD fraction, a type of lipid anchor known to have a high affinity for membrane rafts (Simpson et al. 2009 Levy et al. 2007) (2) remorin, the first identified marker of plant membrane rafts, also accumulates...

Movement as Virus Particle or vRNP Complex

The example of TMV illustrates that viruses may move cell-to-cell in the form of a vRNP. However, some viruses move through PD in virion rather than in non-virion form. Movement of virions of some specific virus species is associated with the formation of a specialized tubular transport structure assembled by MP inside the PD channel (Wellink et al. 1993 Kasteel et al. 1996). These spectacular tubules extend from the infected cell far into the cytoplasm of the non-infected cell and have been observed to be loaded with virion particles. Examples for viruses employing such tubule-guided transport of virion particles can be found among several ssRNA viruses (i.e., como-, nepo-, olea-, alfamo-, bromo-, and trichoviruses (van Lent et al. 1991 Wieczorek and Sanfacon 1993 Ritzenthaler et al. 1995 van der Wel et al. 1998 Grieco et al. 1999)), ssDNA viruses (i.e. tospoviruses (Storms et al. 1995)), dsDNA viruses (i.e. caulimoviruses (Kitajima et al. 1969) (Perbal et al. 1993)), and...

Requirement of Accessory Viral Proteins

The Groundnut rosette umbravirus (GRV) does not encode a CP and thus moves cell-to-cell in a non-encapsidated form. The MP of this virus interacts with PD and facilitates the transport of homologous and heterologous vRNAs through PD. However, systemic movement and transmission depends on additional mechanisms that involve the formation of specific vRNPs by the viral ORF3 protein. To form

Viral Modification ofPlasmodesmata

The mechanism by which the PD SEL is regulated is intensely studied. One potential mechanism is the reversible deposition of callose, a b-1,3-glucan (Northcote et al. 1989). The role of callose in PD regulation is substantiated by the recent isolation of PD proteins associated with callose synthesis and breakdown (Levy et al. 2007 Simpson et al. 2009 Guseman et al. 2010). The SEL of PD may also be controlled by actin and myosin. Specific antibody staining demonstrated the presence of actin and myosin antigenicity in PD of algae (Blackman and Overall 1998) and higher plants (White et al. 1994 Reichelt et al. 1999 Golomb et al. 2008) and a role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling PD permeability has been demonstrated by functional studies employing specific inhibitors. Actin-depolymerizing agents were found to increase PD aperture (White et al. 1994 Ding et al. 1996), whereas an inhibitor of actin-myosin led to constriction of PD (Radford and White 1998). Recent studies in...

In Cells Engaged in vRNA Transport the MP is Associated with Mobile MTProximal Particles

Although the analysis of virus mutants indicated a correlation between a MP function in viral movement and the association of the protein with MT, the particular role of MT during the movement process remains unclear and requires further study. Despite the observation of MP GFP accumulation on MT in cells near the infection front (Boyko et al. 2000b Padgett et al. 1996) or in cells infected with temperature-sensitive viruses undergoing functional recovery (Boyko et al. 2000a, 2007), it remains unclear whether MP binds MT in parallel, during, or after MP has executed its function in vRNA movement. To determine whether or not there is a direct role of MT in TMV movement, the movement process should be visualized directly. Unfortunately, direct visualization is hampered by the generally very low abundance of MP in cells at the front of the spreading infection site. Thus, although cells at the leading front of spreading infection sites of TMV-MP GFP or TMV-MP GFP-CP showed detectable MP...

MT Might Not Represent the Initial Target of MP

Interestingly, it was shown that transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MP contain fibrous MP-associated material in the cavity of their PD (Ding et al. 1992a Lapidot et al. 1993 Moore et al. 1992), which may be consistent with an ability of MP to cause the formation of a cytoskeletal intercellular transport structure within PD. This hypothesis may be supported by the analysis of multicellular cyanobacteria overexpressing MP, where cytoskeletal, likely FtsZ-associated, filaments across the intercellular septa have been observed (Heinlein 2006 Heinlein et al. 1998b Boutant and Heinlein, unpublished results). Potentially related to a cytoskeleton-manipulating ability of MP may also be the observation that infected plant protoplasts, or protoplasts transiently expressing the MP, form plasma membrane protrusions into the medium (Heinlein 2002 Heinlein et al. 1998a), a behavior that may reflect a process by which MP causes the formation of a transport structure in the PD of walled cells....

Brown Algae Laminaria

Primitive forms of PD are found in some species of brown and green algae but not in red algae (Lucas et al. 1993). Multicellular cyanobacteria and red algae both form some type of intercellular pores between neighboring cells however, the multicel-lular brown algae are considered the earliest ancestors of plants that produce PM-lined symplastic connections (Cook et al. 1997). The existence of PD in brown algae, which divide into two daughter cells by centripetal annular furrowing, suggests that the origin of their PD is secondary, i.e., produced by de novo synthesis of PD postcytokinetically. A comprehensive ultrastructural study of PD in the brown algae Laminaria hyperborean and L. saccharina revealed that they are structurally very simple pores (Schmitz and Kuhn 1982). Although small vesicles and ER were often found to associate with the PD in pit fields, appressed ER as seen in PD of higher plants was clearly absent within these PD (Schmitz and Kuhn 1982). The PD found in Laminaria...

Coffee And Gastrointestinal And Liver Health

Several studies have shown that coffee consumption can decrease the incidence or risk of Parkinson's disease. COFFEE, PARKINSON'S DISEASE, AND OTHER NEUROLOGIC CONDITIONS Several studies have shown that coffee consumption can decrease the incidence or risk of Parkinson's disease. Indeed, evidence exists for protection against the incidence of Parkinson's disease in Asian-Americans 63 as well as in the general population in the United States,64 Italy,65 and China.66 Additional studies support findings that coffee consumption lowers the risk of Parkinson's disease.67 With an ever-increasing number of cases of Alzheimer's disease being diagnosed, interest in ways to mitigate this devastating illness is quite high. It appears that coffee might very well be the beverage of choice in this instance as well, as it has been associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease.68,69 However, currently there is a lack of evidence that coffee slows nonspecific, age-related mental decline. There...

The Next Phase of Microarray Analysis is to Add Structure to the Data Novel Available Bioinformatics Tools for Database

Given a set of transcriptomics data, different tools are available for inferring gene regulatory networks using the aforementioned correlative methodology. Several of these tools and databases have been developed for the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. A number of web-based services host gene expression data from Arabidopsis microarray experiments and provide information for individual genes or gene sets such as ArrayExpress (Parkinson et al. 2007), Botany Array Resource (Toufighi et al. 2005), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO, Edgar et al. 2002), NASCArrays tools (Craigon et al. 2004), Stanford Microarray Database (Gollub et al. 2006 Demeter et al. 2007), TAIR (Rhee et al. 2003). In this review we will focus on those databases and tools that were most recently released or allowing a more comprehensive application of correlative methodology to retrieve gene-to-gene relationships. We regret that we are not able to report a series of surely useful minor databases due to space...

Immunocytochemical localization of capsaicin VR1TRPV1 receptors

VRl-immunoreactivity and mRNA for VR1 positive neurons in rat and human brain were scattered in different regions, including the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The strongest VR1 mRNA signals were detected in the following areas all cortical areas, septum, hippocampus dentate gyrus, substantia nigra (zona compacta), cerebellum, locus coeruleus and inferior olive. In rat hypothalamus VR1 mRNA-expressing neurons and capsaicin-induced glutamate release have been reported (Sasamura et al., 1998). It was striking that in rats treated with capsaicin in the neonatal age, although VR1 mRNA in DRG and nucleus of the spinal trigeminal nerve was diminished, its expression in other areas of the brain did not differ from that of the controls (Mezey et al., 2000).

The Targeting of MP to PD May be MTIndependent

First hints came from the observation that a movement-defective mutant MP (TAD5), lacking amino acids 46-51, localizes to PD and IB, but not to MT (Kahn et al. 1998). Moreover, temperature-sensitive mutations in MP that interfere with function and MT association of the protein still allow the MP to accumulate in PD at the restrictive temperature (Boyko et al. 2000a, 2007). A recent study applying FRAP on PD in tissues treated with specific inhibitors indicated that the accumulation of MP in PD involves the actin ER network (Wright et al. 2007). Thus, it was shown that that the accumulation of MP in PD is inhibited in the presence of high concentrations of brefeldin A, which also resulted in the disruption of the ER. In contrast, PD targeting of MP was not inhibited in the presence of lower concentrations of the inhibitor, which nevertheless interfered with the integrity of Golgi complexes. These observations indicate that the targeting of MP to PD involves an intact ER network but...

MPGFP Associates with MT and Other Specific Targets in Infected Cells

When leaves of N. benthamiana are infected by TMV-MP GFP or TMV-MP GFP-CP and then observed by fluorescence microscopy, the accumulation of MP GFP at specific subcellular sites can be followed over time. Cells were sequentially analyzed starting with cells at the leading front of the infection site, representing the earliest stages of the infection, and progressing toward the center of the infection site, representing progressively later stages of the infection (Heinlein et al. 1995, 1998a Oparka et al. 1997). Thus, during early stages of the infection, MP GFP accumulates in PD (Fig. 1B) and also asso ciates with the cortical ER. Later on, the protein accumulates in ER-associated inclusion bodies (IB) as well as on MT (Fig. 1C,D). Finally, MP GFP fluorescence disappears from all locations except from PD (Heinlein et al. 1998a). Since CP-expressing constructs express lower amounts of MP GFP than the constructs lacking the CP, they accumulate less detectable MP GFP in IB and on MT...

Localization of MP to MT Correlates with Function in vRNA Transport

The observation that MP decorates MT (Heinlein et al. 1995, 1998a McLean et al. 1995 Padgett et al. 1996) and also actin microfilaments (McLean et al. 1995) suggested the involvement of cytoskeletal elements in PD targeting and cell-to-cell movement of vRNA (Carrington et al. 1996 Heinlein et al. 1995 Zambryski 1995). Obviously, this hypothesis is consistent with observations in many different biological systems that the coordinated activities of cyto-skeletal components are responsible for the specific transport of RNAs, as well as the anchoring of RNAs at their destinations (reviewed by Palacios and St. Johnston 2001 St. Johnston 2005). However, unlike the situation in animal systems, where the role of MT in RNA transport is well documented, there are only very few examples for such a role of MT in the plant kingdom (e.g., Becht et al. 2006).

Proteins Localized at or Near Plasmodesmata

To date, the molecular composition of PD channels remains unknown. However, the list of proteins that are directly or indirectly associated with PD structure and or function is growing as a result of various approaches combining molecular, genetic, cell biological, and biochemical techniques (Lucas and Lee 2004 Oparka 2004 Maule 2008). Immunological studies have shown that a few proteins are found at or around PD. Some of these include cytoskeletal elements (White et al. 1994 Ding et al. 1996 Blackman and Overall 1998), a pathogenesis-related protein from maize (Murillo et al. 1997), and centrin-like proteins (Blackman et al. 1999). Among the proteins that were shown to localize around PD, the following groups are of a particular interest given that they may constitute structural and or regulatory elements cell wall modifying enzymes including -1,3-glucanase (Levy et al. 2007) and pectin methyl esterase (Chen et al. 2000) cytoskeletal elements including unconventional myosin VIII...


Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is an enzymatic cofactor required for synthesis of tryptophan, serotonin, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine. The vitamin is also important in the metabolism of homocysteine. In addition, pyridoxine is involved in hemoglobin synthesis and energy production. Drugs that affect pyridoxine levels adversely include isoniazid, birth control pills and other oral estrogens, penicillamine, hydralazine, and levodopa.76 Loop diuretics also deplete pyridoxine.54

Shakespeare 15641616

John Parkinson She continues by describing spike lavender (L. spica DC or latifolia Vill.) which also grows in the mountainous districts of France, the flowers which yield three times as much essential oil, but of a second rate quality, less fragrant than that of true lavender. It is called by Parkinson the lesser or minor lavender and by some 'Nardus Italica' (some believing it is the spikenard of the bible).


And a poultice of the leaves is used in France as an emollient and antineuralgic and has a slightly narcotic action (Paris and Moyse, 1971, p. 190). Solanine is reported to be a cytostatic and a Cholinesterase inhibitor in vitro (Manske and Holmes, 1950-71, Vol. 10, p. 116). It is also considered to be analgesic for migraine and gastralgia, and a nervous sedative for paralysis agitans and for chronic pruritus in certain skin diseases (Denoel, 1958, p. 899). It is also said to have antimitotic action (Danneberg and Schm l (1953) quoted in Paris and Moyse (1971). Solasodine is antagonistic to tachycardia provoked by adrenaline (Sollmann, 1957, p. 669).

Coqio And Lcarnitine

In addition to their role in cardiovascular health, CoQ10 and L-carnitine, with the previously mentioned mitochondrial energy production and antioxidative capabilities, may play a role in the prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease.10 Strong evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and concomitant oxidative damage are integral in the pathogenesis of this disease, and further study of the protective effects of these nutrients are needed. Evidence from animal studies suggests that these nutrients may indeed be helpful. Another condition in mitochondrial dysfunction that plays a role is age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Researchers who observed the utility of nutritional compounds for improving mitochondrial functions (mitotropic compounds) tested L-carnitine and CoQ10 among others (polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E).11 Patients with ARMD were treated with a mixture of mitotropic compounds. Measures of macular acuity (recovery time following photostress,...


In the 1617 edition of Histoire de la Nouvelle France, Lescarbot indicates that the crop had already acquired the name topinambaux or topinambours, by which they were generally referred to in France. He states that they were in everybody's garden in Paris whilst still a rarity at Rome, and an absolute novelty in England (Lacaita, 1919). If Lescarbot brought the tubers to Port Royal in the autumn of 1607, this would have given sufficient time (10 years) for them to have become common, leading to their subsequent introduction into England in 1617 (Hereman, 1868) and John Parkinson's description of the crop in 1629. Based upon this scenario, Lacaita (1919) believed there can be little doubt that the roots were imported into France on the occasion of the return of Lescarbot's party of 1607. Early illustrations (Figure 2.2) support the idea that the crop was relatively well known in the early 1600s. FIGURE 2.2 Early-17th-century botanical drawings of H. tuberosus by (a) Colonna (1616), (b)...

Concluding Remarks

The finding that the MP of TMV interacts with MT and that this activity of MP correlates with the function of this protein in TMV RNA movement indicates a role of MT in the transport of the vRNA. This hypothesis has recently been further confirmed by the observation of MT-proximal, MP-containing particles in cells at the leading front of infection (Boyko et al. 2007). However, further studies are needed to determine whether these particles contain vRNA and whether they are indeed targeted to PD. Research on TMV has also provided evidence that the MP is targeted to PD independently of MT association (Boyko et al. 2000a, 2007 Kahn et al. 1998 Wright et al. 2007). This pathway involves the actin-ER network that connects viral replication sites with PD (Wright et al. 2007). Results of MT inhibitor treatments have suggested that this pathway may be sufficient for spreading infection into adjacent cells (Gillespie et al. 2002). However, since the inhibitors may not be 100 effective,...


Soybean oil is not only the richest source of tocopherols, but also contains all of the four isomers of tocopherols (a-, P-,y- and 8-tocopherol). Tocopherols are exploited in pharmaceutical applications. The four isomers of tocopherols, which vary in the number and position of methyl substituents on the chroman ring (Fig. 17.2), possess antioxidative activities in biological systems in the order a P y 8 (100 , 50 , 10 and 3 relative activity for a-, P-, y- and 8-tocopherol, respectively). Moreover, a-tocopherol is preferentially retained and distributed in the body. Medical evidence has indicated that an intake of 400 IU day-1 tocopherols results in a decreased risk for arteriosclerosis, cancers and degenerative diseases such Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and an improved immune system (Bramley et al., 2000). Genotypic variations have been reported for all of the four isomers in soybean seeds (McCord et al., 2004 Rani et al, 2007). The y-isomer is the dominant component (60 ) of...

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